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Tuberculosis Risk Factors

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1. Prevalence of tuberculosis, multidrug resistant tuberculosis and associated risk factors among smear negative presumptive pulmonary tuberculosis patients in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Prevalence of tuberculosis, multidrug resistant tuberculosis and associated risk factors among smear negative presumptive pulmonary tuberculosis patients in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. The diagnoses of active smear negative PTB, remains difficult. As a result, treatment is often carried out empirically relaying on clinical criteria. The distribution and magnitude of smear negative PTB, smear negative MDR-TB and associated factors in the same day diagnosis strategy are not clearly known in the study (...) area. Therefore, this study aimed to determine the prevalence of TB, MDR-TB and associated risk factors among presumptive smear negative pulmonary tuberculosis patients in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.Analytic cross sectional study design was used. A total of 418 smear negative presumptive pulmonary TB patients were enrolled from selected health facilities since August 01, 2017 to January 5, 2018. Sputum samples were examined by Ziehl Neelsen microscopy, Xpert MTB/RIF assay and Culture. Drug

2019 BMC Infectious Diseases

2. Drug-resistance patterns of Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains and associated risk factors among multi drug-resistant tuberculosis suspected patients from Ethiopia. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Drug-resistance patterns of Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains and associated risk factors among multi drug-resistant tuberculosis suspected patients from Ethiopia. Multidrug drug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) is a major health problem and seriously threatens TB control and prevention efforts globally. Ethiopia is among the 30th highest TB burden countries for MDR-TB with 14% prevalence among previously treated cases. The focus of this study was on determining drug resistance patterns (...) of Mycobacterium tuberculosis among MDR-TB suspected cases and associated risk factors.A cross-sectional study was conducted in Addis Ababa from June 2015 to December 2016. Sputum samples and socio-demographic data were collected from 358 MDR-TB suspected cases. Samples were analyzed using Ziehl-Neelsen technique, GeneXpert MTB/RIF assay, and culture using Lowenstein-Jensen and Mycobacterial growth indicator tube. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 23.A total of 226 the study participants were culture

2018 PLoS ONE

3. Risk Factors for Tuberculosis and Effect of Preventive Therapy Among Close Contacts of Persons with Infectious Tuberculosis. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Risk Factors for Tuberculosis and Effect of Preventive Therapy Among Close Contacts of Persons with Infectious Tuberculosis. Close contacts of persons with pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) have high rates of TB disease.We prospectively enrolled adult TB patients and their close contacts at nine United States and Canadian sites. TB patients and contacts were interviewed to identify potential index patient, contact, and exposure risk factors for TB. Contacts were evaluated for latent TB infection (...) (LTBI) and TB, and the effectiveness of LTBI treatment for preventing contact TB was examined.Among 4490 close contacts, multivariable risk factors for TB were age < 5 years, US/Canadian birth, human immunodeficiency virus infection, skin test induration > 10 mm, shared bedroom with an index patient, exposure to more than one index patient, and index patient weight loss (P<.05 for each). Of 1406 skin test-positive contacts, TB developed in 49 (9.8%) of 446 who did not initiate treatment, 8 (1.8

2019 Clinical Infectious Diseases

4. A combination of quantitative and qualitative methods in investigating risk factors for lost to follow-up for tuberculosis treatment in Japan - Are physicians and nurses at a particular risk? Full Text available with Trip Pro

A combination of quantitative and qualitative methods in investigating risk factors for lost to follow-up for tuberculosis treatment in Japan - Are physicians and nurses at a particular risk? The treatment success rate of pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) patients aged 64 years and below in Japan, a tuberculosis (TB) middle-burden country with a notification of 13.9 per 100,000 populations in 2016, has been fluctuating around 70% for some years. In order to improve treatment outcome, it is critical (...) to address those lost to follow-up (LTFU). The objective of the study therefore was to describe the characteristics of, and analyze the risk factors for those LTFU among pulmonary TB patients aged between 15 and 64, and discuss policy implications.The study used a mixed method of quantitative and qualitative approach, and was conducted in two phases. The first involved analysis of cohort data from the national TB surveillance of PTB patients newly notified between 1 January 2006 and 31 December 2015

