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Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus

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63521. Post-prandial insulin lispro vs. human regular insulin in prepubertal children with Type 1 diabetes mellitus. (Abstract)

Post-prandial insulin lispro vs. human regular insulin in prepubertal children with Type 1 diabetes mellitus. To study whether post-prandial insulin lispro (PL) could be used as a part of insulin therapy instead of premeal human regular insulin (HR) in prepubertal children with Type 1 diabetes mellitus (Type 1 DM).In this open, randomized cross-over study patients used either PL or HR at breakfast and at dinner. After a 1-month screening period, patients were randomized to treatment with PL (...) or HR for 3 months and then they crossed over to the other insulin for an additional 3 months. The patients were 24 prepubertal children with Type 1 DM (median age 6.2 years, duration of diabetes 37 months). Home monitoring of 1-day glucose profiles at meals (premeal, 1 h and 2 h after breakfast and after dinner) and HbA1c were measured before randomization, before cross-over, and at the last visit. Data on hypoglycaemic episodes were collected at each of the seven visits. The variables were

2001 Diabetic medicine : a journal of the British Diabetic Association Controlled trial quality: uncertain

63522. The effect of acute hyperglycaemia on appetite and food intake in Type 1 diabetes mellitus. (Abstract)

The effect of acute hyperglycaemia on appetite and food intake in Type 1 diabetes mellitus. To determine the effects of acute hyperglycaemia on appetite and food intake in Type 1 diabetes mellitus.Two separate studies, each involving eight adults with uncomplicated Type 1 diabetes, were performed: one in the fasted state (A) and the other after a nutrient preload (B). In both studies, perceptions of appetite (hunger and fullness) and food intake at a buffet meal were evaluated during (...) hyperglycaemia and euglycaemia.Acute hyperglycaemia suppresses hunger after a nutrient preload, but not in the fasted state, in patients with uncomplicated Type 1 diabetes. This effect is small and not associated with changes in food intake.

2001 Diabetic medicine : a journal of the British Diabetic Association Controlled trial quality: uncertain

63523. Circulating plasma vascular endothelial growth factor and microvascular complications of type 1 diabetes mellitus: the influence of ACE inhibition. (Abstract)

Circulating plasma vascular endothelial growth factor and microvascular complications of type 1 diabetes mellitus: the influence of ACE inhibition. To determine whether circulating plasma vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is elevated in the presence of diabetic microvascular complications, and whether the impact of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors on these complications can be accounted for by changes in circulating VEGF.Samples (299/354 of those with retinal photographs (...) ) from the EUCLID placebo-controlled clinical trial of the ACE inhibitor lisinopril in mainly normoalbuminuric non-hypertensive Type 1 diabetic patients were used. Albumin excretion rate (AER) was measured 6 monthly. Geometric mean VEGF levels by baseline retinopathy status, change in retinopathy over 2 years, and by treatment with lisinopril were calculated.No significant correlation was observed between VEGF at baseline and age, diabetes duration, glycaemic control, blood pressure, smoking

2001 Diabetic medicine : a journal of the British Diabetic Association Controlled trial quality: uncertain

63524. Administration of neutral protamine Hagedorn insulin at bedtime versus with dinner in type 1 diabetes mellitus to avoid nocturnal hypoglycemia and improve control. A randomized, controlled trial. (Abstract)

Administration of neutral protamine Hagedorn insulin at bedtime versus with dinner in type 1 diabetes mellitus to avoid nocturnal hypoglycemia and improve control. A randomized, controlled trial. Intensive insulin treatment of type 1 diabetes mellitus increases the risk for nocturnal hypoglycemia.To demonstrate that splitting the evening insulin regimen reduces the risk for nocturnal hypoglycemia in intensive treatment of type 1 diabetes mellitus.Randomized, open, two-treatment crossover trial (...) in two 4-month periods.University research center in Italy.22 C-peptide-negative persons with type 1 diabetes mellitus (mean age [+/-SD], 29 +/- 3 years).Each patient was randomly assigned to one of two insulin regimens for 4 months and then switched to the other regimen for another 4 months. The two treatment regimens were 1) mixed treatment--a mixture of human regular and neutral protamine Hagedorn (NPH) insulin administered before dinner and 2) split treatment--human regular insulin administered

