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Trichothecene Mycotoxin

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61. Peptide YY3–36 and 5-Hydroxytryptamine Mediate Emesis Induction by Trichothecene Deoxynivalenol (Vomitoxin) (PubMed)

Peptide YY3–36 and 5-Hydroxytryptamine Mediate Emesis Induction by Trichothecene Deoxynivalenol (Vomitoxin) Deoxynivalenol (DON, vomitoxin), a trichothecene mycotoxin produced by Fusarium sp. that frequently occurs in cereal grains, has been associated with human and animal food poisoning. Although a common hallmark of DON-induced toxicity is the rapid onset of emesis, the mechanisms for this adverse effect are not fully understood. Recently, our laboratory has demonstrated that the mink (...) (Neovison vison) is a suitable small animal model for investigating trichothecene-induced emesis. The goal of this study was to use this model to determine the roles of two gut satiety hormones, peptide YY3-36 (PYY3-36) and cholecystokinin (CCK), and the neurotransmitter 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) in DON-induced emesis. Following ip exposure to DON at 0.1 and 0.25mg/kg bw, emesis induction ensued within 15-30min and then persisted up to 120min. Plasma DON measurement revealed that this emesis period

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2013 Toxicological Sciences

62. Antifungal Activity of Phenyl Derivative of Pyranocoumarin from Psoralea corylifolia L. Seeds by Inhibition of Acetylation Activity of Trichothecene 3-O-Acetyltransferase (Tri101) (PubMed)

a mechanism for the antifungal activity. The ligand PDP showed bifurcated hydrogen bond interaction with active site residues at TYR 413 and a single hydrogen bond interaction at ARG 402 with a docking score -7.19 and glide energy of -45.78 kcal/mol. This indicated a strong binding of the ligand with the trichothecene 3-O-acetyltransferase, preventing as a result the acetylation of the trichothecene mycotoxin and destruction of the "self-defense mechanism" of the Fusarium sp. (...) Antifungal Activity of Phenyl Derivative of Pyranocoumarin from Psoralea corylifolia L. Seeds by Inhibition of Acetylation Activity of Trichothecene 3-O-Acetyltransferase (Tri101) Antifungal activity of petroleum ether extract of Psoralea corylifolia L. seed, tested against Fusarium sp. namely, Fusarium oxysporum, Fusarium moniliforme, and Fusarium graminearum, was evaluated by agar well diffusion assay. The chromatographic fractionation of the extract yielded a new phenyl derivative

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2012 Journal of Biomedicine and Biotechnology

63. Anorexia Induction by the Trichothecene Deoxynivalenol (Vomitoxin) Is Mediated by the Release of the Gut Satiety Hormone Peptide YY (PubMed)

Anorexia Induction by the Trichothecene Deoxynivalenol (Vomitoxin) Is Mediated by the Release of the Gut Satiety Hormone Peptide YY Consumption of deoxynivalenol (DON), a trichothecene mycotoxin known to commonly contaminate grain-based foods, suppresses growth of experimental animals, thus raising concerns over its potential to adversely affect young children. Although this growth impairment is believed to result from anorexia, the initiating mechanisms for appetite suppression remain unknown

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2012 Toxicological Sciences

64. Cooccurrence of Mycotoxins in Maize and Poultry Feeds from Brazil by Liquid Chromatography/Tandem Mass Spectrometry (PubMed)

for maize, feed, and factory residue samples, respectively. Surprisingly, beauvericin was detected in more than 90% of samples. The median contaminations of aflatoxin and trichothecenes were low, near LOD values. The factory residue presented highest contamination levels for all mycotoxins. This is the first study dealing with agroclavine, chanoclavine, enniatin A, A1, B, B1, beauvericin, and kojic acid contamination of maize and poultry feeds from Brazil. (...) Cooccurrence of Mycotoxins in Maize and Poultry Feeds from Brazil by Liquid Chromatography/Tandem Mass Spectrometry The objective of this study was to quantitatively evaluate mycotoxins in samples of maize and poultry feed produced in Brazil. A multimycotoxin method based on HPLC-MS/MS was applied to investigate the occurrence of toxical fungal metabolites in 119 samples collected from poultry feed factory integrated poultry farms: maize grain (74), poultry feed (36), and feed factory residue

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2013 The Scientific World Journal

65. Identification of Loci and Functional Characterization of Trichothecene Biosynthesis Genes in Filamentous Fungi of the Genus Trichoderma (PubMed)

