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Trichothecene Mycotoxin

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101. Fusarium Head Blight Resistance QTL in the Spring Wheat Cross Kenyon/86ISMN 2137 Full Text available with Trip Pro

Fusarium Head Blight Resistance QTL in the Spring Wheat Cross Kenyon/86ISMN 2137 Fusarium head blight (FHB), caused by Fusarium graminearum, is a very important disease of wheat globally. Damage caused by F. graminearum includes reduced grain yield, reduced grain functional quality, and results in the presence of the trichothecene mycotoxin deoxynivalenol in Fusarium-damaged kernels. The development of FHB resistant wheat cultivars is an important component of integrated management

2016 Frontiers in microbiology

102. Pentahydroxyscirpene—Producing Strains, Formation In Planta, and Natural Occurrence Full Text available with Trip Pro

Pentahydroxyscirpene—Producing Strains, Formation In Planta, and Natural Occurrence Trichothecenes are a class of structurally diverse mycotoxins with more than 200 naturally occurring compounds. Previously, a new compound, pentahydroxyscirpene (PHS), was reported as a byproduct of a nivalenol producing Fusarium strain, IFA189. PHS contains a hydroxy group at C-8 instead of the keto group of type B trichothecenes. In this work, we demonstrate that IFA189 belongs to the species Fusarium

2016 Toxins

103. Glutathione-Conjugates of Deoxynivalenol in Naturally Contaminated Grain Are Primarily Linked via the Epoxide Group Full Text available with Trip Pro

Glutathione-Conjugates of Deoxynivalenol in Naturally Contaminated Grain Are Primarily Linked via the Epoxide Group A glutathione (GSH) adduct of the mycotoxin 4-deoxynivalenol (DON), together with a range of related conjugates, has recently been tentatively identified by LC-MS of DON-treated wheat spikelets. In this study, we prepared samples of DON conjugated at the 10- and 13-positions with GSH, Cys, CysGly, γ-GluCys and N-acetylcysteine (NAC). The mixtures of conjugates were used (...) pathway in plants. To our knowledge, this is the first report of in vivo conjugation of trichothecenes via their epoxy group, which has generally been viewed as unreactive. Because conjugation at the 13-position of DON and other trichothecenes has been shown to be irreversible, this type of conjugate may prove useful as a biomarker of exposure to DON and other 12,13-epoxytrichothecenes.

2016 Toxins

104. Fusarenon-X-induced apoptosis in the liver, kidney, and spleen of mice Full Text available with Trip Pro

Fusarenon-X-induced apoptosis in the liver, kidney, and spleen of mice Fusarenon-X is a non-macrocyclic type B trichothecene mycotoxin. It occurs naturally in agricultural commodities, such as wheat and barley. We investigated fusarenon-X-induced apoptosis in the liver, kidney, and spleen of male and female mice after a single exposure. Thus, mice were orally administered fusarenon-X (4 mg/kg body weight) and were assessed at 0, 3, 9, 18, 24, and 48 hours after treatment. Apoptosis in the liver (...) of this study should be very useful with regard to the toxicity of fusarenon-X in both humans and domestic animals, which has been attributed to the intake of food contaminated with mycotoxins, especially fusarenon-X.

2016 Journal of toxicologic pathology

105. Aflatoxins in Food Products in Iran: a Review of the Literature Full Text available with Trip Pro

Aflatoxins in Food Products in Iran: a Review of the Literature Mycotoxins are secondary metabolites produced by certain toxigenic fungi and the most of them are aflatoxins, fumonisins, trichothecenes, ochratoxin A, patulin, and zearalenone.In consideration of the consumption of certain farm products for animal feed and the prevalence of toxigenic fungi and mycotoxins in food, the present study was performed to evaluate this situation in Iran with a review of the literature using search engines

2016 Jundishapur journal of microbiology

106. Diversity of Fusarium species isolated from UK forage maize and the population structure of F. graminearum from maize and wheat Full Text available with Trip Pro

Diversity of Fusarium species isolated from UK forage maize and the population structure of F. graminearum from maize and wheat Pre-harvest contamination of forage maize by mycotoxin producing Fusarium species was investigated in the UK in 2011 and 2012. A total of 15 Fusarium species were identified from a collection of 1,761 Fusarium isolates recovered from maize stalks and kernels. This study characterized the diversity of Fusarium species present in forage maize in the UK. The predominant (...) species detected were F. graminearum (32.9%) and F. culmorum (34.1%). Along with those species; F. avenacem, F. cerealis, F. equiseti, F. langsethiae, F. napiforme, F. oxysporum, F. poae, F. proliferatum, F. scripi, F. solani, F. subglutinans, F. tricinctum and, F. verticillioides were occasionally isolated. The trichothecene genotypes for F. graminearum were determined to be 84.9% deoxynivalenol (DON) and 15.0% nivalenol (NIV) while F. culmorum isolates were determined to have 24.9% DON and 75.1% NIV

