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Units of Measure

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41. Effectiveness of risk minimization measures for the use of cilostazol in United Kingdom, Spain, Sweden, and Germany (PubMed)

Effectiveness of risk minimization measures for the use of cilostazol in United Kingdom, Spain, Sweden, and Germany The purpose of the study is to evaluate the effectiveness of risk minimization measures-labeling changes and communication to health care professionals-recommended by the European Medicines Agency for use of cilostazol for the treatment of intermittent claudication in Europe.Observational study of cilostazol in The Health Improvement Network (United Kingdom), EpiChron Cohort (...) (Spain), SIDIAP (Spain), Swedish National Databases, and GePaRD (Germany). Among new users of cilostazol, we compared the prevalence of conditions targeted by the risk minimization measures in the periods before (2002-2012) and after (2014) implementation. Conditions evaluated were prevalence of smoking, cardiovascular conditions, concurrent use of ≥2 antiplatelet agents, concurrent use of potent CYP3A4/CYP2C19 inhibitors and high-dose cilostazol, early monitoring of all users, and continuous

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2018 Pharmacoepidemiology and drug safety

42. Lung-thorax compliance measured during a spontaneous breathing trial is a good index of extubation failure in the surgical intensive care unit: a retrospective cohort study (PubMed)

Lung-thorax compliance measured during a spontaneous breathing trial is a good index of extubation failure in the surgical intensive care unit: a retrospective cohort study Extubation failure is associated with mortality and morbidity in the intensive care unit. Ventilator weaning protocols have been introduced, and extubation is conducted based on the results of a spontaneous breathing trial. Room for improvement still exists in extubation management, and additional objective indices may (...) , patients over 18 years of age were mechanically ventilated, weaned with proportional assist ventilation, and underwent a spontaneous breathing trial process in surgical intensive care units of Kagawa University Hospital from July 2014 to June 2016. Extubation failure was the outcome measure of the study. We defined extubation failures as when patients were reintubated or underwent non-invasive positive-pressure ventilation within 24 h after extubation. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve

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2018 Journal of intensive care

43. Single-Item Measures for Detecting Sleep Problems in United States Military Veterans. (PubMed)

Single-Item Measures for Detecting Sleep Problems in United States Military Veterans. As many as two-thirds of post-9/11 military veterans complain of sleep problems, including insomnia-like symptoms. Left untreated, chronic sleep problems increase the risk for a range of negative outcomes, including incident mental health disorders. However, sleep problems remain overlooked in primary care settings. To date, no brief sleep screeners have been developed or validated. Items assessing insomnia

2018 Journal of General Internal Medicine

44. The dynamic relationships between economic status and health measures among working-age adults in the United States. (PubMed)

The dynamic relationships between economic status and health measures among working-age adults in the United States. We examine the dynamic relationships between economic status and health measures using data from 8 waves of the Panel Study of Income Dynamics from 1999 to 2013. Health measures are self-rated health (SRH) and functional limitations; economic status measures are labor income (earnings), family income, and net wealth. We use 3 different types of models: (a) ordinary least squares

2018 Health economics

45. The relationship between elevated prehospital point-of-care lactate measurements, intensive care unit admission, and mortality: A retrospective review of adult patients. (PubMed)

The relationship between elevated prehospital point-of-care lactate measurements, intensive care unit admission, and mortality: A retrospective review of adult patients. To determine whether prehospital point-of-care lactate (pLA) is associated with mortality, admission, and duration of hospital stay.A retrospective clinical audit, where elevated lactate was defined as ≥2 mmol/L.The ambulance service and primary referral hospital in the Australian Capital Territory from 1st July 2014 to 30th (...) June 2015.Adult patients (≥18 years) who had pLA measured and were transported to the primary referral hospital.Mortality, admission, and duration of hospital stay.Two hundred fifty-three patients with a median pLA of 2.5 mmol/L (interquartile range [IQR]: 1.5-3.7) were analysed. Overall mortality was 8.3%; 68% were admitted to the hospital; 8.3% to the intensive care unit (ICU). pLA was non-significantly higher in those who died compared to survivors (3.5 [IQR: 2.75-5.85] vs 2.4 [1.5-3.6]; W

