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Trichothecene Mycotoxin

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81. Fungal Deoxynivalenol-Induced Enterocyte Distress Is Attenuated by Adulterated Adlay: In Vitro Evidences for Mucoactive Counteraction Full Text available with Trip Pro

Fungal Deoxynivalenol-Induced Enterocyte Distress Is Attenuated by Adulterated Adlay: In Vitro Evidences for Mucoactive Counteraction Adlay is a cereal crop that has long been used as traditional herbal medicine and as a highly nourishing food. However, deoxynivalenol (DON), the most prevalent trichothecene mycotoxin worldwide, frequently spoils grains, including adlay, via fungal infection. On the basis of an assumption that the actions of DON in the gut could be modified by adlay consumption (...) for adlay-based attenuation of trichothecene-induced gut distress, implicating potential use of a new gut protector against enteropathogenic insults in diets.

2018 Frontiers in immunology

82. Health Effects from Mould Exposure in Indoor Environments - revised

Proc. 2007;28(3):262-70. 27. Dales R, Liu L, Wheeler AJ, Gilbert NL. Quality of indoor residential air and health. CMAJ. 2008;179(2):147-52. 28. Portnoy JM, Barnes CS, Kennedy K. Importance of mold allergy in asthma. Curr Allergy Asthma Rep. 2008;8(1):71-8. 29. Pestka JJ, Yike I, Dearborn DG, Ward MD, Harkema JR. Stachybotrys chartarum, trichothecene mycotoxins, and damp building-related illness: new insights into a public health enigma. Toxicol Sci. 2008;104(1):4- 26. 30. Fisk WJ, Eliseeva EA (...) by the NCCEH. 3,4 What is mould? “Mould” is the common term for the microscopic multi-cellular spore-bearing organisms that grow as a mat of intertwined filaments or hyphae. 5 Moulds are eukaryotic (with a nucleus) and exist in a separate phylogenic kingdom from plants and animals. 2 Mould is naturally occurring and ubiquitous, located both indoors and out, so exposure to it is unavoidable; humans are routinely exposed to 200 types of moulds. 1 Some moulds produce mycotoxins (e.g., Stachybotrys chartarum

2012 National Collaborating Centre for Environmental Health

83. Chemosensitization of Fusarium graminearum to Chemical Fungicides Using Cyclic Lipopeptides Produced by Bacillus amyloliquefaciens Strain JCK-12 Full Text available with Trip Pro

trichothecenes mycotoxin production. The results of this study indicate that B. amyloliquefaciens JCK-12 could be used as an available biocontrol agent or as a chemosensitizer to chemical fungicides for controlling FHB disease and as a strategy for preventing the contamination of harvested crops with mycotoxins. (...) Chemosensitization of Fusarium graminearum to Chemical Fungicides Using Cyclic Lipopeptides Produced by Bacillus amyloliquefaciens Strain JCK-12 Fusarium head blight (FHB) caused by infection with Fusarium graminearum leads to enormous losses to crop growers, and may contaminate grains with a number of Fusarium mycotoxins that pose serious risks to human and animal health. Antagonistic bacteria that are used to prevent FHB offer attractive alternatives or supplements to synthetic fungicides

2017 Frontiers in plant science

84. The Food Contaminants Nivalenol and Deoxynivalenol Induce Inflammation in Intestinal Epithelial Cells by Regulating Reactive Oxygen Species Release Full Text available with Trip Pro

The Food Contaminants Nivalenol and Deoxynivalenol Induce Inflammation in Intestinal Epithelial Cells by Regulating Reactive Oxygen Species Release Fusarium mycotoxins are fungal metabolites whose ability to affect cereal grains as multi-contaminants is progressively increasing. The trichothecene mycotoxins nivalenol (NIV) and deoxynivalenol (DON) are often found in almost all agricultural commodities worldwide. They are able to affect animal and human health, including at the intestinal level (...) -κB), Nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2) and inflammasome activation. The pro-inflammatory effect was strongly induced by NIV and by the mycotoxin mixture, when compared to DON alone. Mechanistic studies indicate a pivotal role for ROS in the observed pro-inflammatory effects induced by mycotoxins. In this study, the interactions between NIV and DON point out the importance of their food co-contamination, further highlighting the risk assessment process that is of growing concern.