2018 PLoS ONE

5. The problem with defining foreign birth as a risk factor in tuberculosis epidemiology studies. Full Text available with Trip Pro

The problem with defining foreign birth as a risk factor in tuberculosis epidemiology studies. To examine how stratifying persons born outside Canada according to tuberculosis (TB) incidence in their birth country and other demographic factors refines our understanding of TB epidemiology and local TB transmission.Population-level TB surveillance programs and research studies in low incidence settings often report all persons born outside the country in which the study is conducted as "foreign (...) -born"-a single label for a highly diverse population with variable TB risks. This may mask important TB epidemiologic trends and not accurately reflect local transmission patterns.We used population-level data from two large cohorts in British Columbia (BC), Canada: an immigration cohort (n = 337,492 permanent residents to BC) and a genotyping cohort (n = 2290 culture-confirmed active TB cases). We stratified active TB case counts, incidence rates, and genotypic clustering (an indicator of TB

2019 PLoS ONE

6. Demographic risk factors for extra-pulmonary tuberculosis among adolescents and adults in Saudi Arabia. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Demographic risk factors for extra-pulmonary tuberculosis among adolescents and adults in Saudi Arabia. Despite low infectious potential of extrapulmonary tuberculosis (EPTB), it poses significant clinical challenges in terms of diagnosis and treatment monitoring. Understanding the main demographical risk factors for disease characteristics of EPTB plays a crucial role in speeding up diagnosis process and improving overall clinical experience. The aim of this study was to investigate the main (...) demographical and clinical risk factors for EPTB among adults and adolescents for the first time in Saudi Arabia. A cross-sectional multicenter study was carried out on a collection of 902 extrapulmonary Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) isolates with demographical and clinical data. All isolates were subjected to spoligotyping and 24-loci based MIRU-VNTR typing. The association between two potential variables was assessed using odd ratios (OR) calculations. Independent risk factors for EPTB

2019 PLoS ONE

7. Risk factors for tuberculosis: A case-control study in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Risk factors for tuberculosis: A case-control study in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Tuberculosis remains a major public-health problem in the world, despite several efforts to improve case identification and treatment compliance. It is well known cause of ill-health among millions of people each year and ranks as the second leading cause of death from infectious disease worldwide. Despite implementation of the World health organization recommended strategy, the reductions in the incidence of TB have (...) been minimal in high burden countries.A case control study was carried out to assess the risk factors of TB, where cases were newly registered bacteriologically confirmed pulmonary TB patients with age greater than 15 years who present at twenty health centres in Addis Ababa. Controls were age and sex matched attendees who presented in the same health centers for non-TB health problems.A total of 260 cases and 260 controls were enrolled in the study and 45.8% of cases and 46.2% of controls were

2019 PLoS ONE

8. First-line tuberculosis drug resistance patterns and associated risk factors in Germany, 2008-2017. Full Text available with Trip Pro

First-line tuberculosis drug resistance patterns and associated risk factors in Germany, 2008-2017. Drug-resistant tuberculosis (TB), especially multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB), poses a threat to public health. While standard surveillance focuses on Rifampicin and/or Isoniazid resistance, little is known about other resistance patterns. This study aims to identify predominant drug resistance (DR) patterns in Germany and risk factors associated with them in order to inform diagnostic (...) and treatment strategies.Case-based TB surveillance data notified in Germany from 2008-2017 were utilized to investigate DR and MDR-TB patterns for Isoniazid (H), Rifampicin (R), Pyrazinamide (Z), Ethambutol (E), and Streptomycin (S). Predominant patterns were further analyzed stratified by sex, age, country of birth, prior TB, and disease site. Multivariable logistic regression was conducted to determine risk factors associated with any resistance, MDR-TB, and complete HRZES resistance.26,228 cases