2002 Annals of internal medicine Controlled trial quality: uncertain

63525. Vitamin A, retinol binding protein and lipids in type 1 diabetes mellitus. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Vitamin A, retinol binding protein and lipids in type 1 diabetes mellitus. A case-control study was conducted to evaluate the effects of type 1 diabetes mellitus (IDDM) on plasma levels of vitamin A (retinol) and serum levels of retinol-binding protein (RBP) and their relationship with the atherogenic indicators.A total of 47 randomised IDDM children were recruited from those treated at the Endocrinology Unit of the University Hospital of Granada (Spain). They were matched for age and sex

2002 European journal of clinical nutrition Controlled trial quality: uncertain

63526. Effect of IGF-I therapy on VLDL apolipoprotein B100 metabolism in type 1 diabetes mellitus. (Abstract)

Effect of IGF-I therapy on VLDL apolipoprotein B100 metabolism in type 1 diabetes mellitus. Abnormal lipid metabolism may be related to the increased cardiovascular risk in type 1 diabetes. Secretion and clearance rates of very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) apolipoprotein B100 (apoB) determine plasma lipid concentrations. Type 1 diabetes is characterized by increased growth hormone (GH) secretion and decreased insulin-like growth factor (IGF) I concentrations. High-dose IGF-I therapy improves (...) the lipid profile in type 1 diabetes. This study examined the effect of low-dose (40 microg.kg(-1).day(-1)) IGF-I therapy on VLDL apoB metabolism, VLDL composition, and the GH-IGF-I axis during euglycemia in type 1 diabetes. Using a stable isotope technique, VLDL apoB kinetics were estimated before and after 1 wk of IGF-I therapy in 12 patients with type 1 diabetes in a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Fasting plasma triglyceride (P < 0.03), VLDL-triglyceride concentrations (P < 0.05

2002 American journal of physiology. Endocrinology and metabolism Controlled trial quality: uncertain

63527. A multicenter, randomized, open-label, comparative, two-period crossover trial of preference, efficacy, and safety profiles of a prefilled, disposable pen and conventional vial/syringe for insulin injection in patients with type 1 or 2 diabetes mellitus. (Abstract)

A multicenter, randomized, open-label, comparative, two-period crossover trial of preference, efficacy, and safety profiles of a prefilled, disposable pen and conventional vial/syringe for insulin injection in patients with type 1 or 2 diabetes mellitus. The accuracy and convenience of pen devices for insulin injection have improved quality of life for patients with insulin-treated diabetes mellitus (DM). Prefilled, disposable pens have the advantage of simplicity, with minimal training (...) and attention required and no installation of new cartridges necessary.The aim of this study was to assess patient preference, efficacy, and safety profiles of a prefilled, disposable pen (FlexPen) and conventional vial/syringe injection method for insulin injection therapy among patients with DM.In a multicenter, randomized, open-label, crossover study, patients with type 1 or 2 DM were transferred from previous QD or BID conventional insulin therapy to a mixture of 70% insulin aspart protamine suspension

2003 Clinical therapeutics Controlled trial quality: uncertain

63528. Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibition and arterial endothelial function in adults with Type 1 diabetes mellitus. (Abstract)

Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibition and arterial endothelial function in adults with Type 1 diabetes mellitus. Arterial endothelial dysfunction is a key early event in atherogenesis, and occurs in asymptomatic adults with Type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM). As angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors have been reported to reverse microvascular endothelial dysfunction acutely, we assessed the longer term effect of ACE inhibition on large vessel endothelial physiology in a randomized (...) , crossover double-blind controlled clinical trial.Flow-mediated arterial dilatation (FMD), which is largely due to endothelial release of nitric oxide, was assessed by vascular ultrasound in 20 Type 1 DM subjects with known endothelial dysfunction. These subjects, aged 28+/-5 years, were studied before and after 12 weeks oral therapy with either the ACE inhibitor perindopril 4 mg daily or the diuretic hydrene (triamterene 50 mg with hydrochlorothiazide 25 mg) daily.Although perindopril lowered both

