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Typhoid Vaccine

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1. Vaccine-preventable Infections and Immunization in Multiple Sclerosis

to Poser 11 or McDonald 12 criteria. Initially, the panel included only cases of MS diagnosed by a neurologist but later revised this requirement because many studies used computerized databases. Accepted control group criteria varied by question. For questions referencing the general population, studies with only neurologic disease control groups were excluded. 11 The panel included immunizations recommended by the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) 13 and vaccines suggested (...) and recommendations.” 1 Since then, several major studies have investigated the effects of infections and immunizations on the course of multiple sclerosis (MS). Furthermore, medicine has seen the development and approval of new vaccines and new disease-modifying therapies (DMTs) with novel mechanisms of action. The influence of these newer immunosuppressive or immunomodulating (ISIM) therapies on the efficacy of immunization has not been systematically evaluated. This guideline updates the evidence from

2019 American Academy of Neurology

2. Systemic and Terminal Ileum Mucosal Immunity Elicited by Oral Immunization With the Ty21a Typhoid Vaccine in Humans Full Text available with Trip Pro

Systemic and Terminal Ileum Mucosal Immunity Elicited by Oral Immunization With the Ty21a Typhoid Vaccine in Humans Systemic cellular immunity elicited by the Ty21a oral typhoid vaccine has been extensively characterized. However, very limited data are available in humans regarding mucosal immunity at the site of infection (terminal ileum [TI]). Here we investigated the host immunity elicited by Ty21a immunization on terminal ileum-lamina propria mononuclear cells (LPMC) and peripheral blood (...) in volunteers undergoing routine colonoscopy.We characterized LPMC-T memory (TM) subsets and assessed Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S Typhi)-specific responses by multichromatic flow cytometry.No differences were observed in cell yields and phenotypes in LPMC CD8+-TM subsets following Ty21a immunization. However, Ty21a immunization elicited LPMC CD8+ T cells exhibiting significant S Typhi-specific responses (interferon-γ, tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-17A, and/or CD107a) in all major TM subsets

2017 Cellular and Molecular Gastroenterology and Hepatology

3. Vaccines for preventing typhoid fever. Full Text available with Trip Pro

, as the preferred vaccine for all ages.To assess the effects of vaccines for preventing typhoid fever.In February 2018, we searched the Cochrane Infectious Diseases Group Specialized Register, CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase, LILACS, and mRCT. We also searched the reference lists of all included trials.Randomized and quasi-randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing typhoid fever vaccines with other typhoid fever vaccines or with an inactive agent (placebo or vaccine for a different disease) in adults and children (...) Vaccines for preventing typhoid fever. Typhoid fever and paratyphoid fever continue to be important causes of illness and death, particularly among children and adolescents in south-central and southeast Asia. Two typhoid vaccines are widely available, Ty21a (oral) and Vi polysaccharide (parenteral). Newer typhoid conjugate vaccines are at varying stages of development and use. The World Health Organization has recently recommended a Vi tetanus toxoid (Vi-TT) conjugate vaccine, Typbar-TCV

2018 Cochrane

4. Typhoid Vaccine Acceleration Consortium Malawi: A Phase III, Randomized, Double-blind, Controlled Trial of the Clinical Efficacy of Typhoid Conjugate Vaccine Among Children in Blantyre, Malawi. Full Text available with Trip Pro

for at least 2 years to determine the primary outcome, which is blood culture-confirmed S. Typhi illness. Children enrolled in the immunogenicity and reactogenicity sub-study will have blood drawn before vaccination and at 2 timepoints after vaccination to measure their immune response to vaccination. They will also be followed actively for adverse events and serious adverse events.The introduction of a single-dose, efficacious typhoid vaccine into countries with high burden of disease or significant (...) Typhoid Vaccine Acceleration Consortium Malawi: A Phase III, Randomized, Double-blind, Controlled Trial of the Clinical Efficacy of Typhoid Conjugate Vaccine Among Children in Blantyre, Malawi. Typhoid fever is an acute infection characterized by prolonged fever following the ingestion and subsequent invasion of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S. Typhi), a human-restricted pathogen. The incidence of typhoid fever has been most reported in children 5-15 years of age, but is increasingly

