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Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in Children

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2. Development of type 2 diabetes mellitus in people with intermediate hyperglycaemia. (PubMed)

Development of type 2 diabetes mellitus in people with intermediate hyperglycaemia. Intermediate hyperglycaemia (IH) is characterised by one or more measurements of elevated blood glucose concentrations, such as impaired fasting glucose (IFG), impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and elevated glycosylated haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c). These levels are higher than normal but below the diagnostic threshold for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The reduced threshold of 5.6 mmol/L (100 mg/dL) fasting plasma (...) glucose (FPG) for defining IFG, introduced by the American Diabetes Association (ADA) in 2003, substantially increased the prevalence of IFG. Likewise, the lowering of the HbA1c threshold from 6.0% to 5.7% by the ADA in 2010 could potentially have significant medical, public health and socioeconomic impacts.To assess the overall prognosis of people with IH for developing T2DM, regression from IH to normoglycaemia and the difference in T2DM incidence in people with IH versus people

2018 Cochrane

3. The Management of Insulin Administration and Blood Glucose Monitoring in Children with Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus: Guidelines

The Management of Insulin Administration and Blood Glucose Monitoring in Children with Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus: Guidelines The Management of Insulin Administration and Blood Glucose Monitoring in Children with Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus: Guidelines | CADTH.ca Find the information you need The Management of Insulin Administration and Blood Glucose Monitoring in Children with Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus: Guidelines The Management of Insulin Administration and Blood Glucose Monitoring in Children (...) with Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus: Guidelines Published on: May 24, 2017 Project Number: RB1094-000 Product Line: Research Type: Devices and Systems Report Type: Summary of Abstracts Result type: Report Question What are the evidence-based guidelines regarding the management of insulin administration in children with type 1 diabetes mellitus? What are the evidence-based guidelines regarding the monitoring of blood glucose in children with type 1 diabetes mellitus? Key Message Three evidence-based guidelines

2017 Canadian Agency for Drugs and Technologies in Health - Rapid Review

4. Type 2 diabetes in children

Type 2 diabetes in children Type 2 diabetes in children - Symptoms, diagnosis and treatment | BMJ Best Practice You'll need a subscription to access all of BMJ Best Practice Search  Type 2 diabetes in children Last reviewed: February 2019 Last updated: March 2019 Summary A progressive disorder due to a deficit in both insulin secretion and insulin action, with obesity being the primary cause in children. Often asymptomatic and diagnosed by screening in a high-risk individual (e.g., family (...) ). Treatment includes lifestyle modifications, metformin, and insulin. Definition Type 2 diabetes mellitus is a progressive disorder due to a deficit in both insulin secretion and insulin action leading to abnormal glucose metabolism and related metabolic derangements. Diagnosis is based on a fasting plasma glucose of 7 mmol/L or greater (126 mg/dL or greater) on 2 separate occasions, a random plasma glucose of 11.1 mmol/L or greater (200 mg/dL or greater) with symptoms of polyuria or polydipsia, a plasma

2018 BMJ Best Practice

5. VA/DoD clinical practice guideline for the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus in primary care.

and Department of Defense (VA and DoD) healthcare delivery systems, which includes Veterans, deployed and non-deployed Active Duty Service Members, and their adult family Refer to the original guideline document for specific populations for key questions. Note : This clinical practice guideline (CPG) does not provide recommendations for the management of DM in children, adolescents, or pregnant/nursing women. General approach to type 2 diabetes mellitus care Shared decision-making Individualized diabetes (...) VA/DoD clinical practice guideline for the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus in primary care. VA/DoD clinical practice guideline for the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus in primary care. | National Guideline Clearinghouse success fail JUN 09 2017 2018 2019 03 Oct 2017 - 12 Jul 2018 COLLECTED BY Organization: Formed in 2009, the Archive Team (not to be confused with the archive.org Archive-It Team) is a rogue archivist collective dedicated to saving copies of rapidly dying or deleted

2017 National Guideline Clearinghouse (partial archive)

6. Use of the microbiome in the management of children with type 2 diabetes mellitus. (PubMed)

Use of the microbiome in the management of children with type 2 diabetes mellitus. The purpose of this review is to present recent data that defines our current understanding of the role of the gut microbiome in the development of T2DM.Recent studies focus on the physiology and molecular pathways of the gut microbiome-host interaction. Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) derived from the fermentation of plant-based nonsoluble fiber bind to G-protein-coupled receptors (GPR) GPR 41 and GPR 43 (...) inflammation, insulin resistance and type II diabetes mellitus.Recent scientific data support that derangements in the composition of the microbiota, termed "microbiome dysbiosis" is a factor in the development of "metabolic endotoxemia" and T2DM. Therapeutic options that target the gut microbiome in the treatment of T2DM are explored.

