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Trichothecene Mycotoxin

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81. Health Effects from Mould Exposure in Indoor Environments - revised

Proc. 2007;28(3):262-70. 27. Dales R, Liu L, Wheeler AJ, Gilbert NL. Quality of indoor residential air and health. CMAJ. 2008;179(2):147-52. 28. Portnoy JM, Barnes CS, Kennedy K. Importance of mold allergy in asthma. Curr Allergy Asthma Rep. 2008;8(1):71-8. 29. Pestka JJ, Yike I, Dearborn DG, Ward MD, Harkema JR. Stachybotrys chartarum, trichothecene mycotoxins, and damp building-related illness: new insights into a public health enigma. Toxicol Sci. 2008;104(1):4- 26. 30. Fisk WJ, Eliseeva EA (...) by the NCCEH. 3,4 What is mould? “Mould” is the common term for the microscopic multi-cellular spore-bearing organisms that grow as a mat of intertwined filaments or hyphae. 5 Moulds are eukaryotic (with a nucleus) and exist in a separate phylogenic kingdom from plants and animals. 2 Mould is naturally occurring and ubiquitous, located both indoors and out, so exposure to it is unavoidable; humans are routinely exposed to 200 types of moulds. 1 Some moulds produce mycotoxins (e.g., Stachybotrys chartarum

2012 National Collaborating Centre for Environmental Health

82. Nucleotide polymorphisms and protein structure changes in the Fg16 gene of Fusarium graminearum sensu stricto (Full text)

Nucleotide polymorphisms and protein structure changes in the Fg16 gene of Fusarium graminearum sensu stricto Fusarium graminearum is one of the most important causes of wheat scab in different parts of the world. This fungus is able to produce widespread trichothecene mycotoxins such as nivalenol (NIV) and deoxynivalenol (DON) which are harmful for both human and animals. The Fg16 target is located in chromosome 1 of the F. graminearum genome coding for a hypothetical protein whose function

2016 Meta gene

83. A barley UDP-glucosyltransferase inactivates nivalenol and provides Fusarium Head Blight resistance in transgenic wheat (Full text)

A barley UDP-glucosyltransferase inactivates nivalenol and provides Fusarium Head Blight resistance in transgenic wheat Fusarium Head Blight is a disease of cereal crops that causes severe yield losses and mycotoxin contamination of grain. The main causal pathogen, Fusarium graminearum, produces the trichothecene toxins deoxynivalenol or nivalenol as virulence factors. Nivalenol-producing isolates are most prevalent in Asia but co-exist with deoxynivalenol producers in lower frequency in North

2017 Journal of experimental botany

84. Deoxynivalenol Biomarkers in the Urine of UK Vegetarians (Full text)

Deoxynivalenol Biomarkers in the Urine of UK Vegetarians Deoxynivalenol (DON) is produced by Fusarium graminearum and is one of the most commonly occurring trichothecenes. Vegetarians are alleged to be a high-risk group for DON exposure due to high intakes of cereals susceptible to the growth of the mycotoxin. This study provides the levels of DON and de-epoxi Deoxynivalenol (DOM-1) in urine analysed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) in UK vegetarians. Over two consecutive days

2017 Toxins

85. Primary and Immortalized Human Respiratory Cells Display Different Patterns of Cytotoxicity and Cytokine Release upon Exposure to Deoxynivalenol, Nivalenol and Fusarenon-X (Full text)

Primary and Immortalized Human Respiratory Cells Display Different Patterns of Cytotoxicity and Cytokine Release upon Exposure to Deoxynivalenol, Nivalenol and Fusarenon-X The type B trichothecene mycotoxins deoxynivalenol (DON), nivalenol (NIV) and fusarenon-X (FX) are structurally related secondary metabolites frequently produced by Fusarium on wheat. Consequently, DON, NIV and FX contaminate wheat dusts, exposing grain workers to toxins by inhalation. Those trichothecenes at low, relevant (...) , exposition concentrations have differential effects on intestinal cells, but whether such differences exist with respiratory cells is mostly unknown, while it is required to assess the combined risk of exposure to mycotoxins. The goal of the present study was to compare the effects of DON, NIV and FX alone or in combination on the viability and IL-6 and IL-8-inducing capacity of human epithelial cells representative of the respiratory tract: primary human airway epithelial cells of nasal (hAECN

2017 Toxins

86. Effects of deoxynivalenol (DON) and its microbial biotransformation product deepoxy-deoxynivalenol (DOM-1) on a trout, pig, mouse, and human cell line (Full text)