2019 PLoS ONE

9. Prevalence of Tuberculosis Risk Factors among Bacteriologically Negative and Bacteriologically Confirmed Tuberculosis Patients from Five Regional Referral Hospitals in Uganda. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Prevalence of Tuberculosis Risk Factors among Bacteriologically Negative and Bacteriologically Confirmed Tuberculosis Patients from Five Regional Referral Hospitals in Uganda. Understanding risk factors for tuberculosis (TB) and their prevalence helps guide early diagnosis. We determined their prevalence among bacteriologically negative and bacteriologically confirmed TB patients in five regional referral hospitals in Uganda. This cross-sectional study considered 1,862 adult presumptive TB (...) participants. We performed fluorescent microscopy, Xpert MTB/RIF (Xpert), Lowenstein-Jensen culture, human immunodeficiency virus, and random blood sugar testing on recruited patients. Prevalence and prevalence ratios of risk factors were compared among bacteriologically negative and confirmed cases. Odds ratios and 95% confidence interval (CI) were determined for significant risk factors in bacteriologically confirmed patients. Of the 1,862 participants, 978 (55%) were male and the median age

2018 American Journal of Tropical Medicine & Hygiene

10. Risk factors for multidrug-resistant tuberculosis among tuberculosis patients in Serbia: a case-control study. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Risk factors for multidrug-resistant tuberculosis among tuberculosis patients in Serbia: a case-control study. Multidrug resistant (MDR) tuberculosis (TB) represents TB which is simultaneous resistant to at least rifampicin (R) and isoniazid (H). Identifying inadequate therapy as the main cause of this form of the disease and explaining the factors leading to its occurrence, numerous social determinants that affect the risk of developing resistance are highlighted. The objectives of the study (...) was to identify independent factors of MDR-TB among tuberculosis patients.Case-control study was conducted from 1st September 2009 to 1st June 2014 in 31 healthcare institutions in Serbia where MDR-TB and TB patients were treated. TB patients infected with MDR- M. tuberculosis and non MDR- M. tuberculosis strain were considered as cases and controls, respectively. Cases and controls were matched by the date of hospitalization. The data was collected using structured questionnaire with face to face interview

2018 BMC Public Health

11. Prevalence of and risk factors for tuberculosis among healthcare workers in Chinese tuberculosis facilities Full Text available with Trip Pro

Prevalence of and risk factors for tuberculosis among healthcare workers in Chinese tuberculosis facilities China is one of 22 countries with a high tuberculosis (TB) burden in the world. Healthcare workers (HCWs) have a high risk of contracting Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection due to insufficient infection control practices. We conducted a cross-sectional study to explore the prevalence of TB and its associated risk factors among HCWs in Chinese TB facilities.Two hundred and forty-one TB (...) facilities employing a total of 9663 HCWs were selected from 12 provinces in China to represent healthcare settings at the provincial, prefectural, and county levels. Structured questionnaires were used to collect information on TB infection control practices and HCWs in those facilities. Data was double entered into EpiData 3.1; TB prevalence and associated risk factors were analyzed using SPSS 21.0 with bivariate and multivariate regression models.The results showed that 71 HCWs had been diagnosed

2018 Infectious diseases of poverty

12. Risk factors for extrapulmonary dissemination of tuberculosis and associated mortality during treatment for extrapulmonary tuberculosis Full Text available with Trip Pro

Risk factors for extrapulmonary dissemination of tuberculosis and associated mortality during treatment for extrapulmonary tuberculosis Many environmental, host, and microbial characteristics have been recognized as risk factors for dissemination of extrapulmonary tuberculosis (EPTB). However, there are few population-based studies investigating the association between the primary sites of tuberculosis (TB) infection and mortality during TB treatment. De-identified population-based surveillance (...) data of confirmed TB patients reported from 2009 to 2015 in Texas, USA, were analyzed. Regression analyses were used to determine the risk factors for EPTB, as well as its subsite distribution and mortality. We analyzed 7007 patients with exclusively pulmonary TB, 1259 patients with exclusively EPTB, and 894 EPTB patients with reported concomitant pulmonary involvement. Age ≥45 years, female gender, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive status, and end-stage renal disease (ESRD) were

