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Trichothecene Mycotoxin

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121. GC–MS based targeted metabolic profiling identifies changes in the wheat metabolome following deoxynivalenol treatment (PubMed)

GC–MS based targeted metabolic profiling identifies changes in the wheat metabolome following deoxynivalenol treatment Fusariumgraminearum and related species commonly infest grains causing the devastating plant disease Fusarium head blight (FHB) and the formation of trichothecene mycotoxins. The most relevant toxin is deoxynivalenol (DON), which acts as a virulence factor of the pathogen. FHB is difficult to control and resistance to this disease is a polygenic trait, mainly mediated

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2014 Metabolomics

122. Modification of energy balance induced by the food contaminant T-2 toxin: a multimodal gut-to-brain connection. (PubMed)

Modification of energy balance induced by the food contaminant T-2 toxin: a multimodal gut-to-brain connection. T-2 toxin is one of the most toxic Fusarium-derived trichothecenes found on cereals and constitutes a widespread contaminant of agricultural commodities as well as commercial foods. Low doses toxicity is characterized by reduced weight gain. To date, the mechanisms by which this mycotoxin profoundly modifies feeding behavior remain poorly understood and more broadly the effects of T-2

2014 Brain, behavior, and immunity

123. Dermatologic Aspects of Bioterrorism Agents (Overview)

. American stockpiles of biological weapons were destroyed completely by 1973. During the Vietnam War, Vietcong guerrillas used punji stakes dipped in feces to increase the morbidity from wounding by these stakes. The Soviet Union (USSR) continued to develop biological weapons from 1950-1980. In the 1970s, the USSR and its allies were suspected of having used "yellow rain" (trichothecene mycotoxins) during campaigns in Loas, Cambodia, and Afghanistan. In 1979, an accidental release of anthrax from

2014 eMedicine.com

124. Development of a Selective Medium for the Fungal Pathogen Fusarium graminearum Using Toxoflavin Produced by the Bacterial Pathogen Burkholderia glumae (PubMed)

Development of a Selective Medium for the Fungal Pathogen Fusarium graminearum Using Toxoflavin Produced by the Bacterial Pathogen Burkholderia glumae The ascomycete fungus Fusarium graminearum is a major causal agent for Fusarium head blight in cereals and produces mycotoxins such as trichothecenes and zearalenone. Isolation of the fungal strains from air or cereals can be hampered by various other airborne fungal pathogens and saprophytic fungi. In this study, we developed a selective medium

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2013 The Plant Pathology Journal

125. Early Phosphoproteomic Changes in the Mouse Spleen During Deoxynivalenol-Induced Ribotoxic Stress (PubMed)

Early Phosphoproteomic Changes in the Mouse Spleen During Deoxynivalenol-Induced Ribotoxic Stress The trichothecene mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON) targets the innate immune system and is of public health significance because of its frequent presence in human and animal food. DON-induced proinflammatory gene expression and apoptosis in the lymphoid tissue have been associated with a ribotoxic stress response (RSR) that involves rapid phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs

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2013 Toxicological Sciences

126. Toxigenic potential of Fusarium graminearum isolated from maize of northwest Argentina (PubMed)

Toxigenic potential of Fusarium graminearum isolated from maize of northwest Argentina Twenty six isolates of Fusarium graminearum from grains of maize hybrids harvested in ±west Argentina were grown on autoclaved rice grain to assess their ability to produce type B trichothecenes. Chemical analysis indicated that 38% of isolates were nivalenol (NIV) producers only, 31% were major NIV producers with high DON(deoxynivalenol)/NIV ratios, 8% were major DON producers with minor NIV production (...) , and 23% were DON producers only. Isolates showed a high variability in their toxigenic potential which was not related to fungal biomass. The distribution of the different chemotypes as well as the high and the low trichothecene-producing Fusarium isolates could not be associated to a geographical origin. Our results confirmed for the first time that isolates of Fusarium graminearum from maize of northwest Argentina are able to produce DON and NIV. A substancial contamination with both NIV and DON