Effects of deoxynivalenol (DON) and its microbial biotransformation product deepoxy-deoxynivalenol (DOM-1) on a trout, pig, mouse, and human cell line Deoxynivalenol (DON), a trichothecene produced by various Fusarium species, is one of the most prevalent food- and feed-associated mycotoxins. The effects of DON and deepoxy-deoxynivalenol (DOM-1) were assessed in five different cell lines from different tissues and species starting from the first line of defense, the trout gill (RTgill-W1

2017 Mycotoxin research

87. Genetic Divergence and Chemotype Diversity in the Fusarium Head Blight Pathogen Fusarium poae (Full text)

gene cluster was invaded by a transposable element between Tri5 and Tri6. To investigate the impact of these variations on the phenotypic chemotype, mycotoxin production was assessed on artificial medium. Complex blends of type A and type B trichothecenes were produced but neither genetic variability in the Tri genes nor variability in the genome or geography accounted for the divergence in trichothecene production. In view of its complex chemotype, it will be of utmost interest to uncover the role (...) of both sexual recombination and clonal spread of successful genotypes in the population. Despite the large genetic variation found, all F. poae isolates possess the nivalenol chemotype based on Tri7 sequence analysis. Nevertheless, Tri gene clusters showed two layers of genetic variability. Firstly, the Tri1 locus was highly variable with mostly synonymous mutations and mutations in introns pointing to a strong purifying selection pressure. Secondly, in a subset of isolates, the main trichothecene

2017 Toxins

88. Fusarium graminearum: pathogen or endophyte of North American grasses? (Full text)

Fusarium graminearum: pathogen or endophyte of North American grasses? Mycotoxin-producing Fusarium graminearum and related species cause Fusarium head blight on cultivated grasses, such as wheat and barley. However, these Fusarium species may have had a longer evolutionary history with North American grasses than with cultivated crops and may interact with the ancestral hosts in ways which are biochemically distinct. We assayed 25 species of asymptomatic native grasses for the presence (...) of Fusarium species and confirmed infected grasses as hosts using re-inoculation tests. We examined seed from native grasses for the presence of mycotoxin-producing Fusarium species and evaluated the ability of these fungi to produce mycotoxins in both native grass and wheat hosts using biochemical analysis. Mycotoxin-producing Fusarium species were shown to be prevalent in phylogenetically diverse native grasses, colonizing multiple tissue types, including seeds, leaves and inflorescence structures

2017 The New phytologist

89. Chemosensitization of Fusarium graminearum to Chemical Fungicides Using Cyclic Lipopeptides Produced by Bacillus amyloliquefaciens Strain JCK-12 (Full text)

trichothecenes mycotoxin production. The results of this study indicate that B. amyloliquefaciens JCK-12 could be used as an available biocontrol agent or as a chemosensitizer to chemical fungicides for controlling FHB disease and as a strategy for preventing the contamination of harvested crops with mycotoxins. (...) Chemosensitization of Fusarium graminearum to Chemical Fungicides Using Cyclic Lipopeptides Produced by Bacillus amyloliquefaciens Strain JCK-12 Fusarium head blight (FHB) caused by infection with Fusarium graminearum leads to enormous losses to crop growers, and may contaminate grains with a number of Fusarium mycotoxins that pose serious risks to human and animal health. Antagonistic bacteria that are used to prevent FHB offer attractive alternatives or supplements to synthetic fungicides

2017 Frontiers in plant science

90. The Food Contaminants Nivalenol and Deoxynivalenol Induce Inflammation in Intestinal Epithelial Cells by Regulating Reactive Oxygen Species Release (Full text)

The Food Contaminants Nivalenol and Deoxynivalenol Induce Inflammation in Intestinal Epithelial Cells by Regulating Reactive Oxygen Species Release Fusarium mycotoxins are fungal metabolites whose ability to affect cereal grains as multi-contaminants is progressively increasing. The trichothecene mycotoxins nivalenol (NIV) and deoxynivalenol (DON) are often found in almost all agricultural commodities worldwide. They are able to affect animal and human health, including at the intestinal level (...) -κB), Nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2) and inflammasome activation. The pro-inflammatory effect was strongly induced by NIV and by the mycotoxin mixture, when compared to DON alone. Mechanistic studies indicate a pivotal role for ROS in the observed pro-inflammatory effects induced by mycotoxins. In this study, the interactions between NIV and DON point out the importance of their food co-contamination, further highlighting the risk assessment process that is of growing concern.

