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Tuberculous Peritonitis

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61. Prostatitis, Tuberculous (Overview)

Prostatitis, Tuberculous (Overview) Tuberculosis of the Genitourinary System: Overview of GUTB, Causative Factors in GUTB, Prevalence of GUTB Edition: No Results No Results Please confirm that you would like to log out of Medscape. If you log out, you will be required to enter your username and password the next time you visit. https://profreg.medscape.com/px/getpracticeprofile.do?method=getProfessionalProfile&urlCache=aHR0cHM6Ly9lbWVkaWNpbmUubWVkc2NhcGUuY29tL2FydGljbGUvNDUwNjUxLW92ZXJ2aWV3 (...) of infection , whereas adults seem to develop tuberculous epididymoorchitis caused by direct spread from the urinary tract. [ ] The formation of a draining sinus is uncommon in developed countries, but epididymal induration and beading of the vas are common. Involvement of the testis is usually due to direct extension. Infertility may result from bilateral vasal obstruction. Nodular beading of the vas is a characteristic physical finding, and orchitis and the resulting testicular swelling can be difficult

2014 eMedicine.com

62. Rapid diagnosis of tuberculous peritonitis by T cell-based assays on peripheral blood and peritoneal fluid mononuclear cells. (Abstract)

Rapid diagnosis of tuberculous peritonitis by T cell-based assays on peripheral blood and peritoneal fluid mononuclear cells. The utility of a newly-developed Mycobacterium tuberculosis-specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent spot (ELISPOT) assay for diagnosis of tuberculous peritonitis (TBP) has not been fully assessed.All patients with suspected TBP in a tertiary care hospital in an intermediate TB burden country were prospectively enrolled over a 30-month period. ELISPOT assays were performed (...) on peripheral mononuclear cells (PBMC) and mononuclear cells from peritoneal fluid (PF-MC).Sixty-four patients with suspected TBP were enrolled. Of these, 30 (47%) were classified as having TBP (27 confirmed and 3 probable cases), and 25 (39%) were classified as not having active tuberculosis. The remaining 9 (14%) with possible TBP were excluded from the final analysis. Five (8%) of the total 64 patients gave indeterminate PBMC ELISPOT results and 7 (18%) of 39 patients who underwent PF-MC ELISPOT assay

2011 Journal of Infection

63. Primary Tuberculous Abscess of the Spleen in an Immununocompetent Patient Diagnosed by Biochemical Markers and Radiologic Findings Full Text available with Trip Pro

deaminase level of ascites was significantly high. No primary focus of infection was detected. The patient was diagnosed as having primary multiple tuberculous splenic abscesses with tuberculous peritonitis causing ascites. Follow up computed tomography, after completion of six month course of anti-tubercular therapy, showed splenic abscess and ascites completely disappeared.Spleen; Abscess; Tuberculosis; Immunocompetent; Adenosine deaminase; Interferon-gamma. (...) Primary Tuberculous Abscess of the Spleen in an Immununocompetent Patient Diagnosed by Biochemical Markers and Radiologic Findings Tuberculous splenic abscess in an immunocompetent patient is extremely rare. We came across a case of middle aged immunocompetent female who presented with abdominal distension, weight loss, and low grade fever. Abdominopelvic computed tomography showed multiple low density lesions in the spleen with ascites. Interferon-gamma release assay was positive and adenosine

2012 Journal of clinical medicine research

64. TUBERCULIN HYPERSENSITIVENESS IN NON-TUBERCULOUS GUINEA PIGS INDUCED BY INJECTIONS OF BACILLUS-FREE FILTRATES Full Text available with Trip Pro

