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Trichothecene Mycotoxin

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101. Solvent and Water Mediated Structural Variations in Deoxynivalenol and Their Potential Implications on the Disruption of Ribosomal Function (PubMed)

Solvent and Water Mediated Structural Variations in Deoxynivalenol and Their Potential Implications on the Disruption of Ribosomal Function Fusarium head blight (FHB) is a disease of cereal crops caused by trichothecene producing Fusarium species. Trichothecenes, macrocylicic fungal metabolites composed of three fused rings (A-C) with one epoxide functionality, are a class of mycotoxins known to inhibit protein synthesis in eukaryotic ribosomes. These toxins accumulate in the kernels (...) of infected plants rendering them unsuitable for human and animal consumption. Among the four classes of trichothecenes (A-D) A and B are associated with FHB, where the type B trichothecene deoxynivalenol (DON) is most relevant. While it is known that these toxins inhibit protein synthesis by disrupting peptidyl transferase activity, the exact mechanism of this inhibition is poorly understood. The three-dimensional structures and H-bonding behavior of DON were evaluated using one- and two-dimensional

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2016 Frontiers in microbiology

102. Occurrence of Fusarium langsethiae and T-2 and HT-2 Toxins in Italian Malting Barley (PubMed)

Occurrence of Fusarium langsethiae and T-2 and HT-2 Toxins in Italian Malting Barley T-2 and HT-2 toxins are two of the most toxic members of type-A trichothecenes, produced by a number of Fusarium species. The occurrence of these mycotoxins was studied in barley samples during a survey carried out in the 2011-2014 growing seasons in climatically different regions in Italy. The percentage of samples found positive ranges from 22% to 53%, with values included between 26 and 787 μg/kg

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2016 Toxins

103. Phosphoproteome Analysis Reveals the Molecular Mechanisms Underlying Deoxynivalenol-Induced Intestinal Toxicity in IPEC-J2 Cells (PubMed)

Phosphoproteome Analysis Reveals the Molecular Mechanisms Underlying Deoxynivalenol-Induced Intestinal Toxicity in IPEC-J2 Cells Deoxynivalenol (DON) is a widespread trichothecene mycotoxin that commonly contaminates cereal crops and has various toxic effects in animals and humans. DON primarily targets the gastrointestinal tract, the first barrier against ingested food contaminants. In this study, an isobaric tag for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ)-based phosphoproteomic approach

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2016 Toxins

104. Effects of Citric and Lactic Acid on the Reduction of Deoxynivalenol and Its Derivatives in Feeds (PubMed)

Effects of Citric and Lactic Acid on the Reduction of Deoxynivalenol and Its Derivatives in Feeds Exposure to mycotoxin-contaminated feeds represents a serious health risk. This has necessitated the need for the establishment of practical methods for mycotoxin decontamination. This study investigated the effects of citric acid (CA) and lactic acid (LA) on common trichothecene mycotoxins in feeds contaminated with Fusarium mycotoxins. Contaminated feed samples were processed either with 5% CA (...) -hydroxyculmorin, and sambucinol. The concentration of nivalenol was only lowered by the LA treatment. In contrast, CA and LA treatments showed no or only small effects on the concentration of several mycotoxins and their derivatives, including zearalenone, fumonisins, and culmorin. In conclusion, the present results indicate that the use of 5% solutions of LA and CA might reduce the concentration of common trichothecene mycotoxins, especially DON and its derivate 15Ac-DON. However, further research

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2016 Toxins

105. Exposure to HT-2 toxin causes oxidative stress induced apoptosis/autophagy in porcine oocytes (PubMed)

Exposure to HT-2 toxin causes oxidative stress induced apoptosis/autophagy in porcine oocytes T-2 toxin is a main type A trichothecene mycotoxin which is the most toxic trichothecence. T-2 toxin has posed various toxic effects on human and animals in vigorous cell proliferation tissues like lymphoid, hematopoietic and gastrointestinal tissues, while HT-2 toxin is the major metabolite which is deacetylated by T-2 toxin. In this study, we focused on the toxic effects of HT-2 on porcine oocyte