2018 Australian Critical Care

46. A prospective measure of unintended pregnancy in the United States. (PubMed)

A prospective measure of unintended pregnancy in the United States. To describe a new measure, the unintended pregnancy risk index (UPRI), which is based primarily on attitudinal and behavioral measures of women's prospective pregnancy desire, and compare it to the unintended pregnancy rate, typically calculated retrospectively.We used three rounds of the National Survey of Family Growth to calculate trends in the UPRI and compare it to the retrospective rate. The UPRI estimates the annual risk (...) and the effectiveness of the methods used all contributed to the decline in the UPRI.The sufficiency of retrospective measures of pregnancy intention has been challenged, and data availability has constrained needed surveillance of the unintended pregnancy rate. The UPRI offers a new measure that can be calculated with existing national surveillance data or for any population for which data on prospective pregnancy desire, pregnancy risk and contraceptive use are available.Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published

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2018 Contraception

47. Measurement of Physiological Monitor Alarm Accuracy and Clinical Relevance in Intensive Care Units. (PubMed)

Measurement of Physiological Monitor Alarm Accuracy and Clinical Relevance in Intensive Care Units. Alarm fatigue threatens patient safety by delaying or reducing clinician response to alarms, which can lead to missed critical events. Interventions to reduce alarms without jeopardizing patient safety target either inaccurate or clinically irrelevant alarms, so assessment of alarm accuracy and clinical relevance may enhance the rigor of alarm intervention studies done in clinical units.To (1 (...) ) examine approaches used to measure accuracy and/or clinical relevance of physiological monitor alarms in intensive care units and (2) compare the proportions of inaccurate and clinically irrelevant alarms.An integrative review was used to systematically search the literature and synthesize resulting articles.Twelve studies explicitly measuring alarm accuracy and/or clinical relevance on a clinical unit were identified. In the most rigorous studies, alarms were annotated retrospectively by obtaining

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2018 American Journal of Critical Care

48. Postural Stability Evaluation of Patients Undergoing Vestibular Schwannoma Microsurgery Employing the Inertial Measurement Unit (PubMed)

Postural Stability Evaluation of Patients Undergoing Vestibular Schwannoma Microsurgery Employing the Inertial Measurement Unit The article focuses on a noninvasive method and system of quantifying postural stability of patients undergoing vestibular schwannoma microsurgery. Recent alternatives quantifying human postural stability are rather limited. The major drawback is that the posturography system can evaluate only two physical quantities of body movement and can be measured only (...) on a transverse plane. A complex movement pattern can be, however, described more precisely while using three physical quantities of 3-D movement. This is the reason why an inertial measurement unit (Xsens MTx unit), through which we obtained 3-D data (three Euler angles or three orthogonal accelerations), was placed on the patient's trunk. Having employed this novel method based on the volume of irregular polyhedron of 3-D body movement during quiet standing, it was possible to evaluate postural stability

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2018 Journal of healthcare engineering

49. Applying preventive measures leading to significant reduction of catheter-associated urinary tract infections in adult intensive care unit (PubMed)

Applying preventive measures leading to significant reduction of catheter-associated urinary tract infections in adult intensive care unit To determine the impact of applying the best available clinical evidence on the preventive measures to reduce the rate of catheter-associated urinary tract infections (CAUTI) in adult intensive care units (ICU).     Methods:  Data were collected from adult ICUs (28 beds) from 2008 to 2016. The proper use of silicon catheter, aseptic insertion technique

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2018 Saudi medical journal

50. Variation of poorly ventilated lung units (silent spaces) measured by electrical impedance tomography to dynamically assess recruitment (PubMed)

Variation of poorly ventilated lung units (silent spaces) measured by electrical impedance tomography to dynamically assess recruitment Assessing alveolar recruitment at different positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) levels is a major clinical and research interest because protective ventilation implies opening the lung without inducing overdistention. The pressure-volume (P-V) curve is a validated method of assessing recruitment but reflects global characteristics, and changes (...) at the regional level may remain undetected. The aim of the present study was to compare, in intubated patients with acute hypoxemic respiratory failure (AHRF) and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), lung recruitment measured by P-V curve analysis, with dynamic changes in poorly ventilated units of the dorsal lung (dependent silent spaces [DSSs]) assessed by electrical impedance tomography (EIT). We hypothesized that DSSs might represent a dynamic bedside measure of recruitment.We carried out