TUBERCULIN HYPERSENSITIVENESS IN NON-TUBERCULOUS GUINEA PIGS INDUCED BY INJECTIONS OF BACILLUS-FREE FILTRATES 1. When a guinea pig with well developed peritoneal tuberculosis is injected intraperitoneally with about 20 cc. of a heavy suspension of a virulent tubercle bacillus (Culture H37) death occurs within 24 hours or the animal becomes extremely toxic. Such a peritoneal tuberculosis develops in about 1 month after 1 cc. of. a very heavy suspension of Culture H37 has been introduced (...) into the abdominal cavity. If the viscid fluid which is contained within the peritoneal cavity is mixed with saline solution and passed through a Berkefeld filter a bacillus-free filtrate is obtained which induces in normal guinea pigs a certain degree of cutaneous hypersensitiveness to tuberculin. 2. The abdominal organs and the parietal peritoneum, to which masses of leucocytes and tubercle bacilli are adherent, when crushed and extracted with saline solution yield a filtrate which likewise induces a cutaneous

1921 The Journal of experimental medicine

65. HEMORRHAGES IN TUBERCULOUS GUINEA PIGS AT THE SITE OF INJECTION OF IRRITANTS FOLLOWING INTRAVASCULAR INJECTIONS OF INJURIOUS SUBSTANCES (SHWARTZMAN PHENOMENON) Full Text available with Trip Pro

HEMORRHAGES IN TUBERCULOUS GUINEA PIGS AT THE SITE OF INJECTION OF IRRITANTS FOLLOWING INTRAVASCULAR INJECTIONS OF INJURIOUS SUBSTANCES (SHWARTZMAN PHENOMENON) 1. When toxic filtrates from cultures of B coli, B. typhosus, or meningococci are injected into the blood stream, peritoneal cavity, or subcutaneous tissue of tuberculous guinea pigs, the skin at the site of a tuberculin reaction becomes hemorrhagic. The extent of the hemorrhage is proportional to the severity of the tuberculin reaction (...) demonstrable by tests with various dilutions of tuberculin. 2. Tuberculin does not prepare the skin of non-tuberculous guinea pigs for this hemorrhagic reaction. 3. Tuberculin does not produce an intense or necrotic inflammation in the skin of tuberculous rabbits and fails to prepare the skin for the hemorrhagic reaction. 4. Tuberculin injected into the peritoneal cavities of tuberculous guinea pigs causes a hemorrhage in the skin at the site of a tuberculin reaction. 5. All guinea pigs infected with B.C.G

1934 The Journal of experimental medicine

66. Comparison between Laparoscopy and Noninvasive Tests for the Diagnosis of Tuberculous Peritonitis. (Abstract)

Comparison between Laparoscopy and Noninvasive Tests for the Diagnosis of Tuberculous Peritonitis. Despite recent progress, the fast and accurate diagnosis of tuberculous peritonitis (TBP) continues to be a challenge, mainly because of the lack of specific clinical features and the difficulty in isolating the M. tuberculosis. The present study aimed to investigate the role of laparoscopy in the diagnosis of TBP, compared to noninvasive tests.We retrospectively studied 60 patients who had

2011 World Journal of Surgery

67. Mycobacterial peritonitis: difference between non-tuberculous mycobacteria and Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Mycobacterial peritonitis: difference between non-tuberculous mycobacteria and Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Unlike tuberculous peritonitis, peritonitis due to non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) has unclear clinical manifestations. This study aimed to clarify the clinical manifestations and laboratory results of NTM peritonitis and compare it to tuberculous peritonitis. This retrospective study was conducted from 2000 to 2008 in a medical centre in Taiwan. Patients with mycobacteria isolated from (...) ascites were identified and compared according to causative pathogens (Mycobacterium tuberculosis or NTM). Those with NTM peritonitis were further classified into the 'probable' and 'possible' groups based on diagnostic evidence. Twenty-five patients with NTM peritonitis and 65 with tuberculous peritonitis were reviewed. Mycobacterium avium complex was the most common NTM pathogen (52%). There was no obvious difference between the 'probable' and 'possible' NTM peritonitis groups regarding age

2011 Clinical Microbiology and Infection

68. The use of adenosine deaminase measurements and QuantiFERON in the rapid diagnosis of tuberculous peritonitis. Full Text available with Trip Pro