2019 Current opinion in pediatrics

7. A Practical Approach to the Management of Continuous Glucose Monitoring (CGM) / Real-Time Flash Glucose Scanning (FGS) in Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus in Children and Young People Under 18 years

FOR STAFF Healthcare professionals involved in care of children and young people with Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus PATIENTS Children and young people with diabetes mellitus This guideline is intended for use in managing continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) or real-time flash glucose scanning (FGS) for all children and young people under 18 years with Type 1 diabetes mellitus. Table of Contents Introduction 2 Overview of Pertinent NICE guidance 3 Devices Available for CGM and FGS 6 Section 1: Evidence (...) Monitoring (CGM) / Real-Time Flash Glucose Scanning (FGS) in Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus in Children and Young People Under 18 years 2 Version 3, Oct 2018 Review 2021 Authors: ACDC Guideline Development Group N Wright, SM Ng, JC Agwu, P Adolfsson, J Drew, J Pemberton, M Kershaw, S Bissell, C Moudiotis, F Regan, C Gardner, A Astle, A Adams, G Adams, P Manning, A Timmis, A Soni, E Williams ssociation of Children ’s Diabetes Clinicians Introduction Real-time continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) and flash

2018 British Society for Paediatric Endocrinology and Diabetes

8. Diabetes (type 1 and type 2) in children and young people: diagnosis and management

://www.nice.org.uk/terms-and- conditions#notice-of-rights). Page 12 of 85diagnosis and classification of diabetes mellitus. [2004, amended 2015] [2004, amended 2015] 1.1.4 When diagnosing diabetes in a child or young person, assume type 1 diabetes unless there are strong indications of type 2 diabetes, monogenic or mitochondrial diabetes (see recommendations 1.1.5 and 1.1.6). [new 2015] [new 2015] 1.1.5 Think about the possibility of type 2 diabetes in children and young people with suspected diabetes who: have (...) Diabetes (type 1 and type 2) in children and young people: diagnosis and management Diabetes (type 1 and type 2) in children Diabetes (type 1 and type 2) in children and y and young people: diagnosis and oung people: diagnosis and management management NICE guideline Published: 26 August 2015 nice.org.uk/guidance/ng18 © NICE 2019. All rights reserved. Subject to Notice of rights (https://www.nice.org.uk/terms-and-conditions#notice-of- rights).Y Y our responsibility our responsibility

2015 National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence - Clinical Guidelines

9. A Practical Approach to the Management of Continuous Glucose Monitoring (CGM) / Real-Time Flash Glucose Scanning (FGS) in Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus in Children and Young People Under 18 Years

A Practical Approach to the Management of Continuous Glucose Monitoring (CGM) / Real-Time Flash Glucose Scanning (FGS) in Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus in Children and Young People Under 18 Years 1 Version 2, April 2017 Review 2020 Authors: ACDC Guideline Development Group N Wright, SM Ng, JC Agwu, P Adolfsson, J Drew, J Pemberton, M Kershaw, S Bissell, C Moudiotis, F Regan, C Gardner, A Astle, A Adams, G Adams, P Manning, A Timmis, A Soni, E Williams ssociation of Children’s Diabetes Clinicians (...) Clinicians FOR STAFF Healthcare professionals involved in care of children and young people with Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus PATIENTS Children and young people with diabetes mellitus This guideline is intended for use in managing continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) or real-time flash glucose scanning (FGS) for all children and young people under 18 years with Type 1 diabetes mellitus. Table of Contents Introduction 2 Overview of Pertinent NICE guidance 3 Devices Available for CGM and FGS 6 Section 1

2017 British Society for Paediatric Endocrinology and Diabetes

10. Newer Drugs for Type 2 Diabetes: An Emerging Adjunctive Therapy to Insulin for Type 1 Diabetes?

inhibitors, SGLT-2 inhibitors, and SGLT-1/SGLT-2 inhibitors may be considered experimental drugs being tested for adjunctive therapy in T1D adult patients. As such, their place in therapy in the management of T1D still needs to be defined. Background Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disorder that results from defects in insulin secretion, insulin action, or both. 1 There are two major categories of diabetes. Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is characterized by severe impairment or an absolute deficiency of insulin (...) Newer Drugs for Type 2 Diabetes: An Emerging Adjunctive Therapy to Insulin for Type 1 Diabetes? Newer Drugs for Type 2 Diabetes: An Emerging Adjunctive Therapy to Insulin for Type 1 Diabetes? | CADTH.ca CADTH Document Viewer Newer Drugs for Type 2 Diabetes: An Emerging Adjunctive Therapy to Insulin for Type 1 Diabetes? Table of Contents Search this document Newer Drugs for Type 2 Diabetes: An Emerging Adjunctive Therapy to Insulin for Type 1 Diabetes? January 2018 Summary There are two major