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2016 Scientific reports

106. Pentahydroxyscirpene—Producing Strains, Formation In Planta, and Natural Occurrence (PubMed)

Pentahydroxyscirpene—Producing Strains, Formation In Planta, and Natural Occurrence Trichothecenes are a class of structurally diverse mycotoxins with more than 200 naturally occurring compounds. Previously, a new compound, pentahydroxyscirpene (PHS), was reported as a byproduct of a nivalenol producing Fusarium strain, IFA189. PHS contains a hydroxy group at C-8 instead of the keto group of type B trichothecenes. In this work, we demonstrate that IFA189 belongs to the species Fusarium

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2016 Toxins

107. Higher Fusarium Toxin Accumulation in Grain of Winter Triticale Lines Inoculated with Fusarium culmorum as Compared with Wheat (PubMed)

. Grain was analysed for type B trichothecenes (deoxynivalenol and derivatives, nivalenol) and zearalenone (ZEN) content. The average Fusarium head blight indexes were 28.0% for wheat and 19.2% for triticale accessions. The percentage of Fusarium damaged kernels was also higher for wheat and came to 55.6%, while for triticale this figure was 40.2%. The average content of deoxynivalenol (DON) for wheat amounted to 11.65 mg/kg and was lower than the result for triticale which was 14.12 mg/kg (...) . The average contents of nivalenol were similar in both cereals: 4.13 mg/kg and 5.19 mg/kg for wheat and triticale respectively. Considerable amounts of DON derivatives in the cereals were also detected. The ZEN content in the grain was 0.60 mg/kg for wheat and 0.66 mg/kg for triticale. Relationships between Fusarium head blight index, Fusarium damaged kernels and mycotoxin contents were statistically significant for wheat and mostly insignificant for triticale. Triticale proved to have less infected heads

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2016 Toxins

108. Fusarium Head Blight Resistance QTL in the Spring Wheat Cross Kenyon/86ISMN 2137 (PubMed)

Fusarium Head Blight Resistance QTL in the Spring Wheat Cross Kenyon/86ISMN 2137 Fusarium head blight (FHB), caused by Fusarium graminearum, is a very important disease of wheat globally. Damage caused by F. graminearum includes reduced grain yield, reduced grain functional quality, and results in the presence of the trichothecene mycotoxin deoxynivalenol in Fusarium-damaged kernels. The development of FHB resistant wheat cultivars is an important component of integrated management

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2016 Frontiers in microbiology

109. A Brachypodium UDP-Glycosyltransferase Confers Root Tolerance to Deoxynivalenol and Resistance to Fusarium Infection (PubMed)

A Brachypodium UDP-Glycosyltransferase Confers Root Tolerance to Deoxynivalenol and Resistance to Fusarium Infection Fusarium head blight (FHB) is a cereal disease caused by Fusarium graminearum, a fungus able to produce type B trichothecenes on cereals, including deoxynivalenol (DON), which is harmful for humans and animals. Resistance to FHB is quantitative, and the mechanisms underlying resistance are poorly understood. Resistance has been related to the ability to conjugate DON (...) tolerance to the mycotoxin and spike resistance to the fungus. The dynamics of expression and conjugation suggest that the speed of DON conjugation rather than the increase of D3G per se is a critical factor explaining the higher resistance of the overexpressing lines. A detached glumes assay showed that overexpression but not mutation of the Bradi5g03300 gene alters primary infection by F. graminearum, highlighting the involvement of DON in early steps of infection. Together, these results indicate

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2016 Plant physiology

110. Climate, Soil Management, and Cultivar Affect Fusarium Head Blight Incidence and Deoxynivalenol Accumulation in Durum Wheat of Southern Italy (PubMed)