1999 Diabetic medicine : a journal of the British Diabetic Association Controlled trial quality: uncertain

63529. Comparison between repaglinide and glipizide in Type 2 diabetes mellitus: a 1-year multicentre study. (Abstract)

Comparison between repaglinide and glipizide in Type 2 diabetes mellitus: a 1-year multicentre study. To evaluate the long-term effectiveness and safety of repaglinide, a novel prandial glucose regulator, in comparison with glipizide in the treatment of patients with Type 2 diabetes.Diet or tablet-treated patients with Type 2 diabetes (n = 256; age 40-75 years, body mass index (BMI) 20-35 kg/m2, HbA1c 4.2-12.8%), without signs of severe microvascular or macrovascular complications, were (...) in the glipizide group compared with the repaglinide group (P < 0.05). No patients in either group experienced a major hypoglycaemic event; the number of patients experiencing minor hypoglycaemia was similar in the repaglinide and glipizide groups (15% and 19%, respectively).Repaglinide, given as a prandial glucose regulator, is shown to be an effective and safe treatment of patients with Type 2 diabetes, and is better than glipizide in controlling HbA1c and FBG levels, overall, and in OHA-naive patients.

2001 Diabetic medicine : a journal of the British Diabetic Association Controlled trial quality: uncertain

63530. Long-term pharmacologic doses of vitamin E only moderately affect the erythrocytes of patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Long-term pharmacologic doses of vitamin E only moderately affect the erythrocytes of patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus. In erythrocytes from diabetic patients, increased membrane lipid peroxidation might lead to abnormalities in composition and function. To study this relationship, we investigated the effects of a moderate pharmacologic dose of vitamin E for 1 y on erythrocyte membrane peroxidation in vitro and on its fatty acid composition, antioxidant capacity and rheological function (...) . In a random and double-blind manner, type 1 diabetic patients (n = 44) were assigned to the following two groups: Group S received 250 IU (168 mg) d-alpha tocopherol 3 times daily for 1 y. Group P received placebo for 6 mo followed by d-alpha-tocopherol for an additional 6 mo. Variables were monitored every 3 mo. After 3 mo of supplementation, serum vitamin E doubled (P < 0.0005), thiobarbituric acid reactive substances in erythrocyte membranes incubated with tert-butyl hydroperoxide decreased by 25% (P

2001 The Journal of nutrition Controlled trial quality: uncertain

63531. Blood pressure reduction and tolerability of amlodipine versus nifedipine retard in Chinese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and hypertension: a randomized 1-year clinical trial. (Abstract)

Blood pressure reduction and tolerability of amlodipine versus nifedipine retard in Chinese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and hypertension: a randomized 1-year clinical trial. In this 1-year clinical study, we compared the efficacy and tolerability of amlodipine and nifedipine retard in 64 Chinese Type 2 diabetic patients with hypertension.There were 25 (39.1%) men and 39 (60.9%) women with mean age 60.7+/-9.9 years. Thirty-four patients were randomized to receive amlodipine 5 mg daily (...) in the treatment of hypertension in Chinese Type 2 diabetic patients. Nifedipine retard, when compared to amlodipine, showed significantly more adverse effects and these may hamper long-term compliance.

2001 International journal of clinical pharmacology and therapeutics Controlled trial quality: uncertain

63532. Effects of a motilin receptor agonist (ABT-229) on upper gastrointestinal symptoms in type 1 diabetes mellitus: a randomised, double blind, placebo controlled trial. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Effects of a motilin receptor agonist (ABT-229) on upper gastrointestinal symptoms in type 1 diabetes mellitus: a randomised, double blind, placebo controlled trial. Erythromycin, a motilin agonist, is a potent prokinetic. ABT-229 is a specific motilin agonist that dose dependently accelerates gastric emptying. Dyspepsia and gastroparesis are common problems in type 1 diabetes mellitus. We aimed to evaluate the efficacy of ABT-229 in symptomatic diabetic patients with and without delayed (...) gastric emptying.Patients with type 1 diabetes and postprandial symptoms were randomised (n=270). Based on a validated C(13) octanoic acid breath test, patients were assigned to either the delayed or normal gastric emptying strata. Patients received one of four doses of ABT-229 (1.25, 2.5, 5, or 10 mg twice daily before breakfast and dinner) or placebo for four weeks following a two week baseline. A self report questionnaire measured symptoms on visual analogue scales; the primary outcome