2017 Nutrients

85. A barley UDP-glucosyltransferase inactivates nivalenol and provides Fusarium Head Blight resistance in transgenic wheat Full Text available with Trip Pro

A barley UDP-glucosyltransferase inactivates nivalenol and provides Fusarium Head Blight resistance in transgenic wheat Fusarium Head Blight is a disease of cereal crops that causes severe yield losses and mycotoxin contamination of grain. The main causal pathogen, Fusarium graminearum, produces the trichothecene toxins deoxynivalenol or nivalenol as virulence factors. Nivalenol-producing isolates are most prevalent in Asia but co-exist with deoxynivalenol producers in lower frequency in North

2017 Journal of experimental botany

86. Nucleotide polymorphisms and protein structure changes in the Fg16 gene of Fusarium graminearum sensu stricto Full Text available with Trip Pro

Nucleotide polymorphisms and protein structure changes in the Fg16 gene of Fusarium graminearum sensu stricto Fusarium graminearum is one of the most important causes of wheat scab in different parts of the world. This fungus is able to produce widespread trichothecene mycotoxins such as nivalenol (NIV) and deoxynivalenol (DON) which are harmful for both human and animals. The Fg16 target is located in chromosome 1 of the F. graminearum genome coding for a hypothetical protein whose function

2016 Meta gene

87. Primary and Immortalized Human Respiratory Cells Display Different Patterns of Cytotoxicity and Cytokine Release upon Exposure to Deoxynivalenol, Nivalenol and Fusarenon-X Full Text available with Trip Pro

Primary and Immortalized Human Respiratory Cells Display Different Patterns of Cytotoxicity and Cytokine Release upon Exposure to Deoxynivalenol, Nivalenol and Fusarenon-X The type B trichothecene mycotoxins deoxynivalenol (DON), nivalenol (NIV) and fusarenon-X (FX) are structurally related secondary metabolites frequently produced by Fusarium on wheat. Consequently, DON, NIV and FX contaminate wheat dusts, exposing grain workers to toxins by inhalation. Those trichothecenes at low, relevant (...) , exposition concentrations have differential effects on intestinal cells, but whether such differences exist with respiratory cells is mostly unknown, while it is required to assess the combined risk of exposure to mycotoxins. The goal of the present study was to compare the effects of DON, NIV and FX alone or in combination on the viability and IL-6 and IL-8-inducing capacity of human epithelial cells representative of the respiratory tract: primary human airway epithelial cells of nasal (hAECN

2017 Toxins

88. Genetic Divergence and Chemotype Diversity in the Fusarium Head Blight Pathogen Fusarium poae Full Text available with Trip Pro

gene cluster was invaded by a transposable element between Tri5 and Tri6. To investigate the impact of these variations on the phenotypic chemotype, mycotoxin production was assessed on artificial medium. Complex blends of type A and type B trichothecenes were produced but neither genetic variability in the Tri genes nor variability in the genome or geography accounted for the divergence in trichothecene production. In view of its complex chemotype, it will be of utmost interest to uncover the role (...) of both sexual recombination and clonal spread of successful genotypes in the population. Despite the large genetic variation found, all F. poae isolates possess the nivalenol chemotype based on Tri7 sequence analysis. Nevertheless, Tri gene clusters showed two layers of genetic variability. Firstly, the Tri1 locus was highly variable with mostly synonymous mutations and mutations in introns pointing to a strong purifying selection pressure. Secondly, in a subset of isolates, the main trichothecene

2017 Toxins

89. Effects of deoxynivalenol (DON) and its microbial biotransformation product deepoxy-deoxynivalenol (DOM-1) on a trout, pig, mouse, and human cell line Full Text available with Trip Pro

Effects of deoxynivalenol (DON) and its microbial biotransformation product deepoxy-deoxynivalenol (DOM-1) on a trout, pig, mouse, and human cell line Deoxynivalenol (DON), a trichothecene produced by various Fusarium species, is one of the most prevalent food- and feed-associated mycotoxins. The effects of DON and deepoxy-deoxynivalenol (DOM-1) were assessed in five different cell lines from different tissues and species starting from the first line of defense, the trout gill (RTgill-W1

