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Trichothecene Mycotoxin

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141. T-2 Toxin-induced Toxicity in Pregnant Mice and Rats (PubMed)

T-2 Toxin-induced Toxicity in Pregnant Mice and Rats T-2 toxin is a cytotoxic secondary fungal metabolite that belongs to the trichothecene mycotoxin family. This mycotoxin is a well known inhibitor of protein synthesis through its high binding affinity to peptidyl transferase, which is an integral part of the ribosomal 60s subunit, and it also inhibits the synthesis of DNA and RNA, probably secondary to the inhibition of protein synthesis. In addition, T-2 toxin is said to induce apoptosis

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2008 International journal of molecular sciences

142. Histological estimation of the small intestine wall after administration of feed containing deoxynivalenol, T-2 toxin and zearalenone in the pig. (PubMed)

for these trichothecenes action. The mucosal membrane of the gastrointestinal tract is the first barrier of the organism contacting with foreign antigens like feed proteins, natural toxins, saprophytic and pathogenic microflora and mycotoxins. The aim of this study was to perform histological estimation of the porcine small intestine after short term intoxication with low doses of deoxynivalenol (DON), T-2 toxin (T-2) and zearalenone (ZEA) obtained from wheat naturally contaminated with Fusarium moulds. Experimental (...) Histological estimation of the small intestine wall after administration of feed containing deoxynivalenol, T-2 toxin and zearalenone in the pig. Fusarium spp. moulds are common in moderate climate regions of North America, Asia and Europe. They produce hepatotoxic and nephrotoxic mycotoxins, acting like estrogens, impairing hemopoesis and immunosuppressing. Actively dividing skin cells, lymphatic tissue, haemopoetic tissue and gastrointestinal tissue are the most sensitive

2008 Polish journal of veterinary sciences

143. Double-Stranded RNA–Activated Protein Kinase Mediates Induction of Interleukin-8 Expression by Deoxynivalenol, Shiga Toxin 1, and Ricin in Monocytes (PubMed)

Double-Stranded RNA–Activated Protein Kinase Mediates Induction of Interleukin-8 Expression by Deoxynivalenol, Shiga Toxin 1, and Ricin in Monocytes Translational inhibitors such as the trichothecene mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON) and ribosomal inhibitory proteins (RIPs) induce mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)-driven chemokine and cytokine production by a mechanism known as the ribotoxic stress response (RSR). Double-stranded RNA-activated protein kinase (PKR) associates

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2008 Toxicological Sciences

144. Satratoxin G–Induced Apoptosis in PC-12 Neuronal Cells is Mediated by PKR and Caspase Independent (PubMed)

Satratoxin G–Induced Apoptosis in PC-12 Neuronal Cells is Mediated by PKR and Caspase Independent Satratoxin G (SG) is a macrocyclic trichothecene mycotoxin produced by Stachybotrys chartarum, a mold suggested to play an etiologic role in damp building-related illnesses. Acute intranasal exposure of mice to SG specifically induces apoptosis in olfactory sensory neurons of the nose. The PC-12 rat pheochromocytoma cell model was used to elucidate potential mechanisms of SG-induced neuronal cell

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2008 Toxicological Sciences

145. Comparative Induction of 28S Ribosomal RNA Cleavage by Ricin and the Trichothecenes Deoxynivalenol and T-2 Toxin in the Macrophage (PubMed)

Comparative Induction of 28S Ribosomal RNA Cleavage by Ricin and the Trichothecenes Deoxynivalenol and T-2 Toxin in the Macrophage Ribosome-inactivating proteins (RIPs) and sesquiterpenoid trichothecene mycotoxins are known to bind to eukaryotic ribosomes, inhibit translation and activate mitogen-activated protein kinases. Here we compared the capacities of the RIP ricin to promote 28S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) cleavage with that of the trichothecenes, deoxynivalenol (DON), and T-2 toxin (T-2 (...) that ricin evoked 28S rRNA damage at one site in the alpha-sarcin/ricin (S/R)-loop (A4256) and two other sites (A3560 and A4045) in the peptidyl transferase center. Although DON or T-2 did not damage the S/R loop, these trichothecenes did promote cleavage at A3560 and A4045. In addition, incubation of the cells with ricin (> or = 20 ng/ml), DON (> or = 250 ng/ml), or T-2 (> or = 10 ng/ml) induced RNase activity as well as RNase L mRNA and protein expression. These data suggest that only ricin directly

