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Tuberculous Peritonitis

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CELLULAR REACTIONS TO POLYSACCHARIDES FROM TUBERCLE BACILLI AND FROM PNEUMOCOCCI 1. Purified tuberculo-polysaccharides are relatively innocuous both to normal and to tuberculous guinea pigs. 2. Both tuberculo-polysaccharides and polysaccharides from pneumococci call larger numbers of leucocytes from the blood vessels than do saline and dextrose and trehalose. 3. The mechanisms controlling the delivery of lymphocytes and neutrophils into the blood stream are different. 4. Slight irritation (...) of the peritoneal lining slows the delivery of lymphocytes to the blood stream. 5. There are two phases in the reaction of the bone marrow to intraperitoneal injections. Correlated with the draining of neutrophils from vessels to tissues, owing to the presence of foreign materials in the latter, there is a draining of young neutrophils from the marrow into the sinuses of the marrow as these same materials reach the sinuses. The subsequent disintegration of the neutrophils extravasated into the tissues

1938 The Journal of experimental medicine

182. INTESTINAL TUBERCULOSIS Full Text available with Trip Pro

INTESTINAL TUBERCULOSIS 20271137 2010 03 18 2018 12 01 0008-4409 57 6 1947 Dec Canadian Medical Association journal Can Med Assoc J Intestinal tuberculosis. 561-6 SCHAFFNER V D VD eng Journal Article Canada Can Med Assoc J 0414110 0008-4409 OM Intestines Peritonitis, Tuberculous Tuberculosis Tuberculosis, Gastrointestinal Tuberculosis, Lymph Node 4713:1525g1 INTESTINE/tuberculosis TUBERCULOSIS/intestinal 2010 3 19 6 0 1947 12 1 0 0 1947 12 1 0 1 ppublish 20271137 PMC1590700

1947 Canadian Medical Association Journal

183. Unusual presentation of tuberculosis. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Ethambutol therapeutic use Humans Isoniazid therapeutic use Latex Fixation Tests Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic blood diagnosis Male Middle Aged Peritonitis, Tuberculous blood diagnosis drug therapy immunology 1974 4 13 1974 4 13 0 1 1974 4 13 0 0 ppublish 4545144 PMC1610707 Q J Med. 1955 Oct;24(96):351-64 13290022 Arch Intern Med. 1970 Apr;125(4):691-5 5437894 Br Med J. 1969 May 3;2(5652):273-6 5780453 Br Med J. 1954 Jul 10;2(4879):76-9 13172476 J Oslo City Hosp. 1972 Jan;22(1):5-15 4501381 Ann Intern

1974 British medical journal

184. Partial characterization of a factor extracted from sensitized lymphocytes that inhibits the growth of Mycobacterium tuberculosis within macrophages in vitro. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Partial characterization of a factor extracted from sensitized lymphocytes that inhibits the growth of Mycobacterium tuberculosis within macrophages in vitro. Spleen lymphocytes of BCG-immunized mice contain a soluble factor that inhibits in vitro the growth of the H37Rv strain of Mycobacterium tuberculosis within normal peritoneal macrophages. The water-soluble extracts of sensitized lymphocytes, disrupted by freezing and thawing, although less active than the corresponding viable cells (...) lymphocytes did not affect BCG grown in vitro, and on repeated treatments of tuberculous mice they led to a negligible protection against pulmonary tuberculosis. Preliminary observations seem to indicate that other soluble factors in lymphocytes of BCG-sensitized mice have the capacity to potentiate in vitro the phagocytic activity of normal macrophages.

1976 Infection and immunity

185. Relationship Between Tuberculin Hypersensitivity and Cellular Immunity to Infection in Mice Vaccinated with Viable Attenuated Mycobacterial Cells or with Mycobacterial Ribonucleic Acid Preparations Full Text available with Trip Pro

Relationship Between Tuberculin Hypersensitivity and Cellular Immunity to Infection in Mice Vaccinated with Viable Attenuated Mycobacterial Cells or with Mycobacterial Ribonucleic Acid Preparations The migration inhibition technique has been used to study delayed hypersensitivity in vitro by using peritoneal exudate cells and splenic lymphocytes from mice vaccinated with viable cells of the attenuated H37Ra strain of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and from mice vaccinated with ribonucleic acid (myc (...) RNA) preparations obtained from viable mycobacterial cells of the same strain. Inhibition of macrophage migration was noted when purified protein derivative (PPD) or viable H37Ra cells were added to peritoneal exudate cells obtained from mice immunized with viable H37Ra cells and not from mice immunized with myc RNA. Splenic lymphocyte cultures were exposed to the same antigens in vitro. Filtered supernatant fluids from these lymphocyte cultures, when added to peritoneal exudate cells obtained