The use of adenosine deaminase measurements and QuantiFERON in the rapid diagnosis of tuberculous peritonitis. Peritoneal tuberculosis (TB) is a considerable problem in certain developing nations. Current diagnostic tests for peritoneal TB are difficult and time-consuming. This study aimed to determine the effectiveness of an adenosine deaminase (ADA) assay and the QuantiFERON-Gold (QFT-G) assay in the rapid diagnosis of TB peritonitis. Forty-one patients with a presumptive diagnosis of TB (...) peritonitis with ascites were admitted to Mansoura University Hospital and included in the study. Ascitic fluid and blood samples were collected from each patient. Fluid samples were examined biochemically (protein concentration), cytologically (white blood cell count) and microbiologically (Ziehl-Neelsen stain and TB culture in Löwenstein-Jensen media), and ADA levels were determined using colorimetry. Interferon-γ levels in whole-blood samples were measured using the QFT-G assay. Fourteen (34

2011 Journal of Medical Microbiology

69. Peritoneal Tuberculosis in a Pregnant Woman from Haiti, United States Full Text available with Trip Pro

ethnology Humans Infant, Newborn Live Birth Male Omentum microbiology surgery Peritonitis, Tuberculous diagnostic imaging microbiology therapy Pregnancy Pregnancy Complications, Infectious diagnostic imaging microbiology therapy Premature Birth microbiology Treatment Outcome Ultrasonography United States 2013 6 12 6 0 2013 6 12 6 0 2013 10 22 6 0 ppublish 23750361 PMC3647663 Clin Infect Dis. 2002 Aug 15;35(4):409-13 12145724 Br Med J. 1972 Jul 15;3(5819):153 4625112 Br J Obstet Gynaecol. 1986 Sep;93(9 (...) Peritoneal Tuberculosis in a Pregnant Woman from Haiti, United States 23750361 2013 10 21 2018 11 13 1080-6059 19 3 2013 Mar Emerging infectious diseases Emerging Infect. Dis. Peritoneal tuberculosis in a pregnant woman from Haiti, United States. 514-6 Ard Kevin L KL Chan Brian T BT Milner Danny A DA Jr Farmer Paul E PE Koenig Serena P SP eng Case Reports Letter United States Emerg Infect Dis 9508155 1080-6040 0 Antitubercular Agents IM Antitubercular Agents therapeutic use Female Haiti

2013 Emerging Infectious Diseases

70. Percutaneous peritoneal biopsy. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Percutaneous peritoneal biopsy. 890347 1977 10 28 2018 11 13 0007-1447 2 6084 1977 Aug 13 British medical journal Br Med J Percutaneous peritoneal biopsy. 457 Jenkins P P Burden R R Elston C R CR eng Letter England Br Med J 0372673 0007-1447 AIM IM Ascitic Fluid analysis Biopsy, Needle methods Female Humans Peritonitis, Tuberculous diagnosis 1977 8 13 1977 8 13 0 1 1977 8 13 0 0 ppublish 890347 PMC1631179 Arch Intern Med. 1967 Nov;120(5):542-5 6054587

1977 British medical journal

71. Latent TB infection (LTBI): testing and treatment

AE04. 187251001 [X]Sequelae/resp+unspecifd TB AyuJ4 AyuJ4% 187252008 Meningitis - tuberculous F004. F004.% 58437007 Encephalitis-tuberculous F0333 F0333 91483004 Intracranial abscess-tuberculous F0406 F0406% 192745001 Intraspinal abscess-tuberculous F0413 F0413 416903004 Keratitis due to tuberculous F4A55 F4A55 193787009 Acute pericarditis- tuberculous G5003 G5003 194908003 Acute myocarditis - tuberculous G5206 G5206 194949003 Pneumoconiosis associated/TB H450. H450. 196017002 Peritonitis (...) - tuberculous J5502 A140. 44572005 Cardituberculous cirrhosis J615E J615E [X]TB disordr/intestn+mesentry Jyu93 Jyu93 Cystitis + tuberculosis K1548 K1548 32268008 Prostatitis + tuberculosis K2143 K2143 20372007 Female tuberculosis pelvic inflammatory disease K43.. K43.. 198241002 Pregnancy + tuberculosis L173.% L173.% 267317007 Previous latent TB EMISWeb S1 (Ctv3) SNOMED CT Latent tuberculosis 65Y9. XSCGJ 11999007 LTBI Test results EMISWeb S1 (Ctv3) SNOMED CT IGRA Positive 43bL. XaP9w 440662009 IGRA Negative

