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Trichothecene Mycotoxin

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81. Characterisation of the Mycobiota on the Shell Surface of Table Eggs Acquired from Different Egg-Laying Hen Breeding Systems (PubMed)

and, consequently, on possible production of mycotoxins. Therefore, the aim of the study was to identify the species of microscopic fungi present on the eggshell surface acquired from different breeding systems and to measure the number of selected mycotoxins. The qualitative analysis resulted in the identification of 41 isolates on the surface of eggs. There were 7 isolates from the organic production system, 11 from the free-range production system, 14 from the deep litter indoor housing system and 9 from (...) the cage farming production system. The research proved that the diversification in the population of mycobiota on the eggshells depended on the egg-laying hen breeding system. The microscopic fungi isolated from the eggshells included toxigenic and pathogenic species such as Fusarium culmorum and F. equiseti. As the egg storage time increased, fungi, including the pathogenic species, penetrated through the eggshells. In consequence, mycotoxins were identified in the egg whites. Type-A and type-B

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2018 Toxins

82. Comparative Pathogenicity of Fusarium graminearum Isolates from Wheat Kernels in Korea (PubMed)

Comparative Pathogenicity of Fusarium graminearum Isolates from Wheat Kernels in Korea Fusarium head blight (FHB) caused by Fusarium species is a major disease of wheat and barley around the world. FHB causes yield reductions and contamination of grains with trichothecene mycotoxins including; nivalenol (NIV), deoxynivalenol (DON), 3-acetyldeoxynivalenol (3-ADON), and 15-acetylde-oxynivalenol (15-ADON). The objectives of this study were to identify strains of F. graminearum isolated in Korea

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2018 The Plant Pathology Journal

83. Fungal Deoxynivalenol-Induced Enterocyte Distress Is Attenuated by Adulterated Adlay: In Vitro Evidences for Mucoactive Counteraction (PubMed)

Fungal Deoxynivalenol-Induced Enterocyte Distress Is Attenuated by Adulterated Adlay: In Vitro Evidences for Mucoactive Counteraction Adlay is a cereal crop that has long been used as traditional herbal medicine and as a highly nourishing food. However, deoxynivalenol (DON), the most prevalent trichothecene mycotoxin worldwide, frequently spoils grains, including adlay, via fungal infection. On the basis of an assumption that the actions of DON in the gut could be modified by adlay consumption (...) for adlay-based attenuation of trichothecene-induced gut distress, implicating potential use of a new gut protector against enteropathogenic insults in diets.

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2018 Frontiers in immunology

84. RNA-Seq Revealed Differences in Transcriptomes between 3ADON and 15ADON Populations of Fusarium graminearum In Vitro and In Planta. (PubMed)

RNA-Seq Revealed Differences in Transcriptomes between 3ADON and 15ADON Populations of Fusarium graminearum In Vitro and In Planta. Fusarium graminearum is the major causal agent of Fusarium head blight (FHB) in barley and wheat in North America. The fungus not only causes yield loss of the crops but also produces harmful trichothecene mycotoxins [Deoxynivalenol (DON) and its derivatives-3-acetyldeoxynivalenol (3ADON) and 15-acetyldeoxynivalenol (15ADON), and nivalenol (NIV)] that contaminate

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2016 PLoS ONE

85. Primary and Immortalized Human Respiratory Cells Display Different Patterns of Cytotoxicity and Cytokine Release upon Exposure to Deoxynivalenol, Nivalenol and Fusarenon-X (PubMed)

Primary and Immortalized Human Respiratory Cells Display Different Patterns of Cytotoxicity and Cytokine Release upon Exposure to Deoxynivalenol, Nivalenol and Fusarenon-X The type B trichothecene mycotoxins deoxynivalenol (DON), nivalenol (NIV) and fusarenon-X (FX) are structurally related secondary metabolites frequently produced by Fusarium on wheat. Consequently, DON, NIV and FX contaminate wheat dusts, exposing grain workers to toxins by inhalation. Those trichothecenes at low, relevant (...) , exposition concentrations have differential effects on intestinal cells, but whether such differences exist with respiratory cells is mostly unknown, while it is required to assess the combined risk of exposure to mycotoxins. The goal of the present study was to compare the effects of DON, NIV and FX alone or in combination on the viability and IL-6 and IL-8-inducing capacity of human epithelial cells representative of the respiratory tract: primary human airway epithelial cells of nasal (hAECN