1973 Infection and immunity

186. Laparoscopy and hysterosalpingography as tests of tubal patency. Full Text available with Trip Pro

that laparoscopy offers a better assessment than hysterosalpingography of tubal pathology, especially in the ampullary region and when there are no peritoneal adhesions. Also pocketing of the dye seen by hysterosalpingography in cases of tuboovarian masses can be confirmed by laparoscopy. But I do not think that laparoscopy could replace hysterosalpingography in cases of cornual block when a small portion of the cornual part of the tube is patent and reimplantation or recanalization could be done. Also (...) laparoscopy is not capable of visualizing diverticulosis of the tubes seen in chronic infection of tuberculosis. Again, in come cases of bilharzial or tuberculous granulomas in which only a samll portion of the tube is involved in the lesion causing obstruction and the rest of the tube is functional, hysterosalpingography is useful in visualizing the site of obstruction. We are planning a report on tubal disease as evidenced by hysterosalpingography and laparoscopy in the near future. Meanwhile we

1977 British medical journal

187. Miliary Crohn's disease. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Miliary Crohn's disease. 6019991 1967 05 02 2018 11 13 0017-5749 8 1 1967 Feb Gut Gut Miliary Crohn's disease. 4-7 Heaton K W KW McCarthy C F CF Horton R E RE Cornes J S JS Read A E AE eng Journal Article England Gut 2985108R 0017-5749 AIM IM Adolescent Crohn Disease diagnosis pathology surgery Diagnosis, Differential Female Humans Male Middle Aged Peritonitis, Tuberculous diagnosis Tuberculosis, Miliary diagnosis 1967 2 1 1967 2 1 0 1 1967 2 1 0 0 ppublish 6019991 PMC1552444 Gut. 1964 Dec;5

1967 Gut

188. Tuberculosis as a Surgical Disease of the Abdomen Full Text available with Trip Pro

Tuberculosis as a Surgical Disease of the Abdomen 14236599 1996 12 01 2018 12 01 0003-4932 160 1964 Nov Annals of surgery Ann. Surg. TUBERCULOSIS AS A SURGICAL DISEASE OF THE ABDOMEN. 806-13 FAULKNER R L RL Jr eng Journal Article United States Ann Surg 0372354 0003-4932 OM Abdomen Abdominal Neoplasms Diagnosis, Differential Humans Peritoneum Peritonitis, Tuberculous Surgical Procedures, Operative Tuberculosis ABDOMINAL NEOPLASMS DIAGNOSIS, DIFFERENTIAL SURGERY, OPERATIVE TUBERCULOSIS (...) , PERITONEAL 1964 11 1 1964 11 1 0 1 1964 11 1 0 0 ppublish 14236599 PMC1408823 Bull Fed Soc Gynecol Obstet Lang Fr. 1956 Aug-Sep;8(4):498-9 13396403 Ann Intern Med. 1961 Jun;54:1125-33 13790373 Radiology. 1954 Feb;62(2):251-4 13134512 Dis Chest. 1952 Jul;22(1):101-6 14936856 Dis Colon Rectum. 1961 Nov-Dec;4:439-41 14490882 Am J Med. 1960 Apr;28:510-23 13805947 Am J Med Sci. 1954 Mar;227(3):241-9 13138589 J Am Med Assoc. 1959 Mar 21;169(12):1306-15 13630756

1964 Annals of Surgery

189. Vascular Disorders of the Liver

ulcer Cholecystitis Tuberculous lymphadenitis Crohn’s disease, Ulcerative colitis Cytomegalovirus hepatitis Injury to the portal venous system Splenectomy Colectomy, Gastrectomy Cholecystectomy Liver transplantation Abdominal trauma Surgical portosystemic shunting, TIPS, Liver transplantation Cirrhosis Preserved liver function with precipitating factors (splenectomy, surgical portosystemic shunting, TIPS dysfunction, thrombophilia) Advanced disease in the absence of obvious precipitating factors (...) or progressing over a few days. 7,33,34 The abdomen might be moderately distended by ileus, but without any other features of intestinal obstruction. There is no guard- ing, except when an in?ammatory focus is the cause for PVT or when PVT is complicated with intestinal infarc- tion. The contrast between severity of pain and the ab- sence of peritoneal signs has long been regarded as suggestive of mesenteric venous thrombosis in the differ- ential diagnosis of peritonitis. 33,35 Partial thrombosis might

2009 American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases


INTRAPERITONEAL LYSIS OF TUBERCLE BACILLI 1. Tubercle bacilli injected into the peritoneal cavities of tuberculous guinea pigs, rats, rabbits, dogs, and monkeys, rapidly disappear from the peritoneal fluids, while persisting in the peritoneal fluids of normal control animals. 2. This disappearance is in part due to an adhesion of the injected bacilli to the peritoneal leucocytes and a fixation of the leucocytes on the omentum. 3. The injected tubercle bacilli can be recovered quantitatively (...) from the peritoneal cavities of normal guinea pigs from one and one half to two hours after the injection, while from tuberculous guinea pigs only 65 per cent. of the bacilli can be recovered at this time. 4. Isolated peritoneal tissues from tuberculous guinea pigs have the power of destroying tubercle bacilli in vitro. 5. A second factor reducing the number of tubercle bacilli free in the peritoneal fluid is therefore an actual lysis of the bacilli. 6. The intraperitoneal lysis is not due solely