2016 PeerJ

107. Contrasting Roles of Deoxynivalenol and Nivalenol in Host-Mediated Interactions between Fusarium graminearum and Sitobion avenae Full Text available with Trip Pro

Contrasting Roles of Deoxynivalenol and Nivalenol in Host-Mediated Interactions between Fusarium graminearum and Sitobion avenae Fusarium graminearum is the predominant causal species of Fusarium head blight in Europe and North America. Different chemotypes of the species exist, each producing a plethora of mycotoxins. Isolates of differing chemotypes produce nivalenol (NIV) and deoxynivalenol (DON), which differ in toxicity to mammals and plants. However, the effect of each mycotoxin (...) on volatile emissions of plant hosts is not known. Host volatiles are interpreted by insect herbivores such as Sitobion avenae, the English grain aphid, during host selection. Previous work has shown that grain aphids are repelled by wheat infected with DON-producing F. graminearum, and this study seeks to determine the influence of pathogen mycotoxins to host volatile chemistry. Volatile collections from infected hosts and olfactometer bioassays with alate aphids were performed. Infections with isolates

2016 Toxins

108. Detoxification of Deoxynivalenol via Glycosylation Represents Novel Insights on Antagonistic Activities of Trichoderma when Confronted with Fusarium graminearum Full Text available with Trip Pro

Detoxification of Deoxynivalenol via Glycosylation Represents Novel Insights on Antagonistic Activities of Trichoderma when Confronted with Fusarium graminearum Deoxynivalenol (DON) is a mycotoxin mainly produced by the Fusarium graminearum complex, which are important phytopathogens that can infect crops and lead to a serious disease called Fusarium head blight (FHB). As the most common B type trichothecene mycotoxin, DON has toxic effects on animals and humans, which poses a risk to food (...) security. Thus, efforts have been devoted to control DON contamination in different ways. Management of DON production by Trichoderma strains as a biological control-based strategy has drawn great attention recently. In our study, eight selected Trichoderma strains were evaluated for their antagonistic activities on F. graminearum by dual culture on potato dextrose agar (PDA) medium. As potential antagonists, Trichoderma strains showed prominent inhibitory effects on mycelial growth and mycotoxin

2016 Toxins

109. Higher Fusarium Toxin Accumulation in Grain of Winter Triticale Lines Inoculated with Fusarium culmorum as Compared with Wheat Full Text available with Trip Pro

. Grain was analysed for type B trichothecenes (deoxynivalenol and derivatives, nivalenol) and zearalenone (ZEN) content. The average Fusarium head blight indexes were 28.0% for wheat and 19.2% for triticale accessions. The percentage of Fusarium damaged kernels was also higher for wheat and came to 55.6%, while for triticale this figure was 40.2%. The average content of deoxynivalenol (DON) for wheat amounted to 11.65 mg/kg and was lower than the result for triticale which was 14.12 mg/kg (...) . The average contents of nivalenol were similar in both cereals: 4.13 mg/kg and 5.19 mg/kg for wheat and triticale respectively. Considerable amounts of DON derivatives in the cereals were also detected. The ZEN content in the grain was 0.60 mg/kg for wheat and 0.66 mg/kg for triticale. Relationships between Fusarium head blight index, Fusarium damaged kernels and mycotoxin contents were statistically significant for wheat and mostly insignificant for triticale. Triticale proved to have less infected heads

2016 Toxins

110. Comparative Analysis of Deoxynivalenol Biosynthesis Related Gene Expression among Different Chemotypes of Fusarium graminearum in Spring Wheat Full Text available with Trip Pro