2018 Emerging Microbes & Infections

13. Risk factors for the occurrence of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis among patients undergoing multidrug-resistant tuberculosis treatment in East Shoa, Ethiopia. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Risk factors for the occurrence of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis among patients undergoing multidrug-resistant tuberculosis treatment in East Shoa, Ethiopia. Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) is resistant to the two main first-line anti-tuberculosis drugs: rifampicin and isoniazid. It is a major threat to public health worldwide. The objective of this study was to assess the potential risk factors for multidrug-resistant tuberculosis among patients undergoing MDR-TB treatment at two (...) were used to assess the potential risk factors for the occurrence of MDR-TB.The odds of developing MDR-TB were higher in patients previously treated with anti-TB drugs (odds ratio [OR] = 6.1, 95%CI: 2.92-12.62, P < 0.001), those with a history of contact with known TB patients (OR = 2.1, 95%CI: 1.04-4.43, P < 0.001), those living in a rural setting (OR = 5.6, 95%CI: 2.14-14.46, P = 0.001), those with a history of alcohol consumption (OR = 4.3, 95%CI: 2.29-10.49, P < 0.001) and those without a job

2018 BMC Public Health

14. Integrating screening for non-communicable diseases and their risk factors in routine tuberculosis care in Delhi, India: A mixed-methods study. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Integrating screening for non-communicable diseases and their risk factors in routine tuberculosis care in Delhi, India: A mixed-methods study. Evidence supports the integration of prevention and management for tuberculosis (TB) with non-communicable diseases (NCDs). Bi-directional screening for TB and diabetes mellitus (DM) is already implemented in India, a country with a dual burden of TB and NCDs. However, very limited programmatic data are available on the feasibility of adding other NCDs (...) and their risk factors in such screening programme.To assess the yield, feasibility, and acceptability of a two-stage integrated screening for NCDs and risk factors for NCDs among patients with TB ≥20 years and treated in DOTS centres of two medical colleges in Delhi, between October 2016 and March 2017.It was a mixed-methods, triangulation study with a quantitative component (cross-sectional study using questionnaires, anthropometric measurements and records review) and a qualitative component (descriptive

2018 PLoS ONE

15. Risk factors for mortality among adults registered on the routine drug resistant tuberculosis reporting database in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa, 2011 to 2013. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Risk factors for mortality among adults registered on the routine drug resistant tuberculosis reporting database in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa, 2011 to 2013. South Africa is among countries with the highest burden of drug resistant tuberculosis (DR-TB). The Eastern Cape Province reported the highest MDR-TB mortality rates in South Africa for the 2010 treatment cohorts. This study aimed to determine risk factors for mortality among adult patients registered for DR-TB treatment (...) in the province.We conducted a retrospective cohort study of adult patients treated for laboratory confirmed DR-TB between January 2011 and December 2013. Demographic and clinical characteristics of the patients were obtained from a web-based electronic database of patients treated for DR-TB. We applied modified Poisson regression with robust standard errors to identify risk factors for DR-TB mortality. We also stratified the analyses into multi-drug resistant TB (MDR-TB) and extensively drug resistant (XDR-TB

2018 PLoS ONE

16. Human cytomegalovirus epidemiology and relationship to tuberculosis and cardiovascular disease risk factors in a rural Ugandan cohort. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Human cytomegalovirus epidemiology and relationship to tuberculosis and cardiovascular disease risk factors in a rural Ugandan cohort. Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection has been associated with increased mortality, specifically cardiovascular disease (CVD), in high-income countries (HICs). There is a paucity of data in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) where HCMV seropositivity is higher. Serum samples from 2,174 Ugandan individuals were investigated for HCMV antibodies and data (...) linked to demographic information, co-infections and a variety of CVD measurements. HCMV seropositivity was 83% by one year of age, increasing to 95% by five years. Female sex, HIV positivity and active pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) were associated with an increase in HCMV IgG levels in adjusted analyses. There was no evidence of any associations with risk factors for CVD after adjusting for age and sex. HCMV infection is ubiquitous in this rural Ugandan cohort from a young age. The association between