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2017 Toxins

86. Chemosensitization of Fusarium graminearum to Chemical Fungicides Using Cyclic Lipopeptides Produced by Bacillus amyloliquefaciens Strain JCK-12 (PubMed)

trichothecenes mycotoxin production. The results of this study indicate that B. amyloliquefaciens JCK-12 could be used as an available biocontrol agent or as a chemosensitizer to chemical fungicides for controlling FHB disease and as a strategy for preventing the contamination of harvested crops with mycotoxins. (...) Chemosensitization of Fusarium graminearum to Chemical Fungicides Using Cyclic Lipopeptides Produced by Bacillus amyloliquefaciens Strain JCK-12 Fusarium head blight (FHB) caused by infection with Fusarium graminearum leads to enormous losses to crop growers, and may contaminate grains with a number of Fusarium mycotoxins that pose serious risks to human and animal health. Antagonistic bacteria that are used to prevent FHB offer attractive alternatives or supplements to synthetic fungicides

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2017 Frontiers in plant science

87. The Food Contaminants Nivalenol and Deoxynivalenol Induce Inflammation in Intestinal Epithelial Cells by Regulating Reactive Oxygen Species Release (PubMed)

The Food Contaminants Nivalenol and Deoxynivalenol Induce Inflammation in Intestinal Epithelial Cells by Regulating Reactive Oxygen Species Release Fusarium mycotoxins are fungal metabolites whose ability to affect cereal grains as multi-contaminants is progressively increasing. The trichothecene mycotoxins nivalenol (NIV) and deoxynivalenol (DON) are often found in almost all agricultural commodities worldwide. They are able to affect animal and human health, including at the intestinal level (...) -κB), Nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2) and inflammasome activation. The pro-inflammatory effect was strongly induced by NIV and by the mycotoxin mixture, when compared to DON alone. Mechanistic studies indicate a pivotal role for ROS in the observed pro-inflammatory effects induced by mycotoxins. In this study, the interactions between NIV and DON point out the importance of their food co-contamination, further highlighting the risk assessment process that is of growing concern.

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2017 Nutrients

88. A barley UDP-glucosyltransferase inactivates nivalenol and provides Fusarium Head Blight resistance in transgenic wheat (PubMed)

A barley UDP-glucosyltransferase inactivates nivalenol and provides Fusarium Head Blight resistance in transgenic wheat Fusarium Head Blight is a disease of cereal crops that causes severe yield losses and mycotoxin contamination of grain. The main causal pathogen, Fusarium graminearum, produces the trichothecene toxins deoxynivalenol or nivalenol as virulence factors. Nivalenol-producing isolates are most prevalent in Asia but co-exist with deoxynivalenol producers in lower frequency in North

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2017 Journal of experimental botany

89. Effects of deoxynivalenol (DON) and its microbial biotransformation product deepoxy-deoxynivalenol (DOM-1) on a trout, pig, mouse, and human cell line (PubMed)

Effects of deoxynivalenol (DON) and its microbial biotransformation product deepoxy-deoxynivalenol (DOM-1) on a trout, pig, mouse, and human cell line Deoxynivalenol (DON), a trichothecene produced by various Fusarium species, is one of the most prevalent food- and feed-associated mycotoxins. The effects of DON and deepoxy-deoxynivalenol (DOM-1) were assessed in five different cell lines from different tissues and species starting from the first line of defense, the trout gill (RTgill-W1

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2017 Mycotoxin research

90. Genetic Divergence and Chemotype Diversity in the Fusarium Head Blight Pathogen Fusarium poae (PubMed)

gene cluster was invaded by a transposable element between Tri5 and Tri6. To investigate the impact of these variations on the phenotypic chemotype, mycotoxin production was assessed on artificial medium. Complex blends of type A and type B trichothecenes were produced but neither genetic variability in the Tri genes nor variability in the genome or geography accounted for the divergence in trichothecene production. In view of its complex chemotype, it will be of utmost interest to uncover the role (...) of both sexual recombination and clonal spread of successful genotypes in the population. Despite the large genetic variation found, all F. poae isolates possess the nivalenol chemotype based on Tri7 sequence analysis. Nevertheless, Tri gene clusters showed two layers of genetic variability. Firstly, the Tri1 locus was highly variable with mostly synonymous mutations and mutations in introns pointing to a strong purifying selection pressure. Secondly, in a subset of isolates, the main trichothecene