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2013 Brazilian Journal of Microbiology

127. Dynamic Changes in Ribosome-Associated Proteome and Phosphoproteome During Deoxynivalenol-Induced Translation Inhibition and Ribotoxic Stress (PubMed)

Dynamic Changes in Ribosome-Associated Proteome and Phosphoproteome During Deoxynivalenol-Induced Translation Inhibition and Ribotoxic Stress Deoxynivalenol (DON), a trichothecene mycotoxin produced by Fusarium that commonly contaminates cereal-based food, interacts with the ribosome to cause translation inhibition and activate stress kinases in mononuclear phagocytes via the ribotoxic stress response (RSR). The goal of this study was to test the hypothesis that the ribosome functions

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2013 Toxicological Sciences

128. Advances in Deoxynivalenol Toxicity Mechanisms: The Brain as a Target (PubMed)

Advances in Deoxynivalenol Toxicity Mechanisms: The Brain as a Target Deoxynivalenol (DON), mainly produced by Fusarium fungi, and also commonly called vomitoxin, is a trichothecene mycotoxin. It is one of the most abundant trichothecenes which contaminate cereals consumed by farm animals and humans. The extent of cereal contamination is strongly associated with rainfall and moisture at the time of flowering and with grain storage conditions. DON consumption may result in intoxication

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2012 Toxins

129. The fungal T-2 toxin alters the activation of primary macrophages induced by TLR-agonists resulting in a decrease of the inflammatory response in the pig (PubMed)

The fungal T-2 toxin alters the activation of primary macrophages induced by TLR-agonists resulting in a decrease of the inflammatory response in the pig T-2 toxin is known to be one of the most toxic trichothecene mycotoxins. Exposure to T-2 toxin induces many hematologic and immunotoxic disorders and is involved in immuno-modulation of the innate immune response. The objective of this work was to evaluate the effects of T-2 toxin on the activation of macrophages by different agonists of Toll (...) interferes with initiation of inflammatory immune response against bacteria and viruses. Consequently, mycotoxins could increase the susceptibility of humans and animals to infectious diseases.

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2012 Veterinary Research

130. Modulation of Inflammatory Gene Expression by the Ribotoxin Deoxynivalenol Involves Coordinate Regulation of the Transcriptome and Translatome (PubMed)

Modulation of Inflammatory Gene Expression by the Ribotoxin Deoxynivalenol Involves Coordinate Regulation of the Transcriptome and Translatome The trichothecene deoxynivalenol (DON), a common contaminant of cereal-based foods, is a ribotoxic mycotoxin known to activate innate immune cells in vivo and in vitro. Although it is recognized that DON induces transcription and mRNA stabilization of inflammation-associated mRNAs in mononuclear phagocytes, it is not known if this toxin affects

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2012 Toxicological Sciences

131. Comparison of Emetic Potencies of the 8-Ketotrichothecenes Deoxynivalenol, 15-Acetyldeoxynivalenol, 3-Acetyldeoxynivalenol, Fusarenon X, and Nivalenol (PubMed)

Comparison of Emetic Potencies of the 8-Ketotrichothecenes Deoxynivalenol, 15-Acetyldeoxynivalenol, 3-Acetyldeoxynivalenol, Fusarenon X, and Nivalenol Although the acute toxic effects of trichothecene mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON or vomitoxin), a known cause of human food poisoning, have been well characterized in several animal species, much less is known about closely related 8-ketotrichothecenes that similarly occur in cereal grains colonized by toxigenic fusaria. To address this, we (...) % of the animals for ip exposure to DON, 15-ADON, 3-ADON, FX, and NIV were 80, 170, 180, 70, and 60 µg/kg bw, respectively, and for oral exposure, they were 30, 40, 290, 30, and 250 µg/kg bw, respectively. The emetic potency of DON determined here was comparable to that reported in analogous studies conducted in pigs and dogs, suggesting that the mink is a suitable small animal model for investigating acute trichothecene toxicity. The use of a mouse pica model, based on the consumption of kaolin, was also