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2008 Toxicological Sciences

146. Gibberella zeae Ascospore Production and Collection for Microarray Experiments. (PubMed)

Gibberella zeae Ascospore Production and Collection for Microarray Experiments. Fusarium graminearum Schwabe (teleomorph Gibberella zeae) is a plant pathogen causing scab disease on wheat and barley that reduces crop yield and grain quality. F. graminearum also causes stalk and ear rots of maize and is a producer of mycotoxins such as the trichothecenes that contaminate grain and are harmful to humans and livestock (Goswami and Kistler, 2004). The fungus produces two types of spores. Ascospores

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2006 Journal of visualized experiments : JoVE

147. Infection patterns in barley and wheat spikes inoculated with wild-type and trichodiene synthase gene disrupted Fusarium graminearum (PubMed)

that trichothecenes are not a virulence factor during infection through the fruit coat. In the absence of trichothecenes, the fungus is blocked by the development of heavy cell wall thickenings in the rachis node of Nandu wheat, a defense inhibited by the mycotoxin. In barley hyphae of both wild-type and the trichothecene knockout mutant, are inhibited at the rachis node and rachilla, limiting infection of adjacent florets through the phloem and along the surface of the rachis. Effective resistance to Fusarium (...) Infection patterns in barley and wheat spikes inoculated with wild-type and trichodiene synthase gene disrupted Fusarium graminearum Fusarium head blight epidemics of wheat and barley cause heavy economic losses to farmers due to yield decreases and production of mycotoxin that renders the grain useless for flour and malt products. No highly resistant cultivars are available at present. Hyphae of germinating fungal spores use different paths of infection: After germination at the extruded tip

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2005 Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America

148. Microbial acetyl conjugation of T-2 toxin and its derivatives. (PubMed)

Microbial acetyl conjugation of T-2 toxin and its derivatives. The acetyl conjugation of T-2 toxin and its derivatives, the 12,13-epoxytrichothecene mycotoxins, was studied by using mycelia of trichothecene-producing strains of Fusarium graminearum, F. nivale, Calonectria nivalis, and F. sporotrichoides, T-2 toxin was efficiently converted into acetyl T-2 toxin by all strains except a T-2 toxin-producing strain of F. sporotrichoides, which hydrolyzed the substrate to HT-2-toxin and neosolaniol

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1980 Applied and environmental microbiology

149. Charge-shift electrophoretic behavior of T-2 toxin in agarose gels. (PubMed)

Charge-shift electrophoretic behavior of T-2 toxin in agarose gels. We report the use of charge-shift electrophoresis to define the behavior of the trichothecene mycotoxin T-2 in aqueous solutions. We found that T-2 behaves in a hydrophobic manner and that this technique can be adapted for the separation of small hydrophobic molecules such as T-2 and cholesterol.

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1984 Applied and environmental microbiology

150. Effect of Fusarium toxins, T2-toxin and diacetoxyscirpenol on murine T-independent immune responses. (PubMed)

Effect of Fusarium toxins, T2-toxin and diacetoxyscirpenol on murine T-independent immune responses. Trichothecenes mycotoxins, T2-toxin and diacetoxyscirpenol were investigated for their effect upon T-independent murine immune responses. Both anti-polyvinylpyrrolidone and anti-dinitrophenylficoll responses were enhanced by chronic administration of these toxins. Spleen cells from T2-toxin-treated animals revealed significantly less Thy 1.2+ cells than controls. Spleen cells from Fusarium crude

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1981 Immunology

151. Monoclonal antibodies to T-2 toxin. In vitro neutralization of protein synthesis inhibition and protection of rats against lethal toxemia. (PubMed)

Monoclonal antibodies to T-2 toxin. In vitro neutralization of protein synthesis inhibition and protection of rats against lethal toxemia. A murine monoclonal antibody (15H6) against the trichothecene mycotoxin T-2 was capable of neutralizing the in vitro protein synthesis inhibitory effect of T-2 toxin in human B lymphoblastoid cultures. It was further shown that 15H6 given to rats (250 mg/kg) 30 min before or 15 min after a lethal dose (1 mg/kg) of T-2 toxin conferred 100% survival. A lower

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1985 Journal of Clinical Investigation

152. Mycotoxin production by Fusarium oxysporum and Fusarium sporotrichioides isolated from Baccharis spp. from Brazil. (PubMed)