2001 Gut Controlled trial quality: predicted high

63533. Differential effects of fenofibrate versus atorvastatin on the concentrations of E-selectin and vascular cellular adhesion molecule-1 in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and mixed hyperlipoproteinemia: a randomized cross-over trial. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Differential effects of fenofibrate versus atorvastatin on the concentrations of E-selectin and vascular cellular adhesion molecule-1 in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and mixed hyperlipoproteinemia: a randomized cross-over trial. Diabetic dyslipoproteinemia is characterized by hypertriglyceridemia, low HDL-cholesterol and often elevated LDL-cholesterol and is a strong risk factor for atherosclerosis. Adhesion molecule levels are elevated both in hyperlipoproteinemia and diabetes (...) mellitus. It is unclear whether fibrate or statin therapy has more beneficial effects on adhesion molecule concentrations.Atorvastatin (10 mg/d) was compared to fenofibrate (200 mg/d) each for 6 weeks separated by a 6 week washout period in 11 patients (6 male, 5 female; 61.8 +/- 8.2 years; body mass index 29.8 +/- 3.1 kg/m2) with type 2 diabetes mellitus (HbA1c 7.3 +/- 1.1%) and mixed hyperlipoproteinemia using a randomized, cross-over design. Fasting blood glucose, HbA1c, lipid parameters, E-selectin

2003 Cardiovascular diabetology Controlled trial quality: uncertain

63534. Effects of pramlintide, an amylin analogue, on gastric emptying in type 1 and 2 diabetes mellitus. (Abstract)

Effects of pramlintide, an amylin analogue, on gastric emptying in type 1 and 2 diabetes mellitus. Pramlintide delays gastric emptying, possibly by a centrally mediated mechanism. Our aim was to determine whether the effects of pramlintide on gastric emptying differ in people with type 1 or type 2 diabetes who had no history of complications. Using a randomized, three-period, two-dose, crossover design, we studied the effects of 0, 30, or 60 microg t.i.d. pramlintide subcutaneously for 5 days (...) each in six type 1 and six type 2 diabetic subjects. Gastric emptying of solids was measured by 13C-Spirulina breath test. Plasma pancreatic polypeptide (HPP) response to the test meal was also measured. Relative to placebo [t 50% 91 +/- 6 min (means +/- SEM)], pramlintide equally delayed gastric emptying following 30 or 60 microg t.i.d. (268 +/- 37 min, 329 +/- 49 min, respectively; P < 0.01]. Postprandial HPP levels were lower in response to 30 and 60 microg pramlintide compared to placebo

2002 Neurogastroenterology and motility : the official journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society Controlled trial quality: uncertain

63535. Comparative trial between insulin glargine and NPH insulin in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes mellitus. (Abstract)

Comparative trial between insulin glargine and NPH insulin in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes mellitus. The objective of this study was to compare the efficacy and safety of insulin glargine, a long-acting insulin analog, with NPH insulin in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). In a multicenter, open-label, randomized, 6-month study, 349 patients with TIDM, aged 5-16 years, received insulin glargine once daily or NPH insulin either once or twice daily

2002 Journal of pediatric endocrinology & metabolism : JPEM Controlled trial quality: uncertain

63536. Exercise training and glycemic control in adolescents with poorly controlled type 1 diabetes mellitus. (Abstract)

Exercise training and glycemic control in adolescents with poorly controlled type 1 diabetes mellitus. This study sought to establish whether the glycemic control achieved in exercise-trained adolescents with type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM) is dependent on the quality of glycemic control prior to the initiation of exercise training. Adolescents with type 1 DM were randomly assigned to groups with either lower or higher than 9% glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c), and submitted to 12 weeks (...) training, glycemic control in adolescents with type 1 DM does not improve in response to exercise training alone.