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2012 Toxicological Sciences

132. Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent-Assay for Deoxynivalenol (DON) (PubMed)

Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent-Assay for Deoxynivalenol (DON) Deoxynivalenol (DON), one of the trichothecene mycotoxins, is a worldwide contaminant of wheat and barley, especially when infected by Fusarium graminearum, the causative agent of an epidemic wheat disease called Fusarium Head Blight. Because of the high risk of DON ingestion and the possibility of frequent exposure, it is important to develop a rapid and highly sensitive method for easy identification and quantification of DON in grain (...) samples. In this study, we have developed an indirect competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to detect DON in wheat. We conjugated 3-O-Hemisuccinyl-DON (3HS-DON) to Bovine serum albumin (BSA) and Ovalbumin (OVA), and obtained DON-specific mice antisera. The indirect competitive ELISA revealed that the optimal concentration of mice serum and the coated antigen was 1/1600 and 1/1500, respectively. The antiserum cross-reacted with the trichothecenes 3-acetyl-DON and T-2 toxin, reaching

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2011 Toxins

133. Characterisation of the Fusarium graminearum-Wheat Floral Interaction (PubMed)

Characterisation of the Fusarium graminearum-Wheat Floral Interaction Fusarium Ear Blight is a destructive fungal disease of cereals including wheat and can contaminate the crop with various trichothecene mycotoxins. This investigation has produced a new β-glucuronidase (GUS) reporter strain that facilitates the quick and easy assessment of plant infection. The constitutively expressed gpdA:GUS strain of Fusarium graminearum was used to quantify the overall colonisation pattern. Histochemical (...) of infection in the rachis. This revealed that TRI gene expression was maximal at the advancing front and supports the hypothesis that the mycotoxin deoxynivalenol plays a role in inhibiting plant defences in advance of the invading intercellular hyphae. This study has also demonstrated that there are transcriptional differences between the various phases of fungal infection and that these differences are maintained as the infection proceeds.

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2011 Journal of pathogens

134. Isolation of the Emetic Principle from Fusarium-Infected Corn (PubMed)

Isolation of the Emetic Principle from Fusarium-Infected Corn A mycotoxin responsible for vomiting in swine has been isolated from Fusarium-contaminated field corn. The compound was tentatively identified as a trichothecene, 3,7,15-trihydroxy-12,13-epoxy-trichothe-9-en-8-one, and has been given the trivial name vomitoxin.

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1973 Applied microbiology

135. Identification of the Toxic Principle in a Sample of Poaefusarin (PubMed)

Identification of the Toxic Principle in a Sample of Poaefusarin A sample of poaefusarin (a mycotoxin suspected of being one of the toxins involved in alimentary toxic aleukia in the U.S.S.R.) was received from a Soviet scientist for evaluation and comparison with other mycotoxins. Although poaefusarin is presumed to be a steroid, analyses by thin-layer chromatography, gas-liquid chromatography, and infrared, ultraviolet, and mass spectrometry could not confirm the presence of a steroid (...) structure. However, 2.5% of the sample was made up of the trichothecene T-2 toxin, an amount sufficient to explain the toxicity found in the rat and rabbit skin toxicity tests. In addition, neosolaniol (0.14%), T-2 tetraol (0.6%), and zearalenone (F-2) (0.43%) were present in the sample. Since the toxicity was found to be associated only with T-2 toxin, no attempt was made to determine the nature of the other nontoxic components of the sample.