2019 Clinical Infectious Diseases Controlled trial quality: predicted high

5. Accelerating Typhoid Conjugate Vaccine Introduction: What Can Be Learned From Prior New Vaccine Introduction Initiatives? Full Text available with Trip Pro

to accelerate the introduction of a new typhoid conjugate vaccine to reduce the burden of typhoid in countries eligible for support from Gavi, the Vaccine Alliance. TyVAC and its partners are executing a plan, informed by prior successful vaccine introductions, and tailored to the nuances of typhoid disease and the typhoid conjugate vaccine. The iterative process detailed herein summarizes the strategy and experience gained from the first 2 years of the project.© The Author(s) 2019. Published by Oxford (...) Accelerating Typhoid Conjugate Vaccine Introduction: What Can Be Learned From Prior New Vaccine Introduction Initiatives? The health consequences of typhoid, including increasing prevalence of drug-resistant strains, can stress healthcare systems. While vaccination is one of the most successful and cost-effective health interventions, vaccine introduction can take years and require considerable effort. The Typhoid Vaccine Acceleration Consortium (TyVAC) employs an integrated, proactive approach

2019 Clinical Infectious Diseases

6. S typhi Vi Capsular Polysaccharide Vaccine-Induced Humoral Immunity in Travelers with Immunosuppressive Therapy for Rheumatoid Disease. (Abstract)

S typhi Vi Capsular Polysaccharide Vaccine-Induced Humoral Immunity in Travelers with Immunosuppressive Therapy for Rheumatoid Disease. Typhoid fever is a global health problem, causing significant morbidity and mortality. Currently, the most widely used vaccine is the typhoid Vi capsular polysaccharide (Vi-PS) vaccine. While epidemiological studies on its efficacy have been performed in children in endemic countries, there are no efficacy studies evaluating its use in travel medicine. Response (...) to vaccination may differ in travellers receiving immunosuppressive therapy. This study investigates the humoral response to Vi-PS vaccination in travellers receiving immunosuppressive therapy for rheumatoid disease.We recruited patients from the LUMC rheumatology outpatient clinic and travellers from the travel clinic who had previously received Vi-PS vaccination and also immunosuppressive therapy for rheumatoid disease. We analysed blood samples acquired from 42 patients over a period of 3 years. We

2018 Journal of Travel Medicine

7. Roles of the crp and sipB genes of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium in protective efficacy and immune responses to vaccination in mice Full Text available with Trip Pro

Roles of the crp and sipB genes of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium in protective efficacy and immune responses to vaccination in mice Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium has a wide host range and is capable of causing infections ranging from severe gastroenteritis to systemic infection in humans. To determine if attenuated S. Typhimurium strains can serve as safe and effective oral vaccines to prevent typhoid fever, the biologic characteristics of crp and sipB deletion mutants were (...) evaluated. Previous studies had found that the crp and sipB genes are related to Salmonella pathogenicity. In this study, cytotoxicity, protective efficacy, and immune responses of the host were analyzed. Our previous data had shown a significance decrease in virulence for the crp and sipB mutants compared with a wild-type strain. The current study confirmed this finding in HeLa cells and showed that the crp mutant was significantly less cytotoxic (P < 0.05) than the sipB mutant. Mice vaccinated

2018 Canadian Journal of Veterinary Research

8. Response of Immune System to Flu Vaccination in PHTS

provided by (Responsible Party): Radboud University Study Details Study Description Go to Brief Summary: this study evaluates the cellular and humoral immune response to seasonal influenze vaccination in PTEN Hamartoma Tumor Syndrome. All subjects will be administered flu vaccination, half of the subjects will be control subjects. Condition or disease Intervention/treatment Phase PTEN Hamartoma Tumor Syndrome Biological: Influvac Tetra Not Applicable Study Design Go to Layout table for study (...) Response of Immune System to Flu Vaccination in PHTS Response of Immune System to Flu Vaccination in PHTS - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov Hide glossary Glossary Study record managers: refer to the if submitting registration or results information. Search for terms x × Study Record Detail Saved Studies Save this study Warning You have reached the maximum number of saved studies (100). Please remove one or more studies before adding more. Response of Immune System to Flu Vaccination in PHTS

2018 Clinical Trials

9. Oral immunization with a novel attenuated Salmonella Gallinarum encoding infectious bronchitis virus spike protein induces protective immune responses against fowl typhoid and infectious bronchitis in chickens Full Text available with Trip Pro