1913 The Journal of experimental medicine

191. Extrapulmonary Tuberculosis

molecular-based diagnostic tests. Treatment is with multiple antimicrobial drugs given for at least 6 mo. Miliary TB Also known as generalized hematogenous TB, miliary TB occurs when a tuberculous lesion erodes into a blood vessel, disseminating millions of tubercle bacilli into the bloodstream and throughout the body. Uncontrolled massive dissemination can occur during primary infection or after reactivation of a latent focus. The lungs and bone marrow are most often affected, but any site may (...) , unremitting headache, nausea, and drowsiness, which may progress to stupor and coma. Kernig and Brudzinski signs may be positive. Stages are 1: Clear sensorium with abnormal CSF 2: Drowsiness or stupor with focal neurologic signs 3: Coma Stroke may result from thrombosis of a major cerebral vessel. Focal neurologic symptoms suggest a tuberculoma. TB peritonitis Peritoneal infection represents seeding from abdominal lymph nodes or from salpingo-oophoritis. Peritonitis is particularly common among

2013 Merck Manual (19th Edition)

192. Moxifloxacin

as about 2% and 4.5% of its glucuronide metabolite are removed by continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis and hemodialysis, respectively." (Quoting from the 29 December 2008 package insert for Avelox) Mechanism of action [ ] Moxifloxacin is a that is active against both and bacteria. It functions by inhibiting , a type II , and topoisomerase IV, enzymes necessary to separate bacterial DNA, thereby inhibiting cell replication. Pharmacokinetics [ ] About 52% of an oral or intravenous dose (...) of moxifloxacin in cerebrospinal fluid and plasma in patients with tuberculous meningitis". Clinical Infectious Diseases . 49 (7): 1080–2. : . . Peterson, U. (2006). "Quinolone Antibiotics: The Development of Moxifloxacin". In ; Fischer, J.; Ganellin, C. R. . . pp. 338–342. . ^ . 3 October 2006. Archived from on 21 February 2013 . Retrieved 17 July 2009 . Ed Lamb (1 May 2008). . Pharmacy Times . Retrieved 21 July 2009 . . Reuters. 24 July 2008 . Retrieved 21 July 2009 . . Infection Control

2012 Wikipedia

193. Tuberculosis treatment

of increasing rates of INH resistance. Tuberculosis and other conditions [ ] Liver disease [ ] People with alcoholic liver disease are at an increased risk of tuberculosis. The incidence of tuberculous peritonitis is particularly high in patients with cirrhosis of the liver. There are broadly two categories of treatment: A. Cirrhotic patients with essentially normal baseline liver function tests( Childs A Cirrhosis) Such patients may be treated with standard 4 drug re-gime for 2 months followed by 2 drugs (...) -letter 1-letter EMB E INH H PZA Z RMP R STM S Second line tuberculosis drugs CIP (none) MXF (none) PAS P First line [ ] All first-line anti-tuberculous drug names have semistandardized three-letter and single-letter abbreviations: is EMB or E, is INH or H, is PZA or Z, is RMP or R, is SM or S. First-line anti-tuberculous drug names are often remembered with the mnemonic "RIPE," referring to the use of a rifamycin (like ), isoniazid, pyrazinamide, and ethambutol. US practice uses abbreviations

2012 Wikipedia

194. Tuberculosis diagnosis

of . The and peritoneal surfaces are thickened (arrows). In active pulmonary TB, infiltrates or consolidations and/or cavities are often seen in the upper with or without mediastinal or hilar lymphadenopathy or pleural effusions ( tuberculous pleurisy). However, lesions may appear anywhere in the lungs. In disseminated TB a pattern of many tiny nodules throughout the lung fields is common - the so-called miliary TB. In HIV and other persons, any abnormality may indicate TB or the chest X-ray may even appear entirely (...) (MTBC) and resistance to (RIF) in less than 2 hours. In comparison, standard cultures can take 2 to 6 weeks for MTBC to grow and conventional can add 3 more weeks." Full blood count [ ] Although a is never diagnostic, and are common. is rarely found [iron deficiency anemia may develop with isoniazid treatment]. and are usually normal, although and are possible in tuberculous meningoencephalitis due to . In advanced disease, , , and may be present. is usually raised. Interferon-γ release assays

2012 Wikipedia

195. Duodenal perforation in a 14-year-old boy with abdominal tuberculosis despite being on antituberculous treatment Full Text available with Trip Pro