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2018 Critical Care

51. Validity of shoe-type inertial measurement units for Parkinson’s disease patients during treadmill walking (PubMed)

Validity of shoe-type inertial measurement units for Parkinson’s disease patients during treadmill walking When examining participants with pathologies, a shoe-type inertial measurement unit (IMU) system with sensors mounted on both the left and right outsoles may be more useful for analysis and provide better stability for the sensor positions than previous methods using a single IMU sensor or attached to the lower back and a foot. However, there have been few validity analyses of shoe-type (...) step length, left step time, and right step time showed excellent agreement between the shoe-type IMU and motion capture systems.The shoe-type IMU system provides reliable data and can be an alternative measurement tool for objective gait analysis of patients with PD in a clinical environment.

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2018 Journal of neuroengineering and rehabilitation

52. Estimation of spatio-temporal parameters of gait from magneto-inertial measurement units: multicenter validation among Parkinson, mildly cognitively impaired and healthy older adults (PubMed)

Estimation of spatio-temporal parameters of gait from magneto-inertial measurement units: multicenter validation among Parkinson, mildly cognitively impaired and healthy older adults The use of miniaturized magneto-inertial measurement units (MIMUs) allows for an objective evaluation of gait and a quantitative assessment of clinical outcomes. Spatial and temporal parameters are generally recognized as key metrics for characterizing gait. Although several methods for their estimate have been

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2018 Biomedical engineering online

53. Quantitative Analysis of Parkinsonian Tremor in a Clinical Setting Using Inertial Measurement Units (PubMed)

Quantitative Analysis of Parkinsonian Tremor in a Clinical Setting Using Inertial Measurement Units Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder that affects human voluntary movements. Tremor is one of the most common symptoms of PD and is expressed as involuntary oscillation of the body. Tremors can be analysed in the frequency domain.The aim of the current study was to examine selected tremor parameters (frequency, root mean square, and approximated entropy) in order to quantify (...) measurement unit was used for the measurement of upper limb motor tasks. For the quantitative estimation of kinetic and postural tremors, dominant frequency, root means square, and approximation entropy were selected and calculated from the measured angular velocity and linear acceleration signals. A one-way ANOVA with a significance level of α = 0.05 was used to test the null hypothesis that the means of the tremor metrics were the same between the PD and CO groups.Statistically significant differences

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2018 Parkinson's disease

54. Estimation of Energy Expenditure in Wheelchair-Bound Spinal Cord Injured Individuals Using Inertial Measurement Units (PubMed)

Estimation of Energy Expenditure in Wheelchair-Bound Spinal Cord Injured Individuals Using Inertial Measurement Units A healthy lifestyle reduces the risk of cardio-vascular disease. As wheelchair-bound individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI) are challenged in their activities, promoting and coaching an active lifestyle is especially relevant. Although there are many commercial activity trackers available for the able-bodied population, including those providing feedback about energy (...) expenditure (EE), activity trackers for the SCI population are largely lacking, or are limited to a small set of activities performed in controlled settings. The aims of the present study were to develop and validate an algorithm based on inertial measurement unit (IMU) data to continuously monitor EE in wheelchair-bound individuals with a SCI, and to establish reference activity values for a healthy lifestyle in this population. For this purpose, EE was measured in 30 subjects each wearing four IMUs

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2018 Frontiers in neurology

55. Quality Measurement Recommendations Relevant to Clinical Guidelines in Germany and the United Kingdom: (What) Can We Learn From Each Other? (PubMed)

Quality Measurement Recommendations Relevant to Clinical Guidelines in Germany and the United Kingdom: (What) Can We Learn From Each Other? We conducted a systematic review of clinical guidelines (CGs) to examine the methodological approaches of quality indicator derivation in CGs, the frequency of quality indicators to check CG recommendations in routine care, and clinimetric properties of quality indicators. We analyzed the publicly available CG databases of the Association of the Scientific (...) Medical Societies in Germany (AWMF) and National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE). Data on the methodology of subsequent quality indicator derivation, the content and definition of recommended quality indicators, and clinimetric properties of measurement instruments were extracted. In Germany, no explicit methodological guidance exists, but 3 different approaches are used. For NICE, a general approach is used for the derivation of quality indicators out of quality standards. Quality