Identification of Loci and Functional Characterization of Trichothecene Biosynthesis Genes in Filamentous Fungi of the Genus Trichoderma Trichothecenes are mycotoxins produced by Trichoderma, Fusarium, and at least four other genera in the fungal order Hypocreales. Fusarium has a trichothecene biosynthetic gene (TRI) cluster that encodes transport and regulatory proteins as well as most enzymes required for the formation of the mycotoxins. However, little is known about trichothecene (...) for the first committed step in trichothecene biosynthesis is located outside the cluster in both Trichoderma species rather than inside the cluster as it is in Fusarium. Heterologous expression analysis revealed that two T. arundinaceum cluster genes (tri4 and tri11) differ in function from their Fusarium orthologues. The Tatri4-encoded enzyme catalyzes only three of the four oxygenation reactions catalyzed by the orthologous enzyme in Fusarium. The Tatri11-encoded enzyme catalyzes a completely different

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2011 Applied and environmental microbiology

66. Transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana expressing a barley UDP-glucosyltransferase exhibit resistance to the mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (PubMed)

Transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana expressing a barley UDP-glucosyltransferase exhibit resistance to the mycotoxin deoxynivalenol Fusarium head blight (FHB), caused by Fusarium graminearum, is a devastating disease of small grain cereal crops. FHB causes yield reductions and contamination of grain with trichothecene mycotoxins such as deoxynivalenol (DON). DON inhibits protein synthesis in eukaryotic cells and acts as a virulence factor during fungal pathogenesis, therefore resistance to DON

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2012 Journal of experimental botany

67. Population Structure of and Mycotoxin Production by Fusarium graminearum from Maize in South Korea (PubMed)

Population Structure of and Mycotoxin Production by Fusarium graminearum from Maize in South Korea Fusarium graminearum (Gibberella zeae) is an important pathogen of wheat, maize, barley, and rice in South Korea, and harvested grain often is contaminated with trichothecenes such as deoxynivalenol and nivalenol. In this study, we examined 568 isolates of F. graminearum collected from maize at eight locations in South Korea. We used amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLPs) to identify four

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2012 Applied and environmental microbiology

68. Fusarium graminearum forms mycotoxin producing infection structures on wheat (PubMed)

Fusarium graminearum forms mycotoxin producing infection structures on wheat The mycotoxin producing fungal pathogen Fusarium graminearum is the causal agent of Fusarium head blight (FHB) of small grain cereals in fields worldwide. Although F. graminearum is highly investigated by means of molecular genetics, detailed studies about hyphal development during initial infection stages are rare. In addition, the role of mycotoxins during initial infection stages of FHB is still unknown. Therefore (...) , we investigated the infection strategy of the fungus on different floral organs of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) under real time conditions by constitutive expression of the dsRed reporter gene in a TRI5prom::GFP mutant. Additionally, trichothecene induction during infection was visualised with a green fluorescent protein (GFP) coupled TRI5 promoter. A tissue specific infection pattern and TRI5 induction were tested by using different floral organs of wheat. Through combination of bioimaging

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2011 BMC plant biology

69. Mycotoxins of possible importance in diseases of Canadian farm animals. (PubMed)

Mycotoxins of possible importance in diseases of Canadian farm animals. 1095174 1975 09 13 2018 11 13 0008-5286 16 5 1975 May The Canadian veterinary journal = La revue veterinaire canadienne Can. Vet. J. Mycotoxins of possible importance in diseases of Canadian farm animals. 125-41 Harwig J J Munro I C IC eng Journal Article Review Canada Can Vet J 0004653 0008-5286 0 Aflatoxins 0 Mycotoxins 0 Ochratoxins 0 Trichothecenes 3S697X6SNZ Citrinin 5W827M159J Zearalenone 95X2BV4W8R Patulin ONL14K3AFD (...) Penicillic Acid IM Aflatoxins toxicity Animals Animals, Domestic Canada Cattle Cattle Diseases chemically induced Chickens Citrinin toxicity Female Fetal Death veterinary Kidney Diseases veterinary Male Mycotoxins toxicity Ochratoxins toxicity Patulin toxicity Penicillic Acid toxicity Poultry Diseases chemically induced Pregnancy Sheep Sheep Diseases chemically induced Swine Swine Diseases chemically induced Trichothecenes toxicity Vulvovaginitis veterinary Zearalenone toxicity 187 1975 5 1 1975 5 1 0 1

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1975 The Canadian Veterinary Journal