Comparative Analysis of Deoxynivalenol Biosynthesis Related Gene Expression among Different Chemotypes of Fusarium graminearum in Spring Wheat Fusarium mycotoxins, deoxynivalenol (DON) and nivalenol (NIV) act as virulence factors and are essential for symptom development after initial infection in wheat. To date, 16 genes have been identified in the DON biosynthesis pathway. However, a comparative gene expression analysis in different chemotypes of Fusarium graminearum in response to Fusarium (...) head blight infection remains to be explored. Therefore, in this study, nine genes that involved in trichothecene biosynthesis were analyzed among 3-acetyldeoxynivalenol (3-ADON), 15-acetyldeoxynivalenol (15-ADON) and nivalenol producing F. graminearum strains in a time course study. Quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction revealed that the expression of all examined TRI gene transcripts initiated at 2 days post-inoculation (dpi), peaked at three to four dpi and gradually

2016 Frontiers in microbiology

111. Climate, Soil Management, and Cultivar Affect Fusarium Head Blight Incidence and Deoxynivalenol Accumulation in Durum Wheat of Southern Italy Full Text available with Trip Pro

Climate, Soil Management, and Cultivar Affect Fusarium Head Blight Incidence and Deoxynivalenol Accumulation in Durum Wheat of Southern Italy Fusarium head blight (FHB) is a multifaceted disease caused by some species of Fusarium spp. A huge production of mycotoxins, mostly trichothecenes, often accompanied this disease. Amongst these toxic compounds, deoxynivalenol (DON) and its derivatives represent a major issue for human as well as for animal health and farming. Common and durum wheat (...) are amongst the hosts of trichothecene-producing Fusaria. Differences in susceptibility to fungal infection and toxin accumulation occur in wheat cultivars. Recently, increasing incidence and severity of Fusarium infection and a higher DON accumulation in durum wheat were observed in Italy, especially in Northern regions. In this study, we analyzed wheat yield, technological parameters, the incidence of Fusarium infection and DON content in kernel samples of durum wheat coming from three locations

2016 Frontiers in microbiology

112. Solvent and Water Mediated Structural Variations in Deoxynivalenol and Their Potential Implications on the Disruption of Ribosomal Function Full Text available with Trip Pro

Solvent and Water Mediated Structural Variations in Deoxynivalenol and Their Potential Implications on the Disruption of Ribosomal Function Fusarium head blight (FHB) is a disease of cereal crops caused by trichothecene producing Fusarium species. Trichothecenes, macrocylicic fungal metabolites composed of three fused rings (A-C) with one epoxide functionality, are a class of mycotoxins known to inhibit protein synthesis in eukaryotic ribosomes. These toxins accumulate in the kernels (...) of infected plants rendering them unsuitable for human and animal consumption. Among the four classes of trichothecenes (A-D) A and B are associated with FHB, where the type B trichothecene deoxynivalenol (DON) is most relevant. While it is known that these toxins inhibit protein synthesis by disrupting peptidyl transferase activity, the exact mechanism of this inhibition is poorly understood. The three-dimensional structures and H-bonding behavior of DON were evaluated using one- and two-dimensional

2016 Frontiers in microbiology

113. Toxicokinetics of T-2 toxin and its major metabolites in broiler chickens after intravenous and oral administration. (Abstract)

Toxicokinetics of T-2 toxin and its major metabolites in broiler chickens after intravenous and oral administration. T-2 toxin, one of the most toxic trichothecene mycotoxins, causes economic losses in animal production. Little information is available on the toxicokinetic parameters of T-2 toxin and its major metabolites (i.e., HT-2 toxin and T-2 triol) in broiler chickens. In this study, toxicokinetics of T-2 toxin and its major metabolites were evaluated in broiler chickens after a single

2015 Journal of veterinary pharmacology and therapeutics Controlled trial quality: uncertain

114. Delay of the Onset of Puberty in Female Rats by Prepubertal Exposure to T-2 Toxin Full Text available with Trip Pro

Delay of the Onset of Puberty in Female Rats by Prepubertal Exposure to T-2 Toxin Growing evidence has revealed the deleterious influence of environmental and food contaminants on puberty onset and development in both animals and children, provoking an increasing health concern. T-2 toxin, a naturally-produced Type A trichothecene mycotoxin which is frequently found in cereal grains and products intended for human and animal consumption, has been shown to impair the reproduction and development (...) in animals. Nevertheless, whether this trichothecene mycotoxin can disturb the onset of puberty in females remains unclear. To clarify this point, infantile female rats were given a daily intragastric administration of vehicle or 187.5 μg/kg body weight of T-2 toxin for five consecutive days from postnatal day 15 to 19, and the effects on puberty onset were evaluated in the present study. The results revealed that the days of vaginal opening, first dioestrus, and first estrus in regular estrous cycle