2019 Public Health England

72. Handbook on tuberculosis laboratory diagnostic methods in the European Union

steps 104 10.1 Introduction 104 10.2 General considerations regarding the diagnosis of tuberculosis 104 10.3 Specific considerations regarding diagnosis of tuberculosis 105 10.3.1 Pulmonary material 105 10.3.2 Pleural material 106 10.3.3 Lymphadenitis material 106 10.3.4 Gastric juice 106 10.3.5 Peritoneal fluid 106 10.4 Information flow from microbiologist to physician and instructions regarding tuberculosis diagnosis 106 References 107 Annex 1. Network partners 109 Figures Figure 1. Biohazard (...) Microscopically observed drug susceptibility MTBC Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex NAAT Nucleic-acid amplification test NRA Nitrate reductase assay NRL National reference laboratory NTM Non-tuberculous mycobacteria PBMC Peripheral blood mononuclear cells PCR Polymerase chain reaction PPD Purified protein derivative PPE Personal protective equipment PPV Positive predictive value QA Quality assurance QC Quality control RFLP Restriction fragment length polymorphism RNI Reactive nitrogen intermediates SDS

2018 European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control - Technical Guidance

75. BHIVA guidelines for the management of tuberculosis in adults living with HIV

inflammatory syndrome after antiretroviral therapy initiation in patients with tuberculosis: findings from the SAPiT trial. Ann Intern Med 2012; 157: 313–324. 11. Török ME, Yen NT, Chau TT et al. Timing of initiation of antiretroviral therapy in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)--associated tuberculous meningitis. Clin Infect Dis 2011; 52: 1374–1383. 12. Boulle A, Van Cutsem G, Cohen K et al. Outcomes of nevirapine- and efavirenz-based antiretroviral therapy when coadministered with rifampicin-based

2018 British HIV Association

76. Chapter 135 – Tuberculosis

to outside environment (unless HEPA filter prior to recirculation to hospital environment) Minimize number of health care workers and visitors entering the room Cough-inducing and aerosol-generating procedures Cough-inducing procedures include Endotracheal intubation and suction Diagnostic sputum induction Aerosol treatments (for example, pentamidine therapy) Bronchoscopy Procedures that may generate infectious aerosols include Irrigation of tuberculous abscesses Laboratory techniques (...) Gold test result. Imaging CXR Patchy/nodular shadowing in upper zones, cavitation, calcification, hilar or mediastinal lymphadenopathy, Diffuse miliary shadowing May be normal in extra-pulmonary TB Chest radiographic manifestations of primary disease in adults often are not recognized as TB. Primary tuberculous infiltrates can occur in any lobe. In any age group, a pneumonic infiltrate with enlarged hilar or mediastinal nodes should strongly suggest the diagnosis. The infiltrate usually