2017 Mycotoxin research

90. Deoxynivalenol Biomarkers in the Urine of UK Vegetarians Full Text available with Trip Pro

Deoxynivalenol Biomarkers in the Urine of UK Vegetarians Deoxynivalenol (DON) is produced by Fusarium graminearum and is one of the most commonly occurring trichothecenes. Vegetarians are alleged to be a high-risk group for DON exposure due to high intakes of cereals susceptible to the growth of the mycotoxin. This study provides the levels of DON and de-epoxi Deoxynivalenol (DOM-1) in urine analysed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) in UK vegetarians. Over two consecutive days

2017 Toxins

91. Fusarium graminearum: pathogen or endophyte of North American grasses? Full Text available with Trip Pro

Fusarium graminearum: pathogen or endophyte of North American grasses? Mycotoxin-producing Fusarium graminearum and related species cause Fusarium head blight on cultivated grasses, such as wheat and barley. However, these Fusarium species may have had a longer evolutionary history with North American grasses than with cultivated crops and may interact with the ancestral hosts in ways which are biochemically distinct. We assayed 25 species of asymptomatic native grasses for the presence (...) of Fusarium species and confirmed infected grasses as hosts using re-inoculation tests. We examined seed from native grasses for the presence of mycotoxin-producing Fusarium species and evaluated the ability of these fungi to produce mycotoxins in both native grass and wheat hosts using biochemical analysis. Mycotoxin-producing Fusarium species were shown to be prevalent in phylogenetically diverse native grasses, colonizing multiple tissue types, including seeds, leaves and inflorescence structures

2017 The New phytologist

92. RNA-Seq Revealed Differences in Transcriptomes between 3ADON and 15ADON Populations of Fusarium graminearum In Vitro and In Planta. Full Text available with Trip Pro

RNA-Seq Revealed Differences in Transcriptomes between 3ADON and 15ADON Populations of Fusarium graminearum In Vitro and In Planta. Fusarium graminearum is the major causal agent of Fusarium head blight (FHB) in barley and wheat in North America. The fungus not only causes yield loss of the crops but also produces harmful trichothecene mycotoxins [Deoxynivalenol (DON) and its derivatives-3-acetyldeoxynivalenol (3ADON) and 15-acetyldeoxynivalenol (15ADON), and nivalenol (NIV)] that contaminate

2016 PLoS ONE

93. Reversal of Refractory Ulcerative Colitis and Severe Chronic Fatigue Syndrome Symptoms Arising from Immune Disturbance in an HLADR/DQ Genetically Susceptible Individual with Multiple Biotoxin Exposures Full Text available with Trip Pro

reversal of co-existing RUC and CFS symptoms arising from biotoxin exposures in a genetically susceptible individual.A 25-year-old previously healthy male with new-onset refractory ulcerative colitis (RUC) and chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) tested negative for autoimmune disease biomarkers. However, urine mycotoxin panel testing was positive for trichothecene group and air filter testing from the patient's water-damaged rental house identified the toxic mold Stachybotrys chartarum. HLA-DR/DQ testing

2016 The American journal of case reports

94. Occurrence of Fusarium langsethiae and T-2 and HT-2 Toxins in Italian Malting Barley Full Text available with Trip Pro

Occurrence of Fusarium langsethiae and T-2 and HT-2 Toxins in Italian Malting Barley T-2 and HT-2 toxins are two of the most toxic members of type-A trichothecenes, produced by a number of Fusarium species. The occurrence of these mycotoxins was studied in barley samples during a survey carried out in the 2011-2014 growing seasons in climatically different regions in Italy. The percentage of samples found positive ranges from 22% to 53%, with values included between 26 and 787 μg/kg

2016 Toxins

95. Characterization of Nivalenol-Producing Fusarium culmorum Isolates Obtained from the Air at a Rice Paddy Field in Korea Full Text available with Trip Pro

confirmed that these F. culmorum isolates had the capacity to produce nivalenol, the trichothecene mycotoxin, in rice substrate. In addition, both isolates were pathogenic on wheat heads and corn stalks. This is the first report on the occurrence of F. culmorum in Korea. (...) Characterization of Nivalenol-Producing Fusarium culmorum Isolates Obtained from the Air at a Rice Paddy Field in Korea Together with the Fusarium graminearum species complex, F. culmorum is a major member of the causal agents of Fusarium head blight on cereals such as wheat, barley and corn. It causes significant yield and quality losses and results in the contamination of grain with mycotoxins that are harmful to humans and animals. In Korea, F. culmorum is listed as a quarantine fungal