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2017 Toxins

91. Deoxynivalenol Biomarkers in the Urine of UK Vegetarians (PubMed)

Deoxynivalenol Biomarkers in the Urine of UK Vegetarians Deoxynivalenol (DON) is produced by Fusarium graminearum and is one of the most commonly occurring trichothecenes. Vegetarians are alleged to be a high-risk group for DON exposure due to high intakes of cereals susceptible to the growth of the mycotoxin. This study provides the levels of DON and de-epoxi Deoxynivalenol (DOM-1) in urine analysed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) in UK vegetarians. Over two consecutive days

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2017 Toxins

92. Fusarium graminearum: pathogen or endophyte of North American grasses? (PubMed)

Fusarium graminearum: pathogen or endophyte of North American grasses? Mycotoxin-producing Fusarium graminearum and related species cause Fusarium head blight on cultivated grasses, such as wheat and barley. However, these Fusarium species may have had a longer evolutionary history with North American grasses than with cultivated crops and may interact with the ancestral hosts in ways which are biochemically distinct. We assayed 25 species of asymptomatic native grasses for the presence (...) of Fusarium species and confirmed infected grasses as hosts using re-inoculation tests. We examined seed from native grasses for the presence of mycotoxin-producing Fusarium species and evaluated the ability of these fungi to produce mycotoxins in both native grass and wheat hosts using biochemical analysis. Mycotoxin-producing Fusarium species were shown to be prevalent in phylogenetically diverse native grasses, colonizing multiple tissue types, including seeds, leaves and inflorescence structures

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2017 The New phytologist

93. Health Effects from Mould Exposure in Indoor Environments - revised

Proc. 2007;28(3):262-70. 27. Dales R, Liu L, Wheeler AJ, Gilbert NL. Quality of indoor residential air and health. CMAJ. 2008;179(2):147-52. 28. Portnoy JM, Barnes CS, Kennedy K. Importance of mold allergy in asthma. Curr Allergy Asthma Rep. 2008;8(1):71-8. 29. Pestka JJ, Yike I, Dearborn DG, Ward MD, Harkema JR. Stachybotrys chartarum, trichothecene mycotoxins, and damp building-related illness: new insights into a public health enigma. Toxicol Sci. 2008;104(1):4- 26. 30. Fisk WJ, Eliseeva EA (...) by the NCCEH. 3,4 What is mould? “Mould” is the common term for the microscopic multi-cellular spore-bearing organisms that grow as a mat of intertwined filaments or hyphae. 5 Moulds are eukaryotic (with a nucleus) and exist in a separate phylogenic kingdom from plants and animals. 2 Mould is naturally occurring and ubiquitous, located both indoors and out, so exposure to it is unavoidable; humans are routinely exposed to 200 types of moulds. 1 Some moulds produce mycotoxins (e.g., Stachybotrys chartarum

2012 National Collaborating Centre for Environmental Health

94. Comparative Analysis of Deoxynivalenol Biosynthesis Related Gene Expression among Different Chemotypes of Fusarium graminearum in Spring Wheat (PubMed)

Comparative Analysis of Deoxynivalenol Biosynthesis Related Gene Expression among Different Chemotypes of Fusarium graminearum in Spring Wheat Fusarium mycotoxins, deoxynivalenol (DON) and nivalenol (NIV) act as virulence factors and are essential for symptom development after initial infection in wheat. To date, 16 genes have been identified in the DON biosynthesis pathway. However, a comparative gene expression analysis in different chemotypes of Fusarium graminearum in response to Fusarium (...) head blight infection remains to be explored. Therefore, in this study, nine genes that involved in trichothecene biosynthesis were analyzed among 3-acetyldeoxynivalenol (3-ADON), 15-acetyldeoxynivalenol (15-ADON) and nivalenol producing F. graminearum strains in a time course study. Quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction revealed that the expression of all examined TRI gene transcripts initiated at 2 days post-inoculation (dpi), peaked at three to four dpi and gradually

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2016 Frontiers in microbiology

95. Solvent and Water Mediated Structural Variations in Deoxynivalenol and Their Potential Implications on the Disruption of Ribosomal Function (PubMed)