2017 CandiEM

77. CRACKCast E104 – Delirium and Dementia

Sedative / hypnotics Digoxin / lithium / quinidine / salicylate / antiepileptics Over the counter (anticholinergics), TCA, MANY others Infection Meningitis, encephalitis, sinusitis, otitis media Pneumonia Peritonitis, pyelonephritis, cholecystitis, etc. Cellulitis Metabolic hypo/hypernatremia Hyperosmolarity Hypercapnia Hypoxia Hyperglycemia Uremia Liver failure Environmental Hypothermia (usually < 35 deg. C) Hyperthermia (usually > 42 deg. C) Structural CVA, TBI, SAH, status epilepticus [4] Describe (...) medications Anticonvulsants Anticholinergics L-dopa Heavy metal poisoning Carbon monoxide / carbon disulfide Trichlorethylene ETOH abuse Endocrinopathies / Metabolic abnormalities Hypothyroidism Parathyroid disease Addison’s disease Cushing’s disease Panhypopituitarism Thiamine deficiency Niacin deficiency Vitamin B12 def. Folate def. Intracranial processes Tumours Hydrocephalus Chronic head trauma HIV Tuberculous or fungal meningitis Toxoplasmosis, cryptococcus, CMV, herpes virus, VZV Depression [11

2017 CandiEM

78. Diagnosis of Tuberculosis in Adults and Children: Official ATS/IDSA/CDC Clinical Practice Guidelines

studies estimated that the sensitivity and specificity of an elevated ADA level in pericardial fluid are 88% and 83%, respectively [203]. The threshold to define an ele- vated ADA level was 40 U/L. Finally, a meta-analysis of 4 studies estimated that the sensitivity and specificity of an elevated ADA level in peritoneal fluid are 100% and 97%, respectively [204]. The threshold used to define an elevated ADA level ranged from 36 U/L to 40 U/L. The test characteristics of free IFN-? levels have not been (...) as extensively studied. A meta-analysis of 6 studies estimated that the sensitivity and specificity of an elevated free IFN-? level in peritoneal fluid are 93% and 99%, respectively [205]. The threshold used to define an elevated IFN-? level ranged from 0.35 U/L to 9 U/L or 20 pg/mL to 112 pg/mL. A meta-analy- sis of 22 studies estimated that the sensitivity and specificity of an elevated free IFN-? level in pleural fluid are 89% and 97%, respectively [206]. The threshold used to define an elevated IFN

2017 American Thoracic Society

79. Scrotal pain and swelling

, insensitive mass indistinguishable from a tumour). Filariasis. Henoch–Schönlein purpura. Kawasaki disease. Allergic contact dermatitis. Pancreatitis (owing to fluid tracking down the retroperitoneal compartment into the inguinal canal and scrotal sac). Complications of peritoneal dialysis and ventriculo-peritoneal shunts. Crohn's disease manifestations: erythema nodosum and pyoderma gangrenosum. Sarcoidosis. Metastases (mainly from penile lesions). Hidradenitis suppurativa. Congenital abnormalities (...) closes segmentally, trapping fluid anywhere along the spermatic cord. A communicating hydrocele occurs when persistence of the processus vaginalis allows peritoneal fluid to freely communicate with the scrotal portion of the processus. Communicating hydroceles are, by definition, congenital, but may manifest for the first time in older boys and men, when they may be precipitated by increased intra-abdominal pressure, continuous peritoneal ambulatory dialysis, or fluid overload. It affects 1–3

2019 NICE Clinical Knowledge Summaries

80. Mycobacterial PD peritonitis

that pathogens other than bacteria may be lurking around. A predominant lymphocytosis in the PD fluid should raise the suspicion of mycobacterial organisms. Also, the presence of prolonged symptoms despite treatment of bacterial pathogens, or relapsing peritonitis with negative bacterial cultures , should ring alarms bells and start the search for alternative organisms. A recent of tuberculous peritonitis associated with peritoneal dialysis, reported that 89% presented with abdominal pain, 81% with fever (...) be given with isoniazid to reduce the risk of peripheral neuropathy. There is no strong consensus on whether the PD catheter needs to be removed in the case of tuberculous peritonitis – if the patient looks sick, the safer thing to do is remove it, particularly if it is an atypical mycobacterium. In one of ten patients, 6 were still on PD nine months after their infection. TB needs to be kept in the differential for our patients, especially those who are immunosuppressed, come from endemic areas or may

2011 Renal Fellow Network

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