2002 Journal of pediatric endocrinology & metabolism : JPEM Controlled trial quality: uncertain

63537. Insulin intervention to preserve beta cells in slowly progressive insulin-dependent (type 1) diabetes mellitus. (Abstract)

Insulin intervention to preserve beta cells in slowly progressive insulin-dependent (type 1) diabetes mellitus. Slowly progressive insulin-dependent (type 1) diabetes mellitus (SPIDDM) is characterized by (1) late age of onset, with initial features of NIDDM and subsequent progression to insulin-dependent stage; (2) high predictive value of autoantibodies against glutamic acid decarboxylase (GADAb) and islet cell antibodies (ICA) for progression of beta cell failure; (3) less predominant T cell (...) response, which may attack and eventually destroy beta-cells in affected pancreas. These findings may suggest a rationale for intervention to prevent slowly progressive beta cell dysfunction in this type of diabetes. We identified three independent risk factors for progression of beta cell failure in SPIDDM: (1) sulfonylurea treatment; (2) ICA-positive periods; and (3) initial body weight. We hypothesized that removal of the risk factors for further progression of beta cell dysfunction will have

2002 Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences Controlled trial quality: uncertain

63538. Enhanced lipid peroxidation and platelet activation in the early phase of type 1 diabetes mellitus: role of interleukin-6 and disease duration. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Enhanced lipid peroxidation and platelet activation in the early phase of type 1 diabetes mellitus: role of interleukin-6 and disease duration. To investigate early events possibly related to the development of diabetic angiopathy, we examined whether 8-iso-prostaglandin F2alpha (8-iso-PGF2alpha) formation, a marker of in vivo oxidant stress, is altered in different stages of type 1 diabetes (T1DM) and whether it correlates with the rate of thromboxane (TX) A2 biosynthesis, a marker of in vivo (...) platelet activation. We also investigated the relationship between inflammatory markers and F2-isoprostane formation in this setting.A cross-sectional study was performed in 23 insulin-treated patients aged <18 years with new-onset T1DM (1 year, group B). Urinary 8-iso-PGF2alpha and 11-dehydro-TXB2 were measured in all patients and in age- and gender-matched controls. Circulating interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor

2003 Circulation

63539. Type 1 diabetes mellitus in patients with chronic hepatitis C before and after interferon therapy. (Abstract)

Type 1 diabetes mellitus in patients with chronic hepatitis C before and after interferon therapy. Type 1 diabetes mellitus is the result of an autoimmune process characterized by pancreatic beta cell destruction. It has been reported that chronic hepatitis C infection is associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus, but not with type 1. Although the prevalence of markers of pancreatic autoimmunity in hepatitis C virus-positive patients is not significantly different to that reported in the general (...) population, it increases during alpha-interferon therapy from 3 to 7%, probably due to the immunostimulatory effects of this cytokine. To date, 31 case reports of type 1 diabetes mellitus related to interferon treatment have been published. Type 1 diabetes mellitus occurs more frequently in patients treated for chronic hepatitis C than for other conditions and is irreversible in most cases. In 50% of these patients, markers of pancreatic autoimmunity predated treatment, the majority of cases having

2003 Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics

63540. Long-term survival following simultaneous kidney-pancreas transplantation versus kidney transplantation alone in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus and renal failure. (Abstract)

Long-term survival following simultaneous kidney-pancreas transplantation versus kidney transplantation alone in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus and renal failure. Pancreas transplantation improves quality of life and prevents the progression of secondary complications of diabetes. Whether these benefits translate into a long-term survival advantage is not entirely clear.Using the United Network for Organ Sharing database, we analyzed long-term survival in 18,549 patients with type 1 (...) , 0.86; P < 0.02) thereafter. In SKPT recipients, maintenance of a functioning pancreas graft was associated with a survival benefit.The long-term survival of SKPT recipients is superior to that of cadaver kidney transplant recipients with type 1 diabetes. There is no difference in survival of SKPT recipients and living donor kidney recipients with type 1 diabetes at up to 8 years' follow-up; the former have a greater early mortality risk and the latter have a greater late mortality risk. Results

2003 American Journal of Kidney Diseases

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