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1973 Applied microbiology

136. Foodborne illness

containers for quick cooling and must be refrigerated within two hours. When food is reheated, it must reach an internal temperature of 165 °F (74 °C) or until hot or steaming to kill bacteria. Mycotoxins and alimentary mycotoxicoses [ ] The term refers to the effect of poisoning by through food consumption. The term mycotoxin is usually reserved for the toxic chemical products produced by fungi that readily colonize crops. Mycotoxins sometimes have important effects on human and animal health (...) in processed products and 10 µg/kg in dried vine fruits. – Currently, this toxin has been advisably regulated on fruit products. The and the have limited it to under 50 µg/kg for fruit juice and fruit nectar, while limits of 25 µg/kg for solid-contained fruit products and 10 µg/kg for baby foods were specified by the . Tremorgenic mycotoxins – Five of them have been reported to be associated with molds found in fermented meats. These are , , , , and . – sourced from Cephalosporium , , Myrothecium

2012 Wikipedia

137. CLM1 of Fusarium graminearum Encodes a Longiborneol Synthase Required for Culmorin Production (PubMed)

CLM1 of Fusarium graminearum Encodes a Longiborneol Synthase Required for Culmorin Production Fusarium graminearum is a fungal pathogen of cereal crops (e.g., wheat, barley, maize) and produces a number of mycotoxins, including 15-acetyldeoxynivalenol, butenolide, zearalenone, and culmorin. To identify a biosynthetic gene for the culmorin pathway, an expressed-sequence-tag database was examined for terpene cyclase genes. A gene designated CLM1 was expressed under trichothecene-inducing

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2009 Applied and environmental microbiology

138. Role of GRP78/BiP Degradation and ER Stress in Deoxynivalenol-Induced Interleukin-6 Upregulation in the Macrophage (PubMed)

Role of GRP78/BiP Degradation and ER Stress in Deoxynivalenol-Induced Interleukin-6 Upregulation in the Macrophage The trichothecene mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON) induces systemic expression of the interleukin-6 (IL-6) and other proinflammatory cytokines in the mouse. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that DON triggers an endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress response in murine macrophages capable of driving IL-6 gene expression. DON at concentrations up 5000 ng/ml (...) transcription factors, X-box binding protein 1 (XBP1) and activating transcription factor 6 (ATF6), which bind to cAMP-response element (CRE) and drive expression of CRE-dependent genes such as IL-6. DON exposure was found to increase IRE1alpha protein, its modified products spliced XBP1 mRNA and XBP1 protein as well as ATF6. Knockdown of ATF6 but not XBP1 partially inhibited DON-induced IL-6 expression in the macrophages. Three other trichothecenes (satratoxin G, roridin, T-2 toxin) and the ribosome

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2009 Toxicological Sciences

139. Suppression of Insulin-Like Growth Factor Acid-Labile Subunit Expression—A Novel Mechanism for Deoxynivalenol-Induced Growth Retardation (PubMed)

Suppression of Insulin-Like Growth Factor Acid-Labile Subunit Expression—A Novel Mechanism for Deoxynivalenol-Induced Growth Retardation Consumption of deoxynivalenol (DON), a trichothecene mycotoxin commonly detected in cereal-based foods, causes impaired growth in many animal species. While growth retardation is used as a basis for regulating DON levels in human food, the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. Oral exposure of mice to DON rapidly induces multiorgan expression (...) -occurred with robust hepatic suppressors of cytokine signaling 3 upregulation. Taken together, these data suggest that oral DON exposure perturbs GH axis by suppressing two clinically relevant growth-related proteins, IGFALS and IGF1. Both have potential to serve as biomarkers of effect in populations exposed to this common foodborne mycotoxin.

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2009 Toxicological Sciences

140. Transgenic wheat expressing a barley class II chitinase gene has enhanced resistance against Fusarium graminearum (PubMed)

Transgenic wheat expressing a barley class II chitinase gene has enhanced resistance against Fusarium graminearum Fusarium head blight (FHB; scab), primarily caused by Fusarium graminearum, is a devastating disease of wheat worldwide. FHB causes yield reductions and contamination of grains with trichothecene mycotoxins such as deoxynivalenol (DON). The genetic variation in existing wheat germplasm pools for FHB resistance is low and may not provide sufficient resistance to develop cultivars

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2008 Journal of experimental botany

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