2018 CADTH - Issues in Emerging Health Technologies

11. Assessing the risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus among children and adolescents with psychiatric disorders treated with atypical antipsychotics: a population-based nested case-control study. (PubMed)

Assessing the risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus among children and adolescents with psychiatric disorders treated with atypical antipsychotics: a population-based nested case-control study. To examine the associations between atypical antipsychotic (AAP) exposure and the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in Korean pediatric patients with psychiatric disorders, we conducted a nested case-control study using the claims data of the National Health Insurance system of Korea between 2010 (...) % confidence intervals (CIs) are presented. From 1,092,019 patients aged 2-19 years, we identified 20,263 cases with T2DM and 80,043 controls, matched by sex, age, enrollment date, and primary psychiatric diagnosis. After adjusting for comorbidities, psychotropic medication history, and the healthcare institution characteristics, the aOR of having T2DM was significantly higher in multi-AAP users compared with non-users (aOR 1.89; 95% CI 1.63-2.20). Particularly high ORs for T2DM were observed in clozapine

2018 European child & adolescent psychiatry

12. Type 2 diabetes mellitus in children and adolescent: an Indonesian perspective (PubMed)

Type 2 diabetes mellitus in children and adolescent: an Indonesian perspective The prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in children and adolescents has increased globally over the past 2 decades. Metabolic syndrome, including obesity and overweight at a young age, increases the occurrence of T2DM. Studies in Indonesia have found that obese children and adolescents are more likely to have insulin resistance, a risk factor for T2DM. There are no data on the current incidence of T2DM (...) in youth in Indonesia, but there has been a significant rise in the prevalence of overweight in adolescents. The diagnosis of T2DM in youth is similar to that in adults, with special consideration of when to test asymptomatic children. Management of T2DM in Indonesia follows the recommendations of the Indonesian Pediatric Society, which include lifestyle modifications, such as improving dietary habits and exercise, as well as appropriate medications. Metformin is the drug of choice for young T2DM

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2018 Annals of pediatric endocrinology & metabolism

13. Association Between Irisin, Inflammatory Markers and Metabolic Status in Obese Children With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

Association Between Irisin, Inflammatory Markers and Metabolic Status in Obese Children With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Association Between Irisin, Inflammatory Markers and Metabolic Status in Obese Children With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov Hide glossary Glossary Study record managers: refer to the if submitting registration or results information. Search for terms x × Study Record Detail Saved Studies Save this study Warning You have reached the maximum number (...) of saved studies (100). Please remove one or more studies before adding more. Association Between Irisin, Inflammatory Markers and Metabolic Status in Obese Children With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study sponsor and investigators. Listing a study does not mean it has been evaluated by the U.S. Federal Government. Read our for details. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT03767608 Recruitment Status : Completed First Posted

2018 Clinical Trials

14. Maternal Gestational Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 Diabetes, and Type 2 Diabetes During Pregnancy and Risk of ADHD in Offspring. (PubMed)

Maternal Gestational Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 Diabetes, and Type 2 Diabetes During Pregnancy and Risk of ADHD in Offspring. To examine the relative importance of maternal preexisting type 1 diabetes (T1D), preexisting type 2 diabetes (T2D), and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) on risk of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in offspring.This retrospective birth cohort study included 333,182 singletons born in 1995-2012 within Kaiser Permanente Southern California hospitals (...) . Children were prospectively followed through electronic medical records from age 4 years. Relative risks of ADHD associated with diabetes exposures in utero were estimated by hazard ratios (HRs) using Cox regression with adjustment for potential confounders. For GDM, timing of exposure was evaluated by gestational age at diagnosis and severity was assessed by the need for antidiabetes medication treatment during pregnancy.A total of 37,878 (11.4%) children were exposed to diabetes (522 exposed to T1D

2018 Diabetes Care

15. Changes in Retinal Microcirculation Precede the Clinical Onset of Diabetic Retinopathy in Children with Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus. (PubMed)

Changes in Retinal Microcirculation Precede the Clinical Onset of Diabetic Retinopathy in Children with Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus. To investigate whether abnormal glucose metabolism in diabetes mellitus (DM) affects the retinal microcirculation of children with well-controlled type 1 DM and to compare these results with those obtained from healthy children.Cross-sectional prospective study.This study enrolled 60 patients with DM without clinically detectable diabetic retinopathy (DR) and who met (...) and glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels were evaluated among patients with type 1 DM.Differences in the mean values for FAZ perimeter, AI, and FD-300 were statistically significant between DM group and control group (P<0.001, P=0.001 and P=0.009, respectively). There were also statistically significant differences between the groups for vessel densities of deep superior hemi-parafovea, deep temporal parafovea, and deep superior parafoveal zones (P=0.008, P=0.015 and P=0.005, respectively). There were