Oral immunization with a novel attenuated Salmonella Gallinarum encoding infectious bronchitis virus spike protein induces protective immune responses against fowl typhoid and infectious bronchitis in chickens Fowl typhoid (FT), a septicemic disease caused by Salmonella Gallinarum (SG), and infectious bronchitis (IB) are two economically important avian diseases that affect poultry industry worldwide. Herein, we exploited a live attenuated SG mutant, JOL967, to deliver spike (S) protein 1 of IB (...) humoral and cell-mediated immunity compared to JOL2068 and PBS control groups. Consequently, on challenge with the virulent IBV strain at 28th day post-vaccination, JOL2077 vaccinated birds displayed significantly (p < 0.05) lower inflammatory lesions in virus-targeted tissues compared to control groups. Furthermore, 33.3% (2 of 6) of birds vaccinated with JOL2077 vaccine had shown virus recovery from tracheal tissues compared to 100% (6 of 6) recovery obtained in both the control groups. Against wild

2018 Veterinary Research

10. A forecast of typhoid conjugate vaccine introduction and demand in typhoid endemic low- and middle-income countries to support vaccine introduction policy and decisions Full Text available with Trip Pro

priorities, actual vaccine introduction, vaccination strategies, Gavi financing, costs, and overall product profile. Considering the potential role of TCV in typhoid control globally; manufacturers, policymakers, donors and financing bodies should work together to ensure vaccine access through sufficient production capacity, early WHO prequalification of the vaccine, continued Gavi financing and supportive policy. (...) A forecast of typhoid conjugate vaccine introduction and demand in typhoid endemic low- and middle-income countries to support vaccine introduction policy and decisions A Typhoid Conjugate Vaccine (TCV) is expected to acquire WHO prequalification soon, which will pave the way for its use in many low- and middle-income countries where typhoid fever is endemic. Thus it is critical to forecast future vaccine demand to ensure supply meets demand, and to facilitate vaccine policy and introduction

2017 Human vaccines & immunotherapeutics

11. A Review of the Economic Evidence of Typhoid Fever and Typhoid Vaccines. Full Text available with Trip Pro

A Review of the Economic Evidence of Typhoid Fever and Typhoid Vaccines. Typhoid places a substantial economic burden on low- and middle-income countries. We performed a literature review and critical overview of typhoid-related economic issues to inform vaccine introduction. We searched 4 literature databases, covering 2000-2017, to identify typhoid-related cost-of-illness (COI) studies, cost-of-delivery studies, cost-effectiveness analyses (CEAs), and demand forecast studies. Manual (...) that $671 000 in government investments would avert $60 000 in public treatment costs. CEA evidence was limited, but generally found targeted vaccination programs to be cost-effective. This review revealed insufficient economic evidence for vaccine introduction. Countries considering vaccine introduction should have access to relevant economic evidence to aid in decision-making and planning. Planned studies will fill many of the existing gaps in the literature.© The Author(s) 2019. Published by Oxford

2019 Clinical Infectious Diseases

12. Mucosal IgA and IFN-γ+ CD8 T cell immunity are important in the efficacy of live Salmonella enteria serovar Choleraesuis vaccines Full Text available with Trip Pro

Mucosal IgA and IFN-γ+ CD8 T cell immunity are important in the efficacy of live Salmonella enteria serovar Choleraesuis vaccines Salmonellosis, a disease caused by non-typhoidal Salmonella strains which can be transmitted from swine to humans, is one of the leading public health problems around the world. Paratyphoid of swine is controlled by vaccinating swine with Salmonella enterica serovar Choleraesuis (S. Choleraesuis) live vaccine strain C500 in China. Although the vaccine has good (...) prophylactic efficacy, the mechanism of immunogenicity is unclear. Using a C500-derived paratyphoid thermo-stable live vaccine (PTSL vaccine), we demonstrated that the PTSL vaccine induces strong primary and memory immune responses in piglets. Mucosal IgA and IFN-γ+/CD8+ T cells induced by the PTSL vaccine play key roles in the protection of the host from Salmonella infection. Our findings have important implications on the development of new and improved vaccines against salmonellosis and using live

2017 Scientific reports

13. Vaccination with Salmonella Typhi recombinant outer membrane protein 28 induces humoral but non-protective immune response in rabbit Full Text available with Trip Pro