Solvent and Water Mediated Structural Variations in Deoxynivalenol and Their Potential Implications on the Disruption of Ribosomal Function Fusarium head blight (FHB) is a disease of cereal crops caused by trichothecene producing Fusarium species. Trichothecenes, macrocylicic fungal metabolites composed of three fused rings (A-C) with one epoxide functionality, are a class of mycotoxins known to inhibit protein synthesis in eukaryotic ribosomes. These toxins accumulate in the kernels (...) of infected plants rendering them unsuitable for human and animal consumption. Among the four classes of trichothecenes (A-D) A and B are associated with FHB, where the type B trichothecene deoxynivalenol (DON) is most relevant. While it is known that these toxins inhibit protein synthesis by disrupting peptidyl transferase activity, the exact mechanism of this inhibition is poorly understood. The three-dimensional structures and H-bonding behavior of DON were evaluated using one- and two-dimensional

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2016 Frontiers in microbiology

96. Occurrence of Fusarium langsethiae and T-2 and HT-2 Toxins in Italian Malting Barley (PubMed)

Occurrence of Fusarium langsethiae and T-2 and HT-2 Toxins in Italian Malting Barley T-2 and HT-2 toxins are two of the most toxic members of type-A trichothecenes, produced by a number of Fusarium species. The occurrence of these mycotoxins was studied in barley samples during a survey carried out in the 2011-2014 growing seasons in climatically different regions in Italy. The percentage of samples found positive ranges from 22% to 53%, with values included between 26 and 787 μg/kg

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2016 Toxins

97. Phosphoproteome Analysis Reveals the Molecular Mechanisms Underlying Deoxynivalenol-Induced Intestinal Toxicity in IPEC-J2 Cells (PubMed)

Phosphoproteome Analysis Reveals the Molecular Mechanisms Underlying Deoxynivalenol-Induced Intestinal Toxicity in IPEC-J2 Cells Deoxynivalenol (DON) is a widespread trichothecene mycotoxin that commonly contaminates cereal crops and has various toxic effects in animals and humans. DON primarily targets the gastrointestinal tract, the first barrier against ingested food contaminants. In this study, an isobaric tag for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ)-based phosphoproteomic approach

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2016 Toxins

98. Exposure to HT-2 toxin causes oxidative stress induced apoptosis/autophagy in porcine oocytes (PubMed)

Exposure to HT-2 toxin causes oxidative stress induced apoptosis/autophagy in porcine oocytes T-2 toxin is a main type A trichothecene mycotoxin which is the most toxic trichothecence. T-2 toxin has posed various toxic effects on human and animals in vigorous cell proliferation tissues like lymphoid, hematopoietic and gastrointestinal tissues, while HT-2 toxin is the major metabolite which is deacetylated by T-2 toxin. In this study, we focused on the toxic effects of HT-2 on porcine oocyte

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2016 Scientific reports

99. Effects of Citric and Lactic Acid on the Reduction of Deoxynivalenol and Its Derivatives in Feeds (PubMed)

Effects of Citric and Lactic Acid on the Reduction of Deoxynivalenol and Its Derivatives in Feeds Exposure to mycotoxin-contaminated feeds represents a serious health risk. This has necessitated the need for the establishment of practical methods for mycotoxin decontamination. This study investigated the effects of citric acid (CA) and lactic acid (LA) on common trichothecene mycotoxins in feeds contaminated with Fusarium mycotoxins. Contaminated feed samples were processed either with 5% CA (...) -hydroxyculmorin, and sambucinol. The concentration of nivalenol was only lowered by the LA treatment. In contrast, CA and LA treatments showed no or only small effects on the concentration of several mycotoxins and their derivatives, including zearalenone, fumonisins, and culmorin. In conclusion, the present results indicate that the use of 5% solutions of LA and CA might reduce the concentration of common trichothecene mycotoxins, especially DON and its derivate 15Ac-DON. However, further research

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2016 Toxins

100. Fusarenon-X-induced apoptosis in the liver, kidney, and spleen of mice (PubMed)

Fusarenon-X-induced apoptosis in the liver, kidney, and spleen of mice Fusarenon-X is a non-macrocyclic type B trichothecene mycotoxin. It occurs naturally in agricultural commodities, such as wheat and barley. We investigated fusarenon-X-induced apoptosis in the liver, kidney, and spleen of male and female mice after a single exposure. Thus, mice were orally administered fusarenon-X (4 mg/kg body weight) and were assessed at 0, 3, 9, 18, 24, and 48 hours after treatment. Apoptosis in the liver (...) of this study should be very useful with regard to the toxicity of fusarenon-X in both humans and domestic animals, which has been attributed to the intake of food contaminated with mycotoxins, especially fusarenon-X.

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2016 Journal of toxicologic pathology

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