Climate, Soil Management, and Cultivar Affect Fusarium Head Blight Incidence and Deoxynivalenol Accumulation in Durum Wheat of Southern Italy Fusarium head blight (FHB) is a multifaceted disease caused by some species of Fusarium spp. A huge production of mycotoxins, mostly trichothecenes, often accompanied this disease. Amongst these toxic compounds, deoxynivalenol (DON) and its derivatives represent a major issue for human as well as for animal health and farming. Common and durum wheat (...) are amongst the hosts of trichothecene-producing Fusaria. Differences in susceptibility to fungal infection and toxin accumulation occur in wheat cultivars. Recently, increasing incidence and severity of Fusarium infection and a higher DON accumulation in durum wheat were observed in Italy, especially in Northern regions. In this study, we analyzed wheat yield, technological parameters, the incidence of Fusarium infection and DON content in kernel samples of durum wheat coming from three locations

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2016 Frontiers in microbiology

111. Glutathione-Conjugates of Deoxynivalenol in Naturally Contaminated Grain Are Primarily Linked via the Epoxide Group (PubMed)

Glutathione-Conjugates of Deoxynivalenol in Naturally Contaminated Grain Are Primarily Linked via the Epoxide Group A glutathione (GSH) adduct of the mycotoxin 4-deoxynivalenol (DON), together with a range of related conjugates, has recently been tentatively identified by LC-MS of DON-treated wheat spikelets. In this study, we prepared samples of DON conjugated at the 10- and 13-positions with GSH, Cys, CysGly, γ-GluCys and N-acetylcysteine (NAC). The mixtures of conjugates were used (...) pathway in plants. To our knowledge, this is the first report of in vivo conjugation of trichothecenes via their epoxy group, which has generally been viewed as unreactive. Because conjugation at the 13-position of DON and other trichothecenes has been shown to be irreversible, this type of conjugate may prove useful as a biomarker of exposure to DON and other 12,13-epoxytrichothecenes.

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2016 Toxins

112. Detoxification of Deoxynivalenol via Glycosylation Represents Novel Insights on Antagonistic Activities of Trichoderma when Confronted with Fusarium graminearum (PubMed)

Detoxification of Deoxynivalenol via Glycosylation Represents Novel Insights on Antagonistic Activities of Trichoderma when Confronted with Fusarium graminearum Deoxynivalenol (DON) is a mycotoxin mainly produced by the Fusarium graminearum complex, which are important phytopathogens that can infect crops and lead to a serious disease called Fusarium head blight (FHB). As the most common B type trichothecene mycotoxin, DON has toxic effects on animals and humans, which poses a risk to food (...) security. Thus, efforts have been devoted to control DON contamination in different ways. Management of DON production by Trichoderma strains as a biological control-based strategy has drawn great attention recently. In our study, eight selected Trichoderma strains were evaluated for their antagonistic activities on F. graminearum by dual culture on potato dextrose agar (PDA) medium. As potential antagonists, Trichoderma strains showed prominent inhibitory effects on mycelial growth and mycotoxin

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2016 Toxins

113. Delay of the Onset of Puberty in Female Rats by Prepubertal Exposure to T-2 Toxin (PubMed)

Delay of the Onset of Puberty in Female Rats by Prepubertal Exposure to T-2 Toxin Growing evidence has revealed the deleterious influence of environmental and food contaminants on puberty onset and development in both animals and children, provoking an increasing health concern. T-2 toxin, a naturally-produced Type A trichothecene mycotoxin which is frequently found in cereal grains and products intended for human and animal consumption, has been shown to impair the reproduction and development (...) in animals. Nevertheless, whether this trichothecene mycotoxin can disturb the onset of puberty in females remains unclear. To clarify this point, infantile female rats were given a daily intragastric administration of vehicle or 187.5 μg/kg body weight of T-2 toxin for five consecutive days from postnatal day 15 to 19, and the effects on puberty onset were evaluated in the present study. The results revealed that the days of vaginal opening, first dioestrus, and first estrus in regular estrous cycle

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2015 Toxins

114. A Simple Method for the Assessment of Fusarium Head Blight Resistance in Korean Wheat Seedlings Inoculated with Fusarium graminearum (PubMed)

A Simple Method for the Assessment of Fusarium Head Blight Resistance in Korean Wheat Seedlings Inoculated with Fusarium graminearum Fusarium head blight (FHB; scab) caused mainly by Fusarium graminearum is a devastating disease of wheat and barley around the world. FHB causes yield reductions and contamination of grain with trichothecene mycotoxins such as deoxynivalenol (DON) which are a major health concern for humans and animals. The objective of this research was to develop an easy seed