Duodenal perforation in a 14-year-old boy with abdominal tuberculosis despite being on antituberculous treatment We are presenting a case of a 14-year-old male patient with known history of abdominal tuberculosis on medication for 4 months with frank peritonitis and air under the diaphragm found to have primary perforation of the duodenum due to tuberculosis. Tuberculosis is common in the third world but affects iliocaecal junction commonly. Cases with tuberculous duodenal are rarely reported

2010 The Indian journal of surgery

196. Treatment Duration for Abdominal Tuberculosis

Update Posted: July 3, 2015 Last Verified: July 2015 Keywords provided by Govind K Makharia, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi: Intestinal tuberculosis Tuberculous peritonitis Abdominal tuberculosis Additional relevant MeSH terms: Layout table for MeSH terms Tuberculosis Tuberculosis, Gastrointestinal Mycobacterium Infections Actinomycetales Infections Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections Bacterial Infections Gastrointestinal Diseases Digestive System Diseases (...) and extension of RNTCP Cat I for three months in a subset of patients with definite clinical response after 6 months of DOTs Secondary objective 1. To study the effect of anti-tubercular drugs on the natural history of intestinal stricture due to tuberculosis Outcomes Outcome measures: Primary: Response to treatment (6 months and nine months of RNTCP Cat I treatment) as defined earlier Recurrence of symptoms of abdominal tuberculosis (intestinal and peritoneal) after 1 year of follow up in those who receive

2010 Clinical Trials

197. Hepatocellular Carcinoma

carcinoma, or superficial bladder tumors (Ta, Tis &T1). Any cancer curatively treated > 3 years prior to entry is permitted. Renal failure requiring hemo- or peritoneal dialysis. History of cardiac disease: Congestive heart failure > New York Heart Association (NYHA) class 2 Active coronary artery disease (myocardial infarction more than 6 months prior to study entry is permitted) Cardiac arrhythmias requiring anti-arrhythmic therapy other than β-blockers or digoxin) Uncontrolled hypertension, defined (...) enrolled in this trial must use adequate barrier birth control measures during the course of the trial. Uncontrolled ascites (defined as not easily controlled with diuretic treatment) Patients with viral diseases (eg, varicella, herpes zoster); tuberculous or syphilitic processes in the areas to be treated; and hypersensitivity to the active substances or to any of the excipients will not be included into the HFSR study subgroup. Contacts and Locations Go to Information from the National Library

2010 Clinical Trials

198. Diagnostic performance of an enzyme-linked immunospot assay for interferon-gamma in extrapulmonary tuberculosis varies between different sites of disease. (Abstract)

100% for tuberculous meningitis, tuberculous pericarditis, and intestinal TB, 95% for lymphadenitis, to 42.9% for tuberculous peritonitis. The sensitivity of the T SPOT-TB assay was 70.6% in immunocompromised patients and 85.5% in immunocompetent patients (p = 0.09).The T SPOT-TB assay can be a useful tool for diagnosing extra-pulmonary TB in immunocompetent and immunocompromised patients, particularly for tuberculous meningitis, pericarditis, lymphadenitis, and intestinal TB.

2009 Journal of Infection

199. The utility of evaluating low serum albumin gradient ascites in patients with cirrhosis. (Abstract)

The utility of evaluating low serum albumin gradient ascites in patients with cirrhosis. Serum-ascites albumin gradient (SAAG) has been used extensively in the diagnostic workup of patients with ascites. A SAAG level of <1.1 g/dl is usually thought of as a result of nonportal hypertension etiologies, including malignancies, tuberculous peritonitis, and nephrotic syndrome. However, the predictive value of a low SAAG in patients with existing cirrhosis in whom the pretest probability of portal (...) hypertension is high is not clear.We identified all patients with a SAAG of <1.1 g/dl during a 5-year period at a single large veterans affairs medical center. Cirrhosis was defined by clinical, histological, and radiological features. Nonportal hypertension causes of low SAAG were identified, including bacterial peritonitis, peritoneal carcinomatosis, nephrogenous ascites, tuberculous peritonitis, chylous ascites, and pancreatic ascites.We identified 92 patients (76 with cirrhosis and 16 with no cirrhosis

2009 American Journal of Gastroenterology

200. Canadian Society of Transplantation consensus guidelines on eligibility for kidney transplantation Full Text available with Trip Pro

function (Grade A). Peritonitis, tunnel infections and vascular access-related infections in patients on peritoneal or hemodialysis should be fully treated before transplantation. There are no data to recommend an optimum infection-free interval before transplantation, but documentation of the eradication of infection after completion of antibiotic therapy is appropriate (Grade C). Transplant candidates should be screened for exposure to mycobacteria with a careful clinical history, chest radiography

2005 CPG Infobase

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