Mycotoxin production by Fusarium oxysporum and Fusarium sporotrichioides isolated from Baccharis spp. from Brazil. Fusarium oxysporum isolated from roots of and soil around Baccharis species from Brazil produced the trichothecenes T-2 toxin, HT-2 toxin, diacetoxyscirpenol, and 3'-OH T-2 (TC-1), whereas Fusarium sporotrichioides from the same source produced T-2 toxin, HT-2 toxin, acetyl T-2, neosolaniol, TC-1, 3'-OH HT-2 (TC-3), iso-T-2, T-2 triol, T-2 tetraol, and the nontrichothecenes (...) moniliformin and fusarin C. Several unknown toxins were found but not identified. Not found were macrocyclic trichothecenes, zearalenone, wortmannin, and fusarochromanone (TDP-1).

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1989 Applied and environmental microbiology

153. Sambutoxin, a new mycotoxin produced by toxic Fusarium isolates obtained from rotted potato tubers. (PubMed)

Sambutoxin, a new mycotoxin produced by toxic Fusarium isolates obtained from rotted potato tubers. Ninety-nine isolates of Fusarium species were obtained from rotted potato tubers from various parts of Korea. Of these isolates, 80 were identified as Fusarium oxysporum, F. solani, or F. sambucinum. The isolates of these species were grown on autoclaved wheat grains and examined for toxicity in a rat-feeding test. A total of 8 of 57 F. oxysporum isolates, 3 of 14 F. solani isolates, and 5 of 9 F (...) . sambucinum isolates caused the death of the rats. Of the 16 toxic isolates, 1 isolate of F. oxysporum produced a substantial amount of moniliformin, which could account for its toxicity. None of the other 15 isolates produced trichothecenes, moniliformin, fusarochromanone, fumonisin B1, or wortmannin. F. sambucinum PZF-4 produced an unknown toxin in wheat culture. This new toxin, given the trivial name sambutoxin, caused toxic effects in rats, including body weight loss, feed refusal, hemorrhage

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1994 Applied and environmental microbiology

154. Toxicity of some Fusarium section Sporotrichiella strains in relation to mycotoxin production. (PubMed)

Toxicity of some Fusarium section Sporotrichiella strains in relation to mycotoxin production. The relationship between the toxicities of crude extracts and purified toxins of Fusarium spp. belonging to the section Sporotrichiella has been assessed. Toxicity was determined on the basis of death of Artemia salina larvae and of viability and blastogenic response of bovine and human lymphocytes. Trichothecene-producing strains of Fusarium sporotrichioides and Fusarium poae were toxic to A. salina

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1992 Applied and environmental microbiology

155. Mycotoxins in fungal contaminated samples of animal feed from western Canada, 1982-1994. (PubMed)

, fusarenone-x, 15-acetyl-deoxynivalenol, diacetoxyscirpenol, HT-2 toxin, and T-2 toxin. Mycotoxins were found in 21 feed samples from 17 cases (18% of the reported cases), generally at levels far below those needed to induce symptoms under laboratory conditions. HT-2 toxin and other type-A trichothecenes were detected in 5 samples, deoxynivalenol and other type-B trichothecenes in 13, ochratoxin A in 5, and citrinin in 2. In 9 cases, symptoms observed in the animals were consistent with the known effects (...) Mycotoxins in fungal contaminated samples of animal feed from western Canada, 1982-1994. Feed samples from 94 cases involving fungal contamination and suspected mycotoxicosis of farm animals in western Canada were examined during 1982-1994 to assess the incidence of mycotoxins. Samples were analyzed for aflatoxins, ochratoxin A, citrinin, sterigmatocystin, and the fungal estrogen zearalenone. Samples infected with Fusarium fungi were additionally assayed for nivalenol, deoxynivalenol

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1997 Canadian Journal of Veterinary Research

156. Mycotoxins in animal feedstuffs and tissues in Western Canada 1975 to 1979. (PubMed)

Mycotoxins in animal feedstuffs and tissues in Western Canada 1975 to 1979. Results of analyses of specimens of plant or animal origin for various mycotoxins are presented. Analyses for aflatoxins, ochratoxins and zearalenone were most frequently requested. Aflatoxin B1 was found in one of 474 specimens at a level of 60 ppb in a sample of hay. Ochratoxin A was detected in four of 148 specimens of grains and two of 19 specimens of corn at levels up to 500 ppb. Trichothecenes were qualitatively (...) found in two of 108 specimens of forage, three of 182 specimens of feeds and one of 148 specimens of grains. Ergot was detected qualitatively in three specimens of rye and one of forage. An overall detection rate of 3.8% of potent mycotoxins suggests that acute or chronic mycotoxicoses may occasionally occur in farm livestock or poultry.