2016 The Plant Pathology Journal

96. Ribosome quality control is a central protection mechanism for yeast exposed to deoxynivalenol and trichothecin Full Text available with Trip Pro

Ribosome quality control is a central protection mechanism for yeast exposed to deoxynivalenol and trichothecin The trichothecene mycotoxins deoxynivalenol (DON) and trichothecin (TTC) are inhibitors of eukaryotic protein synthesis. Their effect on cellular homeostasis is poorly understood. We report a systematic functional investigation of the effect of DON and TTC on the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae using genetic array, network and microarray analysis. To focus the genetic analysis

2016 BMC genomics

97. Phosphoproteome Analysis Reveals the Molecular Mechanisms Underlying Deoxynivalenol-Induced Intestinal Toxicity in IPEC-J2 Cells Full Text available with Trip Pro

Phosphoproteome Analysis Reveals the Molecular Mechanisms Underlying Deoxynivalenol-Induced Intestinal Toxicity in IPEC-J2 Cells Deoxynivalenol (DON) is a widespread trichothecene mycotoxin that commonly contaminates cereal crops and has various toxic effects in animals and humans. DON primarily targets the gastrointestinal tract, the first barrier against ingested food contaminants. In this study, an isobaric tag for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ)-based phosphoproteomic approach

2016 Toxins

98. Effects of Citric and Lactic Acid on the Reduction of Deoxynivalenol and Its Derivatives in Feeds Full Text available with Trip Pro

Effects of Citric and Lactic Acid on the Reduction of Deoxynivalenol and Its Derivatives in Feeds Exposure to mycotoxin-contaminated feeds represents a serious health risk. This has necessitated the need for the establishment of practical methods for mycotoxin decontamination. This study investigated the effects of citric acid (CA) and lactic acid (LA) on common trichothecene mycotoxins in feeds contaminated with Fusarium mycotoxins. Contaminated feed samples were processed either with 5% CA (...) -hydroxyculmorin, and sambucinol. The concentration of nivalenol was only lowered by the LA treatment. In contrast, CA and LA treatments showed no or only small effects on the concentration of several mycotoxins and their derivatives, including zearalenone, fumonisins, and culmorin. In conclusion, the present results indicate that the use of 5% solutions of LA and CA might reduce the concentration of common trichothecene mycotoxins, especially DON and its derivate 15Ac-DON. However, further research

2016 Toxins

99. Exposure to HT-2 toxin causes oxidative stress induced apoptosis/autophagy in porcine oocytes Full Text available with Trip Pro

Exposure to HT-2 toxin causes oxidative stress induced apoptosis/autophagy in porcine oocytes T-2 toxin is a main type A trichothecene mycotoxin which is the most toxic trichothecence. T-2 toxin has posed various toxic effects on human and animals in vigorous cell proliferation tissues like lymphoid, hematopoietic and gastrointestinal tissues, while HT-2 toxin is the major metabolite which is deacetylated by T-2 toxin. In this study, we focused on the toxic effects of HT-2 on porcine oocyte

2016 Scientific reports

100. A Brachypodium UDP-Glycosyltransferase Confers Root Tolerance to Deoxynivalenol and Resistance to Fusarium Infection Full Text available with Trip Pro

A Brachypodium UDP-Glycosyltransferase Confers Root Tolerance to Deoxynivalenol and Resistance to Fusarium Infection Fusarium head blight (FHB) is a cereal disease caused by Fusarium graminearum, a fungus able to produce type B trichothecenes on cereals, including deoxynivalenol (DON), which is harmful for humans and animals. Resistance to FHB is quantitative, and the mechanisms underlying resistance are poorly understood. Resistance has been related to the ability to conjugate DON (...) tolerance to the mycotoxin and spike resistance to the fungus. The dynamics of expression and conjugation suggest that the speed of DON conjugation rather than the increase of D3G per se is a critical factor explaining the higher resistance of the overexpressing lines. A detached glumes assay showed that overexpression but not mutation of the Bradi5g03300 gene alters primary infection by F. graminearum, highlighting the involvement of DON in early steps of infection. Together, these results indicate

2016 Plant physiology

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