2017 Nutrients

91. RNA-Seq Revealed Differences in Transcriptomes between 3ADON and 15ADON Populations of Fusarium graminearum In Vitro and In Planta. (Full text)

RNA-Seq Revealed Differences in Transcriptomes between 3ADON and 15ADON Populations of Fusarium graminearum In Vitro and In Planta. Fusarium graminearum is the major causal agent of Fusarium head blight (FHB) in barley and wheat in North America. The fungus not only causes yield loss of the crops but also produces harmful trichothecene mycotoxins [Deoxynivalenol (DON) and its derivatives-3-acetyldeoxynivalenol (3ADON) and 15-acetyldeoxynivalenol (15ADON), and nivalenol (NIV)] that contaminate

2016 PLoS ONE

92. Fusarenon-X-induced apoptosis in the liver, kidney, and spleen of mice (Full text)

Fusarenon-X-induced apoptosis in the liver, kidney, and spleen of mice Fusarenon-X is a non-macrocyclic type B trichothecene mycotoxin. It occurs naturally in agricultural commodities, such as wheat and barley. We investigated fusarenon-X-induced apoptosis in the liver, kidney, and spleen of male and female mice after a single exposure. Thus, mice were orally administered fusarenon-X (4 mg/kg body weight) and were assessed at 0, 3, 9, 18, 24, and 48 hours after treatment. Apoptosis in the liver (...) of this study should be very useful with regard to the toxicity of fusarenon-X in both humans and domestic animals, which has been attributed to the intake of food contaminated with mycotoxins, especially fusarenon-X.

2016 Journal of toxicologic pathology

93. Aflatoxins in Food Products in Iran: a Review of the Literature (Full text)

Aflatoxins in Food Products in Iran: a Review of the Literature Mycotoxins are secondary metabolites produced by certain toxigenic fungi and the most of them are aflatoxins, fumonisins, trichothecenes, ochratoxin A, patulin, and zearalenone.In consideration of the consumption of certain farm products for animal feed and the prevalence of toxigenic fungi and mycotoxins in food, the present study was performed to evaluate this situation in Iran with a review of the literature using search engines

2016 Jundishapur journal of microbiology

94. Diversity of Fusarium species isolated from UK forage maize and the population structure of F. graminearum from maize and wheat (Full text)

Diversity of Fusarium species isolated from UK forage maize and the population structure of F. graminearum from maize and wheat Pre-harvest contamination of forage maize by mycotoxin producing Fusarium species was investigated in the UK in 2011 and 2012. A total of 15 Fusarium species were identified from a collection of 1,761 Fusarium isolates recovered from maize stalks and kernels. This study characterized the diversity of Fusarium species present in forage maize in the UK. The predominant (...) species detected were F. graminearum (32.9%) and F. culmorum (34.1%). Along with those species; F. avenacem, F. cerealis, F. equiseti, F. langsethiae, F. napiforme, F. oxysporum, F. poae, F. proliferatum, F. scripi, F. solani, F. subglutinans, F. tricinctum and, F. verticillioides were occasionally isolated. The trichothecene genotypes for F. graminearum were determined to be 84.9% deoxynivalenol (DON) and 15.0% nivalenol (NIV) while F. culmorum isolates were determined to have 24.9% DON and 75.1% NIV

2016 PeerJ

95. Reversal of Refractory Ulcerative Colitis and Severe Chronic Fatigue Syndrome Symptoms Arising from Immune Disturbance in an HLADR/DQ Genetically Susceptible Individual with Multiple Biotoxin Exposures (Full text)

reversal of co-existing RUC and CFS symptoms arising from biotoxin exposures in a genetically susceptible individual.A 25-year-old previously healthy male with new-onset refractory ulcerative colitis (RUC) and chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) tested negative for autoimmune disease biomarkers. However, urine mycotoxin panel testing was positive for trichothecene group and air filter testing from the patient's water-damaged rental house identified the toxic mold Stachybotrys chartarum. HLA-DR/DQ testing

2016 The American journal of case reports

96. Ribosome quality control is a central protection mechanism for yeast exposed to deoxynivalenol and trichothecin (Full text)

