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Engaging One Health for Non-Communicable Diseases in Africa: Perspective for Mycotoxins The role of mycotoxins-e.g., aflatoxins, ochratoxins, trichothecenes, zearalenone, fumonisins, tremorgenic toxins, and ergot alkaloids-has been recognized in the etiology of a number of diseases. In many African countries, the public health impact of chronic (indoor) and/or repeated (dietary) mycotoxin exposure is largely ignored hitherto, with impact on human health, food security, and export of African (...) agricultural food products. Notwithstanding, African scientific research reached milestones that, when linked to findings gained by the international scientific community, make the design and implementation of science-driven governance schemes feasible. Starting from Nigeria as leading African Country, this article (i) overviews available data on mycotoxins exposure in Africa; (ii) discusses new food safety issues, such as the environment-feed-food chain and toxic exposures of food producing animals
Survey of Alternaria Toxins and Other Mycotoxins in Dried Fruits in China Occurrence of toxigenic molds and mycotoxins on dried fruits is a worldwide problem, but limited information is available in China. A total of 220 dried fruits (raisins, dried apricots, dates and wolfberries) purchased from China were analyzed for 17 mycotoxins (i.e., Alternaria toxins, ochratoxin A (OTA), patulin (PAT) and trichothecenes) by UPLC-MS/MS, combined with a single-step cleanup. The result showed that at least (...) one mycotoxin was detected in 142 samples (64.6%). The lowest incidence of contaminated samples was observed in dried apricots (48.2%), and the highest incidence in dried wolfberries (83.3%). The Alternaria toxins seemed to be the major problem in dried fruits, rather than OTA or PAT. Tenuazonic acid (TeA) was the predominant mycotoxin, in both frequency and concentration, ranging from 6.9 to 5665.3 μg kg-1, followed by tentoxin (TEN; 20.5%), and mycophenolic acid (MPA; 19.5%). Moreover, raisins
Trichothecenes: From Simple to Complex Mycotoxins As the world's population grows, access to a safe food supply will continue to be a global priority. In recent years, the world has experienced an increase in mycotoxin contamination of grains due to climatic and agronomic changes that encourage fungal growth during cultivation. A number of the molds that are plant pathogens produce trichothecenemycotoxins, which are known to cause serious human and animal toxicoses. This review covers (...) the types of trichothecenes, their complexity, and proposed biosynthetic pathways of trichothecenes.
TrichotheceneMycotoxins Inhibit Mitochondrial Translationâ€”Implication for the Mechanism of Toxicity Fusarium head blight (FHB) reduces crop yield and results in contamination of grains with trichothecenemycotoxins. We previously showed that mitochondria play a critical role in the toxicity of a type B trichothecene. Here, we investigated the direct effects of type A and type B trichothecenes on mitochondrial translation and membrane integrity in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Sensitivity (...) to trichothecenes increased when functional mitochondria were required for growth, and trichothecenes inhibited mitochondrial translation at concentrations, which did not inhibit total translation. In organello translation in isolated mitochondria was inhibited by type A and B trichothecenes, demonstrating that these toxins have a direct effect on mitochondrial translation. In intact yeast cells trichothecenes showed dose-dependent inhibition of mitochondrial membrane potential and reactive oxygen species
Production of TrichotheceneMycotoxins by Fusarium Species in Shake Culture Twelve T-2 toxin-producing isolates and four fusarenon-X-producing isolates of Fusarium species were examined for their ability to produce trichothecenemycotoxins in shake culture and jar fermentation. T-2 toxin producers such as Fusarium solani, F. sporotrichiodes, and F. tricinctum produced T-2 toxin and neosolaniol in semisynthetic medium. F. solani M-1-1 produced the largest amount of the mycotoxins in a nutrient
Comparative Studies on Microbial and Chemical Modifications of TrichotheceneMycotoxins The microbial modification of several trichothecenemycotoxins by trichothecene-producing strains of Fusarium nivale and F. solani was studied. These results were compared with the corresponding chemical modifications. The growing mycelia of Fusarium spp. did not convert 4beta-acetoxy-3alpha,7alpha, 15-trihydroxy-12, 13-epoxytrichothec-9-en-8-one (fusarenon) into 3alpha,4beta, 7alpha,15-tetrahydroxy-12,13 (...) on the results and available knowledge concerning the transformation of trichothecenes, mechanisms for biological modifications of these mycotoxins are postulated.
Biological and Chemical Detection of TrichotheceneMycotoxins of Fusarium Species The procedure for biological and chemical detection of trichothecene-type mycotoxins and its application to the screening of Fusarium for toxic strains were described.