Vaccination with Salmonella Typhi recombinant outer membrane protein 28 induces humoral but non-protective immune response in rabbit Typhoid is one of the most important food and water borne disease causing millions of deaths over the world. Presently, there is no cost effective vaccine available in India. The outer-membrane proteins (Omps) of Salmonella have been exhibited as a potential candidate for development of subunit vaccine against typhoid. The objective of the present study (...) by Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for humoral response. Rabbits were challenged with virulent culture to test the protective immunity.Humoral response was provoked at 15th day and maintained till 30th day. The mean ELISA titer at 15th day was 1 : 28000 (mean titer log 10 : 4.4472) and on the 30th day was 1 : 25866 (mean titer log 10 : 4.4127). Protective immune potential of Omp 28 was assessed by challenge studies in rabbits for which vaccinated and control rabbits were challenged with 109

2017 Veterinary world

14. Safety of live vaccinations on immunosuppressive therapy in patients with immune-mediated inflammatory diseases, solid organ transplantation or after bone-marrow transplantation - A systematic review of randomized trials, observational studies and case re Full Text available with Trip Pro

Safety of live vaccinations on immunosuppressive therapy in patients with immune-mediated inflammatory diseases, solid organ transplantation or after bone-marrow transplantation - A systematic review of randomized trials, observational studies and case re Live vaccines are generally contraindicated on immunosuppressive therapy due to safety concerns. However, data are limited to corroborate this practice.To estimate the safety of live vaccinations in patients with immune-mediated inflammatory (...) diseases (IMID) or solid organ transplantation (SOT) on immunosuppressive treatment and in patients after bone-marrow transplantation (BMT).A search was conducted in electronic databases (Cochrane, Pubmed, Embase) and additional literature was identified by targeted searches.Randomized trials, observational studies and case reports.Patients with IMID or SOT on immunosuppressive treatment and BMT patients <2years after transplantation.Live vaccinations: mumps, measles, rubella (MMR), yellow fever (YF

2017 Vaccine

15. Cross-reactive multifunctional CD4+ T cell responses against Salmonella enterica serovars Typhi, Paratyphi A and Paratyphi B in humans following immunization with live oral typhoid vaccine Ty21a Full Text available with Trip Pro

Cross-reactive multifunctional CD4+ T cell responses against Salmonella enterica serovars Typhi, Paratyphi A and Paratyphi B in humans following immunization with live oral typhoid vaccine Ty21a The live oral typhoid vaccine Ty21a elicits predominantly CD8+, as well as CD4+ T cells mediated immune responses. Clinical field studies showed that Ty21a is moderately effective against S. Typhi and S. Paratyphi B, but not S. Paratyphi A infections. In this study we describe the in depth (...) characterization of S. Typhi, S. Paratyphi A and S. Paratyphi B cross-reactive CD4+ T cell responses elicited following immunization with Ty21a. PBMC samples were collected from 16 healthy volunteers before and 42/84days after Ty21a immunization and stimulated ex-vivo with Salmonella-infected targets. Multiparametric flow cytometry was used to detect the vaccine elicited Salmonella-specific responses in T effector/memory (TEM) and CD45RA+ T effector/memory (TEMRA) CD4+ cell subsets, by measuring CD4

2016 Clinical immunology (Orlando, Fla.)

16. The Design and Analysis of Seroefficacy Studies for Typhoid Conjugate Vaccines. Full Text available with Trip Pro

trials required as few as 460 participants per arm, compared with 10 000 per arm for trials using blood culture-confirmed cases.Seroefficacy trials can establish the efficacy of new conjugate vaccines using small trials that enroll hundreds rather than thousands of participants, and without the need for resource-intensive typhoid fever surveillance programs.© The Author(s) 2019. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. (...) The Design and Analysis of Seroefficacy Studies for Typhoid Conjugate Vaccines. Demonstrating the efficacy of new Vi-conjugate typhoid vaccines is challenging, due to the cost of field trials requiring tens of thousands of participants. New trial designs that use serologically defined typhoid infections (seroefficacy trials) rather than blood culture positivity as a study endpoint may be useful to assess efficacy using small trials.We developed a model for Vi-immunoglobin G antibody responses