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2014 The Plant Pathology Journal

115. Toxicokinetics of T-2 toxin and its major metabolites in broiler chickens after intravenous and oral administration. (PubMed)

Toxicokinetics of T-2 toxin and its major metabolites in broiler chickens after intravenous and oral administration. T-2 toxin, one of the most toxic trichothecene mycotoxins, causes economic losses in animal production. Little information is available on the toxicokinetic parameters of T-2 toxin and its major metabolites (i.e., HT-2 toxin and T-2 triol) in broiler chickens. In this study, toxicokinetics of T-2 toxin and its major metabolites were evaluated in broiler chickens after a single

2015 Journal of veterinary pharmacology and therapeutics Controlled trial quality: uncertain

116. Role of Cholecystokinin in Anorexia Induction Following Oral Exposure to the 8-Ketotrichothecenes Deoxynivalenol, 15-Acetyldeoxynivalenol, 3-Acetyldeoxynivalenol, Fusarenon X, and Nivalenol (PubMed)

Role of Cholecystokinin in Anorexia Induction Following Oral Exposure to the 8-Ketotrichothecenes Deoxynivalenol, 15-Acetyldeoxynivalenol, 3-Acetyldeoxynivalenol, Fusarenon X, and Nivalenol Cereal grain contamination by trichothecene mycotoxins is known to negatively impact human and animal health with adverse effects on food intake and growth being of particular concern. The head blight fungus Fusarium graminearum elaborates five closely related 8-ketotrichothecene congeners: (1

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2014 Toxicological Sciences

117. The roles of carboxylesterase and CYP isozymes on the in vitro metabolism of T-2 toxin (PubMed)

The roles of carboxylesterase and CYP isozymes on the in vitro metabolism of T-2 toxin T-2 toxin poses a great threat to human health because it has the highest toxicity of the currently known trichothecene mycotoxins. To understand the in vivo toxicity and transformation mechanism of T-2 toxin, we investigated the role of one kind of principal phase I drug-metabolizing enzymes (cytochrome P450 [CYP450] enzymes) on the metabolism of T-2 toxin, which are crucial to the metabolism of endogenous

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2015 Military Medical Research

118. A Novel Peptide-Binding Motifs Inference Approach to Understand Deoxynivalenol Molecular Toxicity (PubMed)

A Novel Peptide-Binding Motifs Inference Approach to Understand Deoxynivalenol Molecular Toxicity Deoxynivalenol (DON) is a type B trichothecene mycotoxin that is commonly detected in cereals and grains world-wide. The low-tolerated levels of this mycotoxin, especially in mono-gastric animals, reflect its bio-potency. The toxicity of DON is conventionally attributed to its ability to inhibit ribosomal protein biosynthesis, but recent advances in molecular tools have elucidated novel mechanisms

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2015 Toxins

119. Dermatologic Aspects of Bioterrorism Agents (Overview)

. American stockpiles of biological weapons were destroyed completely by 1973. During the Vietnam War, Vietcong guerrillas used punji stakes dipped in feces to increase the morbidity from wounding by these stakes. The Soviet Union (USSR) continued to develop biological weapons from 1950-1980. In the 1970s, the USSR and its allies were suspected of having used "yellow rain" (trichothecene mycotoxins) during campaigns in Loas, Cambodia, and Afghanistan. In 1979, an accidental release of anthrax from

2014 eMedicine.com

120. Early Phosphoproteomic Changes in the Mouse Spleen During Deoxynivalenol-Induced Ribotoxic Stress (PubMed)

Early Phosphoproteomic Changes in the Mouse Spleen During Deoxynivalenol-Induced Ribotoxic Stress The trichothecene mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON) targets the innate immune system and is of public health significance because of its frequent presence in human and animal food. DON-induced proinflammatory gene expression and apoptosis in the lymphoid tissue have been associated with a ribotoxic stress response (RSR) that involves rapid phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs

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2013 Toxicological Sciences

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