Biological Modification of TrichotheceneMycotoxins: Acetylation and Deacetylation of Deoxynivalenols by Fusarium spp Attempts were made to elucidate the acetyl transformation of novel trichothecenemycotoxins, 3a,7a,15-trihydroxy-12,13-epoxytrichothec-9-en-8-one (deoxynivalenol) and its derivatives, by trichothecene-producing strains of Fusarium nivale, F. roseum, and F. solani. In the peptone-supplemented Czapek-Dox medium, F. roseum converted 3a-acetoxy-7a,15-dihydroxy-12,13-epoxytrichothec
exposure to certain mycotoxins, especially trichothecenes and patulin, affects the intestinal barrier integrity and can result in an increased translocation of harmful stressors. It is therefore hypothesized that human exposure to certain mycotoxins, particularly deoxynivalenol, as the major trichothecene, may play an important role in etiology of various chronic intestinal inflammatory diseases, such as inflammatory bowel disease, and in the prevalence of food allergies, particularly in children. (...) The intestinal barrier as an emerging target in the toxicological assessment of mycotoxinsMycotoxins, the secondary metabolites of fungal species, are the most frequently occurring natural food contaminants in human and animal diets. Risk assessment of mycotoxins focused as yet on their mutagenic, genotoxic and potential carcinogenic effects. Recently, there is an increasing awareness of the adverse effects of various mycotoxins on vulnerable structures in the intestines. In particular
trichothecenes and fumonisins. Many factors such as environmental, agronomic or genetic ones may contribute to high levels of accumulation of mycotoxins in the grain and there is an urgent need to implement efficient and sustainable management strategies to reduce mycotoxin contamination. Actually, fungicides are not fully efficient to control the mycotoxin risk. In addition, because of harmful effects on human health and environment, their use should be seriously restricted in the near future. To durably (...) Antioxidant Secondary Metabolites in Cereals: Potential Involvement in Resistance to Fusarium and Mycotoxin Accumulation Gibberella and Fusarium Ear Rot and Fusarium Head Blight are major diseases affecting European cereals. These diseases are mainly caused by fungi of the Fusarium genus, primarily Fusarium graminearum and Fusarium verticillioides. These Fusarium species pose a serious threat to food safety because of their ability to produce a wide range of mycotoxins, including type B
Impact of mycotoxin on immune response and consequences for pig health Mycotoxins are fungal secondary metabolites detected in many agricultural commodities, especially cereals. Due to their high consumption of cereals, pigs are exposed to these toxins. In the European Union, regulations and/or recommendations exist in pig feed for aflatoxins, ochratoxin A, fumonisins, zearalenone, and trichothecenes, deoxynivalenol and T-2 toxin. These mycotoxins have different toxic effects, but they all (...) target the immune system. They have immunostimulatory or immunosuppressive effects depending on the toxin, the concentration and the parameter investigated. The immune system is primarily responsible for defense against invading organisms. The consequences of the ingestion of mycotoxin-contaminated feed are an increased susceptibility to infectious diseases, a reactivation of chronic infection and a decreased vaccine efficacy. In this review we summarized the data available on the effect
mycotoxins aflatoxins (AFs), ochratoxin A (OTA), zearalenone (ZEA), fumonisins (FUM) and trichothecenes (TCTs), especially deoxynivalenol (DON). Concerning cereals and derived cereal product samples, among the 127 mycotoxin combinations described in the literature, AFs+FUM, DON+ZEA, AFs+OTA, and FUM+ZEA are the most observed. However, only a few studies specified the number of co-occurring mycotoxins with the percentage of the co-contaminated samples, as well as the main combinations found. Studies (...) Natural Co-Occurrence of Mycotoxins in Foods and Feeds and Their in vitro Combined Toxicological Effects Some foods and feeds are often contaminated by numerous mycotoxins, but most studies have focused on the occurrence and toxicology of a single mycotoxin. Regulations throughout the world do not consider the combined effects of mycotoxins. However, several surveys have reported the natural co-occurrence of mycotoxins from all over the world. Most of the published data has concerned the major
Temporal dynamics, population characterization and mycotoxins accumulation of Fusarium graminearum in Eastern China Trichothecene genotype composition, mycotoxin production, genetic diversity, and population structure were analyzed, using 185 Fusarium strains collected from wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) throughout the Jiangsu province during 1976, 1983, 1998, 2006, and 2014. The results showed that 3-acetyldeoxynivalenol (3ADON) was consistently the predominant type in this region over 40 years (...) , and the nivalenol (NIV) type has emerged since 1998. Long-term rotation of wheat and rice (Oryza sativa L.), rather than fungicide application, crop fitness, or weather conditions, might be the main cause of this phenomenon. The genetic diversity results from two toxin synthetic genes, Pks4 and Tri10, and variable number of tandem repeat (VNTR) markers revealed the largest variance within the population in 1998, which was also the year with the highest production of mycotoxins. Population differentiation