2019 Clinical Infectious Diseases

17. Assessing the Impact of a Vi-polysaccharide Conjugate Vaccine in Preventing Typhoid Infections Among Nepalese Children: A Protocol for a Phase III, Randomized Control Trial. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Assessing the Impact of a Vi-polysaccharide Conjugate Vaccine in Preventing Typhoid Infections Among Nepalese Children: A Protocol for a Phase III, Randomized Control Trial. Enteric fever is estimated to affect 11-20 million people worldwide each year. Morbidity and mortality from enteric fever primarily occur in lower-income countries, with children under 5 years of age experiencing a significant portion of the burden. Over the last few decades, the control of enteric fever has focused (...) primarily on improved water and sanitation, with the available vaccines unsuitable for children and primarily used by travelers. A new typhoid conjugate vaccine (Vi-TCV), prequalified by the World Health Organization (WHO) and highly immunogenic in children under 5, has the potential to reduce the typhoid burden in endemic countries.This study is a double-blinded, randomized, controlled trial with a 2-year follow-up to assess the protective impact of the Vi-TCV vaccine, compared with a control vaccine

2019 Clinical Infectious Diseases Controlled trial quality: predicted high

18. A Phase II, Randomized, Double-blind, Controlled Safety and Immunogenicity Trial of Typhoid Conjugate Vaccine in Children Under 2 Years of Age in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso: A Methods Paper. Full Text available with Trip Pro

A Phase II, Randomized, Double-blind, Controlled Safety and Immunogenicity Trial of Typhoid Conjugate Vaccine in Children Under 2 Years of Age in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso: A Methods Paper. The recent Typhoid Fever Surveillance in Africa Program demonstrated an overall adjusted incidence of typhoid fever 2-3 times higher than previous estimates in Africa. Recently, a single-dose typhoid conjugate vaccine that allows infants as young as 6 months old to be vaccinated was prequalified by the World (...) Health Organization (WHO). This Vi-based conjugate vaccine demonstrated robust immunogenicity after 1 dose in infants and children 6 through 23 months of age in India with no safety signal, and is currently being tested for the first time on the African continent in Malawi. The WHO Strategic Advisory Group of Experts recommends studies to evaluate co-administering Vi-typhoid conjugate vaccine (Vi-TCV) with routine childhood vaccines in typhoid-endemic countries. The Burkina Faso immunization schedule

2019 Clinical Infectious Diseases Controlled trial quality: uncertain

19. Assessing the Impact of a Vi-polysaccharide Conjugate Vaccine in Preventing Typhoid Infection Among Bangladeshi Children: A Protocol for a Phase IIIb Trial. Full Text available with Trip Pro

annual typhoid burden, which particularly affects children. A typhoid conjugate vaccine (Vi-TCV) was recently prequalified by the World Health Organization and recommended for use, and offers the potential to greatly reduce the typhoid burden in Bangladesh.This study is a double-blind, cluster-randomized, controlled trial of Vi-TCV in a geographically defined area in Dhaka, Bangladesh. At least 32 500 children from 9 months to <16 years of age will be vaccinated and followed for 2 years to assess (...) Assessing the Impact of a Vi-polysaccharide Conjugate Vaccine in Preventing Typhoid Infection Among Bangladeshi Children: A Protocol for a Phase IIIb Trial. Typhoid fever illnesses are responsible for more than 100 000 deaths worldwide each year. In Bangladesh, typhoid fever is endemic, with incidence rates between 292-395 per 100 000 people annually. While considerable effort has been made to improve access to clean water and sanitation services in the country, there is still a significant

2019 Clinical Infectious Diseases Controlled trial quality: predicted high

20. Logistics of Implementing a Large-scale Typhoid Vaccine Trial in Kathmandu, Nepal. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Logistics of Implementing a Large-scale Typhoid Vaccine Trial in Kathmandu, Nepal. Typhoid fever is estimated to affect over 20 million people per year worldwide, with infants, children, and adolescents in south-central and southeast Asia experiencing the greatest burden of disease. The Typhoid Vaccine Acceleration Consortium (TyVAC) aims to support the introduction of typhoid conjugate vaccines into Gavi-eligible countries in an effort to reduce morbidity and mortality from typhoid. TyVAC (...) -Nepal is a large-scale, participant- and observer-blind, individually randomized, controlled trial evaluating the efficacy of a newly developed typhoid conjugate vaccine in an urban setting in Nepal. In order to effectively deliver the trial, a number of key elements required meticulous planning. Public engagement strategies were considered early, and involved the implementation of a tiered approach. Approximately 300 staff were employed and trained in order to achieve the mass vaccination of 20 000

2019 Clinical Infectious Diseases Controlled trial quality: uncertain

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