70. Acute toxicity of the mycotoxin diacetoxyscirpenol in swine. (PubMed)

Acute toxicity of the mycotoxin diacetoxyscirpenol in swine. 719595 1979 02 26 2018 11 13 0008-5286 19 10 1978 Oct The Canadian veterinary journal = La revue veterinaire canadienne Can. Vet. J. Acute toxicity of the mycotoxin diacetoxyscirpenol in swine. 267-71 Weaver G A GA Kurtz H J HJ Mirocha C J CJ Bates F Y FY Behrens J C JC eng Journal Article Canada Can Vet J 0004653 0008-5286 0 Mycotoxins 0 Sesquiterpenes 0 Trichothecenes IM Animals Female Lethal Dose 50 Mycotoxins administration (...) & dosage poisoning Sesquiterpenes poisoning Swine Swine Diseases chemically induced pathology Trichothecenes poisoning 1978 10 1 1978 10 1 0 1 1978 10 1 0 0 ppublish 719595 PMC1789454 Appl Microbiol. 1972 Nov;24(5):684-90 4640734 Appl Environ Microbiol. 1976 Oct;32(4):553-6 984829 Jpn J Pharmacol. 1975 Jun;25(3):263-70 1185900 Jpn J Exp Med. 1972 Jun;42(3):187-203 4538152

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1978 The Canadian Veterinary Journal

71. Modelling the relationship between environmental factors, transcriptional genes and deoxynivalenol mycotoxin production by strains of two Fusarium species (PubMed)

Modelling the relationship between environmental factors, transcriptional genes and deoxynivalenol mycotoxin production by strains of two Fusarium species The effect of changes in temperature/water activity (a(w)) on growth, deoxynivalenol (DON) production and trichothecene gene cluster expression (18 genes) for strains of Fusarium culmorum and Fusarium graminearum was studied. The expression data for six key transcription genes (TRI4, TRI5, TRI6, TRI10, TRI12 and TRI13) were analysed using (...) . This allowed prediction of the amounts of DON produced in two-dimensional contour maps to relate expression of these genes to either a(w) or temperature. These results suggest complex interactions between gene expression (TRI genes), environmental factors and mycotoxin production. This is a powerful tool for understanding the role of these genes in relation to environmental factors and enables more effective targeted control strategies to be developed.

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2010 Journal of the Royal Society Interface

72. Induction of Suppressors of Cytokine Signaling by the Trichothecene Deoxynivalenol in the Mouse (PubMed)

Induction of Suppressors of Cytokine Signaling by the Trichothecene Deoxynivalenol in the Mouse Deoxynivalenol (DON), a trichothecene mycotoxin found in grains and cereal-based foods worldwide, impairs weight gain in experimental animals but the underlying mechanisms remain undetermined. Oral exposure to DON induces rapid and transient upregulation of proinflammatory cytokine expression in the mouse. The latter are known to induce several suppressors of cytokine signaling (SOCS), some of which

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2009 Toxicological Sciences

73. ELIME (Enzyme Linked Immuno Magnetic Electrochemical) Method for Mycotoxin Detection (PubMed)

printed electrodes as sensing platform. Our method aims to determine the total amount of HT-2 and T-2 toxins, mycotoxins belonging to the trichothecenes family and of great concern for human health(4). The use of an antibody clone with a cross reactivity of 100% towards HT-2 and T-2 allows to simultaneously detect both toxins with similar sensitivity(5). The first step of our assay is the coating step where we immobilize HT2-KLH conjugate toxin on the surface of magnetic beads. After a blocking step (...) ELIME (Enzyme Linked Immuno Magnetic Electrochemical) Method for Mycotoxin Detection Immunoassays are a valid alternative to the more expensive and time consuming quantitative HPLC or GC(1, 2) methods for the screening detection of hazardous mycotoxins in food commodities. In this protocol we show how to fabricate and interrogate an electrochemical competitive Enzyme linked immunomagnetic assay based on the use of magnetic beads as solid support for the immunochemical chain(3) and screen

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2009 Journal of visualized experiments : JoVE

74. Nucleotide polymorphisms and protein structure changes in the Fg16 gene of Fusarium graminearum sensu stricto (PubMed)

Nucleotide polymorphisms and protein structure changes in the Fg16 gene of Fusarium graminearum sensu stricto Fusarium graminearum is one of the most important causes of wheat scab in different parts of the world. This fungus is able to produce widespread trichothecene mycotoxins such as nivalenol (NIV) and deoxynivalenol (DON) which are harmful for both human and animals. The Fg16 target is located in chromosome 1 of the F. graminearum genome coding for a hypothetical protein whose function

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2016 Meta gene

75. Inter-genome comparison of the Quorn fungus Fusarium venenatum and the closely related plant infecting pathogen Fusarium graminearum (PubMed)

. On chromosome 3 a major sequence rearrangement was found, but its overall gene content was relatively unchanged. Unlike homothallic F. graminearum, heterothallic F. venenatum possessed the MAT1-1 type locus, but lacked the MAT1-2 locus. The F. venenatum genome has the type A trichothecene mycotoxin TRI5 cluster, whereas F. graminearum has type B. From the F. venenatum gene set, 786 predicted proteins were species-specific versus NCBI. The annotated F. venenatum genome was predicted to possess more genes