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2018 Inquiry: A Journal of Medical Care Organization, Provision and Financing

56. Using Inertial Measurement Units and Electromyography to Quantify Movement during Action Research Arm Test Execution (PubMed)

Using Inertial Measurement Units and Electromyography to Quantify Movement during Action Research Arm Test Execution In patients after stroke, ability of the upper limb is commonly assessed with standardised clinical tests that provide a complete upper limb assessment. This paper presents quantification of upper limb movement during the execution of Action research arm test (ARAT) using a wearable system of inertial measurement units (IMU) for kinematic quantification and electromyography (EMG

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2018 Sensors (Basel, Switzerland)

57. Measuring Progress in Reducing Disparities in HIV, Tuberculosis, Viral Hepatitis, and Sexually Transmitted Diseases in the United States: A Summary of This Theme Issue (PubMed)

Measuring Progress in Reducing Disparities in HIV, Tuberculosis, Viral Hepatitis, and Sexually Transmitted Diseases in the United States: A Summary of This Theme Issue 30383428 2018 11 14 1541-0048 108 S4 2018 Nov American journal of public health Am J Public Health Measuring Progress in Reducing Disparities in HIV, Tuberculosis, Viral Hepatitis, and Sexually Transmitted Diseases in the United States: A Summary of This Theme Issue. S240-S241 10.2105/AJPH.2018.304761 Truman Benedict I BI All (...) All of the authors are with the Office of the Director, National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA. They are also guest editors for this supplement issue. eng Journal Article United States Am J Public Health 1254074 0090-0036 2018 11 2 6 0 2018 11 2 6 0 2018 11 2 6 0 ppublish 30383428 10.2105/AJPH.2018.304761 PMC6215381 Int J Epidemiol. 2001 Aug;30(4):899-900 11511625 Sex Transm Dis. 2008 Dec;35(12 Suppl):S40-4

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2018 American Journal of Public Health

58. A Separated Calibration Method for Inertial Measurement Units Mounted on Three-Axis Turntables (PubMed)

A Separated Calibration Method for Inertial Measurement Units Mounted on Three-Axis Turntables Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU) calibration accuracy is easily affected by turntable errors, so the primary aim of this study is to reduce the dependence on the turntable's precision during the calibration process. Firstly, the indicated-output of the IMU considering turntable errors is constructed and with the introduction of turntable errors, the functional relationship between turntable errors

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2018 Sensors (Basel, Switzerland)

59. Highly Accurate Step Counting at Various Walking States Using Low-Cost Inertial Measurement Unit Support Indoor Positioning System (PubMed)

Highly Accurate Step Counting at Various Walking States Using Low-Cost Inertial Measurement Unit Support Indoor Positioning System Accurate step counting is essential for indoor positioning, health monitoring systems, and other indoor positioning services. There are several publications and commercial applications in step counting. Nevertheless, over-counting, under-counting, and false walking problems are still encountered in these methods. In this paper, we propose to develop a highly

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2018 Sensors (Basel, Switzerland)

60. Standard-unit measurement of cellular viability using dynamic light scattering optical coherence microscopy (PubMed)

Standard-unit measurement of cellular viability using dynamic light scattering optical coherence microscopy Dynamic light scattering optical coherence microscopy (DLS-OCM) integrates DLS, which measures diffusion or flow of particles by analyzing fluctuations in light scattered by the particles, and OCM, which achieves single-cell resolution by combining coherence and confocal gating, integratively enabling cellular-resolution 3D mapping of the diffusion coefficient, and flow velocity (...) . The diffusion coefficient mapping has a potential for the non-destructive measurement of cellular viability in the standard unit but has not been validated yet. Here, we present DLS-OCM imaging of intra-cellular motility (ICM) as a surrogate of cellular viability. For this purpose, we have simultaneously obtained and compared ICM-contrast DLS-OCM images and calcium fluorescence-contrast images of retinal ganglion cells, and then characterized the responses of the measured ICM to a change in cellular

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2018 Biomedical optics express

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