2015 Toxins

115. The roles of carboxylesterase and CYP isozymes on the in vitro metabolism of T-2 toxin Full Text available with Trip Pro

The roles of carboxylesterase and CYP isozymes on the in vitro metabolism of T-2 toxin T-2 toxin poses a great threat to human health because it has the highest toxicity of the currently known trichothecene mycotoxins. To understand the in vivo toxicity and transformation mechanism of T-2 toxin, we investigated the role of one kind of principal phase I drug-metabolizing enzymes (cytochrome P450 [CYP450] enzymes) on the metabolism of T-2 toxin, which are crucial to the metabolism of endogenous

2015 Military Medical Research

116. A Novel Peptide-Binding Motifs Inference Approach to Understand Deoxynivalenol Molecular Toxicity Full Text available with Trip Pro

A Novel Peptide-Binding Motifs Inference Approach to Understand Deoxynivalenol Molecular Toxicity Deoxynivalenol (DON) is a type B trichothecene mycotoxin that is commonly detected in cereals and grains world-wide. The low-tolerated levels of this mycotoxin, especially in mono-gastric animals, reflect its bio-potency. The toxicity of DON is conventionally attributed to its ability to inhibit ribosomal protein biosynthesis, but recent advances in molecular tools have elucidated novel mechanisms

2015 Toxins

117. Role of Cholecystokinin in Anorexia Induction Following Oral Exposure to the 8-Ketotrichothecenes Deoxynivalenol, 15-Acetyldeoxynivalenol, 3-Acetyldeoxynivalenol, Fusarenon X, and Nivalenol Full Text available with Trip Pro

Role of Cholecystokinin in Anorexia Induction Following Oral Exposure to the 8-Ketotrichothecenes Deoxynivalenol, 15-Acetyldeoxynivalenol, 3-Acetyldeoxynivalenol, Fusarenon X, and Nivalenol Cereal grain contamination by trichothecene mycotoxins is known to negatively impact human and animal health with adverse effects on food intake and growth being of particular concern. The head blight fungus Fusarium graminearum elaborates five closely related 8-ketotrichothecene congeners: (1

2014 Toxicological Sciences

118. A Simple Method for the Assessment of Fusarium Head Blight Resistance in Korean Wheat Seedlings Inoculated with Fusarium graminearum Full Text available with Trip Pro

A Simple Method for the Assessment of Fusarium Head Blight Resistance in Korean Wheat Seedlings Inoculated with Fusarium graminearum Fusarium head blight (FHB; scab) caused mainly by Fusarium graminearum is a devastating disease of wheat and barley around the world. FHB causes yield reductions and contamination of grain with trichothecene mycotoxins such as deoxynivalenol (DON) which are a major health concern for humans and animals. The objective of this research was to develop an easy seed

2014 The Plant Pathology Journal

119. Differential Effects of Oral Exposure to Naturally-Occurring and Synthetic Deoxynivalenol Congeners on Proinflammatory Cytokine and Chemokine mRNA Expression in the Mouse Full Text available with Trip Pro

Differential Effects of Oral Exposure to Naturally-Occurring and Synthetic Deoxynivalenol Congeners on Proinflammatory Cytokine and Chemokine mRNA Expression in the Mouse The foodborne mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON) induces a ribotoxic stress response in mononuclear phagocytes that mediate aberrant multi-organ upregulation of TNF-α, interleukins and chemokines in experimental animals. While other DON congeners also exist as food contaminants or pharmacologically-active derivatives (...) , and CCL-2 mRNAs. EN139528's effects were similar to NIV, the least potent 8-ketotrichothecene, while D3G and EN139544 were largely incapable of eliciting cytokine or chemokine mRNA responses. Taken together, the results presented herein provide important new insights into the potential of naturally-occurring and synthetic DON congeners to elicit aberrant mRNA upregulation of cytokines associated with acute and chronic trichothecene toxicity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

2014 Toxicology and applied pharmacology

120. GC–MS based targeted metabolic profiling identifies changes in the wheat metabolome following deoxynivalenol treatment Full Text available with Trip Pro

GC–MS based targeted metabolic profiling identifies changes in the wheat metabolome following deoxynivalenol treatment Fusariumgraminearum and related species commonly infest grains causing the devastating plant disease Fusarium head blight (FHB) and the formation of trichothecene mycotoxins. The most relevant toxin is deoxynivalenol (DON), which acts as a virulence factor of the pathogen. FHB is difficult to control and resistance to this disease is a polygenic trait, mainly mediated

2014 Metabolomics

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