2019 American Journal of Ophthalmology

16. Change in peripapillary and macular choroidal thickness change in children with type 1 diabetes mellitus without visual impairment or diabetic retinopathy. (PubMed)

Change in peripapillary and macular choroidal thickness change in children with type 1 diabetes mellitus without visual impairment or diabetic retinopathy. To study the characteristics of choroid thickness (CT) of the optic disc and macula in children with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) without visual impairment and diabetic retinopathy (DR) and analyse associated factors.A square area of 6 × 6 mm around the centre of the optic disc and macula was scanned. The indices analysed mainly included (...) CT at the macular centre (1 mm), and temporal, superior, nasal or inferior aspect of the inner ring (1-3 mm) and outer ring of (3-6 mm) optic disc and macula. Independent risk factors were analysed using multifactor linear regression.A total of 44 children with T1DM and 48 healthy subjects were enrolled. The diabetic group showed significant increase in the inferior inner ring of parapapillary CT (100.99 ± 30.42 μm versus 89.41 ± 34.00 μm, p = 0.04) and nasal outer ring of parapapillary CT

2019 Acta ophthalmologica

17. Clinical effect of metformin in children and adolescents with type 2 diabetes mellitus: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Clinical effect of metformin in children and adolescents with type 2 diabetes mellitus: a systematic review and meta-analysis Clinical effect of metformin in children and adolescents with type 2 diabetes mellitus: a systematic review and meta-analysis Clinical effect of metformin in children and adolescents with type 2 diabetes mellitus: a systematic review and meta-analysis Al-Shareef MA, Sanneh AF, Aljoudi AS CRD summary This review concluded that there was limited and unconvincing evidence (...) blinding was required to further assess the efficacy of metformin monotherapy and its impact on adverse events and quality of life in children and adolescents. Funding None. Bibliographic details Al-Shareef MA, Sanneh AF, Aljoudi AS. Clinical effect of metformin in children and adolescents with type 2 diabetes mellitus: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Journal of Family and Community Medicine 2012; 19(2): 68-73 PubMedID DOI Original Paper URL Indexing Status Subject indexing assigned by CRD MeSH

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2012 DARE.

18. A Study to Investigate the Efficacy and Safety of Canagliflozin in Children and Adolescents (>=10 to <18 Years) With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

A Study to Investigate the Efficacy and Safety of Canagliflozin in Children and Adolescents (>=10 to <18 Years) With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus A Study to Investigate the Efficacy and Safety of Canagliflozin in Children and Adolescents (>=10 to <18 Years) With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov Hide glossary Glossary Study record managers: refer to the if submitting registration or results information. Search for terms x × Study Record Detail Saved Studies Save (...) this study Warning You have reached the maximum number of saved studies (100). Please remove one or more studies before adding more. A Study to Investigate the Efficacy and Safety of Canagliflozin in Children and Adolescents (>=10 to <18 Years) With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study sponsor and investigators. Listing a study does not mean it has been evaluated by the U.S. Federal Government. of clinical studies and talk to your

2017 Clinical Trials

19. Statin Use and the Risk of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in Children and Adolescents (PubMed)

Statin Use and the Risk of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in Children and Adolescents There is increasing evidence of an association between statin use and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in adults, yet this relationship has never been studied in children or adolescents and may have important implications for assessing risks and benefits of treatment in this population. We estimated the association between statin use and the risk of T2DM in children with and without a dyslipidemia (...) of 21,243,305 patients met the eligibility criteria, 2085 (0.01%) of whom met the exposure definition and 1046 (50%) of whom had a dyslipidemia diagnosis. Statin use was associated with an increased risk of T2DM in children without dyslipidemia (hazard ratio 1.96, 95% confidence interval 1.20-3.22), but not in children with dyslipidemia (hazard ratio 1.11, 95% confidence interval 0.65-1.90). The results were consistent across variations in the exclusion period and PDC.Statin use was associated

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2017 Academic pediatrics

20. Clinical Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics of Antihyperglycemic Medications in Children and Adolescents with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (PubMed)

Clinical Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics of Antihyperglycemic Medications in Children and Adolescents with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus The incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) among children and adolescents has been rising. This condition is associated with obesity, and it's prevalence is higher among minority or female youth. Lifestyle modification including diet and exercise is only successful in a small proportion of patients; therefore, pharmacotherapy approaches are needed (...) to treat T2DM among youth. Currently, in the USA, only metformin and insulin are approved for the treatment of T2DM in children. However, several antihyperglycemic agents including exenatide, glimepiride, glyburide, liraglutide, pioglitazone, and rosiglitazone are also used off-label in this population. Moreover, a number of clinical trials are ongoing that are aimed at addressing the safety and efficacy of newer antihyperglycemic agents in this population. Little is known about the safety, efficacy

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2017 Clinical pharmacokinetics

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