Co-Occurrence of Regulated, Masked and Emerging Mycotoxins and Secondary Metabolites in Finished Feed and Maizeâ€”An Extensive Survey Global trade of agricultural commodities (e.g., animal feed) requires monitoring for fungal toxins. Also, little is known about masked and emerging toxins and metabolites. 1926 samples from 52 countries were analysed for toxins and metabolites. Of 162 compounds detected, up to 68 metabolites were found in a single sample. A subset of 1113 finished feed, maize (...) occurred at median concentrations of 250 μ g·kg - 1 in Europe, at levels similar to DON and ZEN. The latter were frequently correlated with DON-3-glucoside and ZEN-14-sulfate. Co-occurrence of regulated toxins was frequent with e.g., enniatins, and moniliformin. Correlation was observed between DON and DON-3-glucoside and with beauvericin. Results indicate that considerably more than 25% of agricultural commodities could be contaminated with mycotoxins as suggested by FAO, although this is at least
Aphids transform and detoxify the mycotoxin deoxynivalenol via a type II biotransformation mechanism yet unknown in animals Biotransformation of mycotoxins in animals comprises phase I and phase II metabolisation reactions. For the trichothecene deoxynivalenol (DON), several phase II biotransformation reactions have been described resulting in DON-glutathiones, DON-glucuronides and DON-sulfates made by glutathione-S-transferases, uridine-diphosphoglucuronyl transferases and sulfotransferases
, F. musae, F. tricinctum, F. oxysporum, F. equiseti, F. sacchari, F. concentricum, F. andiyazi. Group II, as type A trichothecenes producers, included F. langsethiae, F. sporotrichioides, F. polyphialidicum, while Group III were found to mainly produce type B trichothecenes, comprising of F. culmorum, F. poae, F. meridionale and F. graminearum. A comprehensive picture, which presents the mycotoxin-producing patterns by the selected fungal species in various matrices, is obtained for the first (...) Mycotoxigenic Potentials of Fusarium Species in Various Culture Matrices Revealed by Mycotoxin Profiling In this study, twenty of the most common Fusarium species were molecularly characterized and inoculated on potato dextrose agar (PDA), rice and maize medium, where thirty three targeted mycotoxins, which might be the secondary metabolites of the identified fungal species, were detected by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Statistical analysis was performed
, this organism has an efficient drug export network known as the pleiotropic drug resistance (PDR) network, which consists of a family of multidrug exporters. This study describes the first study that has evaluated the potential involvement of all known or putative ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters from the PDR network in exporting the F. graminearum trichothecenemycotoxins deoxynivalenol (DON) and 15-acetyl-deoxynivalenol (15A-DON) from living yeast cells. We found that Pdr5p appears to be the only (...) Protein engineering of Saccharomyces cerevisiae transporter Pdr5p identifies key residues that impact Fusarium mycotoxin export and resistance to inhibition Cereal infection by the broad host range fungal pathogen Fusarium graminearum is a significant global agricultural and food safety issue due to the deposition of mycotoxins within infected grains. Methods to study the intracellular effects of mycotoxins often use the baker's yeast model system (Saccharomyces cerevisiae); however
Stachybotrys mycotoxins: from culture extracts to dust samples The filamentous fungus Stachybotrys chartarum is known for its toxic metabolites and has been associated with serious health problems, including mycotoxicosis, among occupants of contaminated buildings. Here, we present results from a case study, where an ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) method was developed for known and tentatively identified compounds characterized via UHPLC (...) -quadruple time-of-flight (QTOF) screening of fungal culture extracts, wall scrapings and reference standards. The UHPLC-MS/MS method was able to identify 12 Stachybotrys metabolites, of which four could be quantified based on authentic standards and a further six estimated based on similarity to authentic standards. Samples collected from walls contaminated by S. chartarum in a water-damaged building showed that the two known chemotypes, S and A, coexisted. More importantly, a link between mycotoxin
Simultaneous determination of major type A and B trichothecenes, zearalenone and certain modified metabolites in Finnish cereal grains with a novel liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric method A reliable and sensitive liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric method was developed for the simultaneous quantitative determination in cereals of the Fusarium mycotoxins HT-2 toxin, T-2 toxin, deoxynivalenol, nivalenol and zearalenone, as well as the modified metabolites 3-acetyl (...) of deoxynivalenol were unusually high in 2013, especially in oats, with some cases exceeding the maximum legislative limits for unprocessed oats placed on the market for first-stage processing. All modified mycotoxins analysed were detected, and the natural occurrence of some of these compounds (e.g. zearalenone-16-glucoside and nivalenol-3-glucoside) in barley, oats and/or wheat was documented for the first time.
Comparison of Trichothecene Biosynthetic Gene Expression between Fusarium graminearum and Fusarium asiaticum Nivalenol (NIV) and deoxynivalenol (DON) are predominant Fusarium-producing mycotoxins found in grains, which are mainly produced by Fusarium asiaticum and F. graminearum. NIV is found in most of cereals grown in Korea, but the genetic basis for NIV production by F. asiaticum has not been extensively explored. In this study, 12 genes belonging to the trichothecene biosynthetic gene (...) is 2 days earlier than trichothecene accumulation in liquid medium. Comparison of the gene expression profiles identified an NIV-specific pattern in two transcription factor-encoding TRI genes (TRI6 and TRI10) and TRI101, which showed two gene expression peaks during both the early and late incubation periods. In addition, the amount of trichothecenes produced by both DON and NIV producers were correlated with the expression levels of TRI genes, regardless of the trichothecene chemotypes. Therefore