Ribosome quality control is a central protection mechanism for yeast exposed to deoxynivalenol and trichothecin The trichothecene mycotoxins deoxynivalenol (DON) and trichothecin (TTC) are inhibitors of eukaryotic protein synthesis. Their effect on cellular homeostasis is poorly understood. We report a systematic functional investigation of the effect of DON and TTC on the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae using genetic array, network and microarray analysis. To focus the genetic analysis

2016 BMC genomics

97. Characterization of Nivalenol-Producing Fusarium culmorum Isolates Obtained from the Air at a Rice Paddy Field in Korea (Full text)

confirmed that these F. culmorum isolates had the capacity to produce nivalenol, the trichothecene mycotoxin, in rice substrate. In addition, both isolates were pathogenic on wheat heads and corn stalks. This is the first report on the occurrence of F. culmorum in Korea. (...) Characterization of Nivalenol-Producing Fusarium culmorum Isolates Obtained from the Air at a Rice Paddy Field in Korea Together with the Fusarium graminearum species complex, F. culmorum is a major member of the causal agents of Fusarium head blight on cereals such as wheat, barley and corn. It causes significant yield and quality losses and results in the contamination of grain with mycotoxins that are harmful to humans and animals. In Korea, F. culmorum is listed as a quarantine fungal

2016 The Plant Pathology Journal

98. Contrasting Roles of Deoxynivalenol and Nivalenol in Host-Mediated Interactions between Fusarium graminearum and Sitobion avenae (Full text)

Contrasting Roles of Deoxynivalenol and Nivalenol in Host-Mediated Interactions between Fusarium graminearum and Sitobion avenae Fusarium graminearum is the predominant causal species of Fusarium head blight in Europe and North America. Different chemotypes of the species exist, each producing a plethora of mycotoxins. Isolates of differing chemotypes produce nivalenol (NIV) and deoxynivalenol (DON), which differ in toxicity to mammals and plants. However, the effect of each mycotoxin (...) on volatile emissions of plant hosts is not known. Host volatiles are interpreted by insect herbivores such as Sitobion avenae, the English grain aphid, during host selection. Previous work has shown that grain aphids are repelled by wheat infected with DON-producing F. graminearum, and this study seeks to determine the influence of pathogen mycotoxins to host volatile chemistry. Volatile collections from infected hosts and olfactometer bioassays with alate aphids were performed. Infections with isolates

2016 Toxins

99. Comparative Analysis of Deoxynivalenol Biosynthesis Related Gene Expression among Different Chemotypes of Fusarium graminearum in Spring Wheat (Full text)

Comparative Analysis of Deoxynivalenol Biosynthesis Related Gene Expression among Different Chemotypes of Fusarium graminearum in Spring Wheat Fusarium mycotoxins, deoxynivalenol (DON) and nivalenol (NIV) act as virulence factors and are essential for symptom development after initial infection in wheat. To date, 16 genes have been identified in the DON biosynthesis pathway. However, a comparative gene expression analysis in different chemotypes of Fusarium graminearum in response to Fusarium (...) head blight infection remains to be explored. Therefore, in this study, nine genes that involved in trichothecene biosynthesis were analyzed among 3-acetyldeoxynivalenol (3-ADON), 15-acetyldeoxynivalenol (15-ADON) and nivalenol producing F. graminearum strains in a time course study. Quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction revealed that the expression of all examined TRI gene transcripts initiated at 2 days post-inoculation (dpi), peaked at three to four dpi and gradually

2016 Frontiers in microbiology

100. Solvent and Water Mediated Structural Variations in Deoxynivalenol and Their Potential Implications on the Disruption of Ribosomal Function (Full text)

Solvent and Water Mediated Structural Variations in Deoxynivalenol and Their Potential Implications on the Disruption of Ribosomal Function Fusarium head blight (FHB) is a disease of cereal crops caused by trichothecene producing Fusarium species. Trichothecenes, macrocylicic fungal metabolites composed of three fused rings (A-C) with one epoxide functionality, are a class of mycotoxins known to inhibit protein synthesis in eukaryotic ribosomes. These toxins accumulate in the kernels (...) of infected plants rendering them unsuitable for human and animal consumption. Among the four classes of trichothecenes (A-D) A and B are associated with FHB, where the type B trichothecene deoxynivalenol (DON) is most relevant. While it is known that these toxins inhibit protein synthesis by disrupting peptidyl transferase activity, the exact mechanism of this inhibition is poorly understood. The three-dimensional structures and H-bonding behavior of DON were evaluated using one- and two-dimensional

2016 Frontiers in microbiology

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