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2018 BMC genomics

76. MFS Transporters and GABA Metabolism Are Involved in the Self-Defense Against DON in Fusarium graminearum (PubMed)

MFS Transporters and GABA Metabolism Are Involved in the Self-Defense Against DON in Fusarium graminearum Trichothecene mycotoxins, such as deoxynivalenol (DON) produced by the fungal pathogen, Fusarium graminearum, are not only important for plant infection but are also harmful to human and animal health. Trichothecene targets the ribosomal protein Rpl3 that is conserved in eukaryotes. Hence, a self-defense mechanism must exist in DON-producing fungi. It is reported that TRI (trichothecene (...) biosynthesis) 101 and TRI12 are two genes responsible for self-defense against trichothecene toxins in Fusarium. In this study, however, we found that simultaneous disruption of TRI101 and TRI12 has no obvious influence on DON resistance upon exogenous DON treatment in F. graminearum, suggesting that other mechanisms may be involved in self-defense. By using RNA-seq, we identified 253 genes specifically induced in DON-treated cultures compared with samples from cultures treated or untreated

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2018 Frontiers in plant science

77. Development of an Analytical Method for Simultaneous Determination of the Modified Forms of 4,15-Diacetoxyscirpenol and their Occurrence in Japanese Retail Food (PubMed)

Development of an Analytical Method for Simultaneous Determination of the Modified Forms of 4,15-Diacetoxyscirpenol and their Occurrence in Japanese Retail Food 4,15-Diacetoxyscirpenol (4,15-DAS) is a type A trichothecene mycotoxin produced by Fusarium species. Four modified forms of 4,15-DAS including 7-hydroxydiacetoxyscirpenol, 7,8-dihydroxydiacetoxyscirpenol, 4β,8α,15-triacetoxy-3α,7α-dihydroxy-12,13-epoxytrichothec-9-ene and 4,15-diacetylnivalenol were purified from

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2018 Toxins

78. A Review of the Interactions between Wheat and Wheat Pathogens: Zymoseptoria tritici, Fusarium spp. and Parastagonospora nodorum (PubMed)

, and the necrotrophic Parastagonosporanodorum is responsible for Septoria nodorum blotch in wheat. Cell wall-degrading enzymes in plants promote infections by necrotrophic and hemibiotrophic pathogens, and trichothecenes, secondary fungal metabolites, facilitate infections caused by fungi of the genus Fusarium. There are no sources of complete resistance to the above pathogens in wheat. Defense mechanisms in wheat are controlled by many genes encoding resistance traits. In the wheat genome, the characteristic (...) features of loci responsible for resistance to pathogenic infections indicate that at least several dozen genes encode resistance to pathogens. The molecular interactions between wheat and Z. tritici, P. nodorum and Fusarium spp. pathogens have been insufficiently investigated. Most studies focus on the mechanisms by which the hemibiotrophic Z. tritici suppresses immune responses in plants and the role of mycotoxins and effector proteins in infections caused by P. nodorum and Fusarium spp. fungi

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2018 International journal of molecular sciences

79. Development of a Highly Sensitive FcMito qPCR Assay for the Quantification of the Toxigenic Fungal Plant Pathogen Fusarium culmorum (PubMed)

Development of a Highly Sensitive FcMito qPCR Assay for the Quantification of the Toxigenic Fungal Plant Pathogen Fusarium culmorum Fusarium culmorum is a ubiquitous, soil-borne fungus (ascomycete) causing foot and root rot and Fusarium head blight on cereals. It is responsible for yield and quality losses as well as grain contamination with mycotoxins, which are a potential health hazard. An extremely sensitive mitochondrial-based qPCR assay (FcMito qPCR) for quantification of F. culmorum (...) of fungal template could be reliably quantified. The FcMito assay was used to quantify F. culmorum DNA using 108 grain samples with different trichothecene levels. A significant positive correlation was found between fungal DNA quantity and the total trichothecene content. The obtained results showed that the sensitivity of the FcMito assay was much higher than the nuclear-based qPCR assay for F. culmorum.

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2018 Toxins

80. Saccharomyces cerevisiae boulardii Reduces the Deoxynivalenol-Induced Alteration of the Intestinal Transcriptome (PubMed)

Saccharomyces cerevisiae boulardii Reduces the Deoxynivalenol-Induced Alteration of the Intestinal Transcriptome Type B trichothecene mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON) is one of the most frequently occurring food contaminants. By inducing trans-activation of a number of pro-inflammatory cytokines and increasing the stability of their mRNA, trichothecene can impair intestinal health. Several yeast products, especially Saccharomyces cerevisiae, have the potential for improving the enteric health

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2018 Toxins

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