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1981 Canadian Journal of Comparative Medicine

157. A Colorimetric Technique for Detecting Trichothecenes and Assessing Relative Potencies (PubMed)

A Colorimetric Technique for Detecting Trichothecenes and Assessing Relative Potencies We tested a novel colorimetric toxicity test, based on inhibition of beta-galactosidase activity in the yeast Kluyveromyces marxianus, for sensitivity to a range of mycotoxins. A variety of trichothecene mycotoxins could be detected. The order of toxicity established with this bioassay was verrucarin A > roridin A > T-2 toxin > diacetoxyscirpenol > HT-2 toxin > acetyl T-2 toxin > neosolaniol > fusarenon X > T (...) -2 triol > scirpentriol > nivalenol > deoxynivalenol > T-2 tetraol. The sensitivity of detection was high, with the most potent trichothecene tested, verrucarin A, having a 50% effective concentration (concentration of toxin causing 50% inhibition) of 2 ng/ml. Other mycotoxins (cyclopiazonic acid, fumonisin B1, ochratoxin A, patulin, sterigmatocystin, tenuazonic acid, and zearalenone) could not be detected at up to 10 micrograms/ml, nor could aflatoxins B1 and M1 be detected at concentrations up

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1999 Applied and environmental microbiology

158. Tri6 encodes an unusual zinc finger protein involved in regulation of trichothecene biosynthesis in Fusarium sporotrichioides. (PubMed)

Tri6 encodes an unusual zinc finger protein involved in regulation of trichothecene biosynthesis in Fusarium sporotrichioides. In Fusarium sporotrichioides, several genes required for biosynthesis of the trichothecene mycotoxin T-2 toxin are closely linked. Further characterization of this gene cluster has revealed a gene, Tri6, that specifies a 217-amino-acid protein with regions similar to Cys2His2 zinc finger proteins. Temporal expression of Tri6 is similar to that of trichothecene (...) biosynthetic pathway genes. Analysis of Tri6 transcripts indicated that transcription is initiated in two regions and that within each region there may be at least four initiation sites. Disruption of Tri6 resulted in a mutant that did not produce trichothecenes but that did accumulate low levels of the trichothecene precursor trichodiene. The Tri6 mutant was unable to convert six trichothecene biosynthetic intermediates to T-2 toxin, and transcription of two biosynthetic genes, Tri4 and Tri5, was greatly

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1995 Applied and environmental microbiology

159. Identification of New Genes Positively Regulated by Tri10 and a Regulatory Network for Trichothecene Mycotoxin Production (PubMed)

Identification of New Genes Positively Regulated by Tri10 and a Regulatory Network for Trichothecene Mycotoxin Production Tri10, a regulatory gene in trichothecene mycotoxin-producing Fusarium species, is required for trichothecene biosynthesis and the coordinated expression of four trichothecene pathway-specific genes (Tri4, Tri5, Tri6, and Tri101) and the isoprenoid biosynthetic gene for farnesyl pyrophosphate synthetase (FPPS). We showed that six more trichothecene genes (Tri3, Tri7, Tri8 (...) . Three other sequences are putative orthologs of genes for isoprenoid biosynthesis, the primary metabolic pathway preceding trichothecene biosynthesis. The remaining eight sequences have been designated Ibt (influenced by Tri10) genes. Of the 26 transcripts now known to be positively regulated by Tri10, 22 are positively coregulated by Tri6, a gene that encodes a previously characterized trichothecene pathway-specific transcription factor. These 22 Tri10- and Tri6-coregulated sequences include all

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2003 Applied and environmental microbiology

160. Immunosuppressive effect of a trichothecene mycotoxin, Fusarenon-X in mice. (PubMed)

Immunosuppressive effect of a trichothecene mycotoxin, Fusarenon-X in mice. The in vitro treatment with Fusarenon-X, a mycotoxin produced by Fusarium nivale Fn 2B, depressed the mitogenic responses of mouse lymphocytes to the T-cell mitogens, phytohaemagglutinin (PHA) and concanavalin A (Con A), but to a lesser extent to B-cell mitogen, a bacterial lypopolysaccharide (LPS). The in vitro treatment of mice with Fusarenon-X also decreased the responsiveness of splenic lymphocytes to the T-cell

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1982 Immunology

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