2018 PLoS ONE

17. Model of care and risk factors for poor outcomes in patients on multi-drug resistant tuberculosis treatment at two facilities in eSwatini (formerly Swaziland), 2011-2013. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Model of care and risk factors for poor outcomes in patients on multi-drug resistant tuberculosis treatment at two facilities in eSwatini (formerly Swaziland), 2011-2013. Since 2011 Médecins sans Frontières together with the eSwatini Ministry of Health have been managing patients with multi-drug resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) at Matsapha and Mankayane in Manzini region. This analysis describes the model of care and outcomes of patients receiving a 20 months MDR-TB treatment regimen between (...) undertaken to assess risk factors for unfavorable outcomes.From the 174 patients enrolled, 156 (89.7%) were HIV co-infected, 102 (58.6%) were female, median age 33 years old (IQR: 28-42), 55 (31.6%) had a BMI less than 18 and 86 (49.4%) had not been previously treated for any form of TB. Overall cohort outcomes revealed a 75.3% treatment success rate, 21.3% mortality rate, 0.6% failure and 0.6% lost to follow-up rate. In the adjusted multivariate analysis, low BMI and low CD4 count at treatment

2018 PLoS ONE

18. Macrophage migration inhibitory factor -173 G > C polymorphism and risk of tuberculosis: A meta-analysis. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Macrophage migration inhibitory factor -173 G > C polymorphism and risk of tuberculosis: A meta-analysis. The aim of the present meta-analysis was to find out the impact of MIF -173 G > C polymorphism on risk of tuberculosis (TB). We conducted a search of case-control studies on the associations of -173 G > C variant of MIF with susceptibility to tuberculosis in PubMed, ISI Web of Science, and Scopus. We extracted the data from eligible studies and achieved a meta-analysis to examine (...) the relationship between MIF -173 G > C polymorphism and the risk of TB. Odds ratios (ORs) with the corresponding 95 % confidence intervals (CIs) were pooled to find out the impact of MIF -173G > C promoter polymorphism on TB risk. The pooled ORs were calculated for the codominant, dominant, recessive, and allelic model comparison. The findings revealed that MIF -173 G > C variant increased the risk of TB in codominant (OR = 1.54, 95 %CI = 1.26-1.88, p < 0.0001; CG vs GG), and dominant (OR = 1.62, 95 %CI

2017 EXCLI journal

19. Risk factors and variations in detection of new bovine tuberculosis breakdowns via slaughterhouse surveillance in Great Britain. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Risk factors and variations in detection of new bovine tuberculosis breakdowns via slaughterhouse surveillance in Great Britain. Slaughterhouse surveillance through post-mortem meat inspection provides an important mechanism for detecting bovine tuberculosis (bTB) infections in cattle herds in Great Britain (GB), complementary to the live animal skin test based programme. We explore patterns in the numbers of herd breakdowns detected through slaughterhouse surveillance and develop a Bayesian (...) was slaughtered, movement and test history. Over-and-above these risks, the odds of detection increased by a factor of 1.1 for each year of the study. After adjustment for these variables, there were additional variations in risk between slaughterhouses and breed. Our framework has been adopted into the routine annual surveillance reporting carried out by the Animal Plant Health Agency and may be used to target more detailed investigation of meat inspection practices.

2018 PLoS ONE

20. Identifying genotype specific elevated-risk areas and associated herd risk factors for bovine tuberculosis spread in British cattle Full Text available with Trip Pro

Identifying genotype specific elevated-risk areas and associated herd risk factors for bovine tuberculosis spread in British cattle Bovine tuberculosis (bTB) is a chronic zoonosis with major health and economic impact on the cattle industry. Despite extensive control measures in cattle and culling trials in wildlife, the reasons behind the expansion of areas with high incidence of bTB breakdowns in Great Britain remain unexplained. By balancing the importance of cattle movements and local (...) transmission on the observed pattern of cattle outbreaks, we identify areas at elevated risk of infection from specific Mycobacterium bovis genotypes. We show that elevated-risk areas (ERAs) were historically more extensive than previously understood, and that cattle movements alone are insufficient for ERA spread, suggesting the involvement of other factors. For all genotypes, we find that, while the absolute risk of infection is higher in ERAs compared to areas with intermittent risk, the statistically

2018 Epidemics

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