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Trichothecene Mycotoxin

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41. The use of innovative and efficient nanocomposite (magnetic graphene oxide) for the reduction on of Fusarium mycotoxins in palm kernel cake (Full text)

-MS/MS) was used to assess the mycotoxins in animal feed. Target mycotoxins included the zearalenone (ZEA), the fumonisins (FB1 and FB2) and trichothecenes (deoxynivalenol (DON), HT-2 and T-2 toxin). Response surface methodology (RSM) was applied to investigate the effects of time (3-7 h), temperature (30-50 °C) and pH (3-7) on the reduction. The response surface models with (R2 = 0.94-0.99) were significantly fitted to predict mycotoxins in contaminated PKC. Furthermore, the method ensured (...) The use of innovative and efficient nanocomposite (magnetic graphene oxide) for the reduction on of Fusarium mycotoxins in palm kernel cake Adsorption plays an important role in the removal of mycotoxins from feedstuffs. The main objective of this study was to investigate the efficacy of using magnetic graphene oxide nanocomposites (MGO) as an adsorbent for the reduction of Fusarium mycotoxins in naturally contaminated palm kernel cake (PKC). Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC

2017 Scientific reports

42. Engaging One Health for Non-Communicable Diseases in Africa: Perspective for Mycotoxins (Full text)

Engaging One Health for Non-Communicable Diseases in Africa: Perspective for Mycotoxins The role of mycotoxins-e.g., aflatoxins, ochratoxins, trichothecenes, zearalenone, fumonisins, tremorgenic toxins, and ergot alkaloids-has been recognized in the etiology of a number of diseases. In many African countries, the public health impact of chronic (indoor) and/or repeated (dietary) mycotoxin exposure is largely ignored hitherto, with impact on human health, food security, and export of African (...) agricultural food products. Notwithstanding, African scientific research reached milestones that, when linked to findings gained by the international scientific community, make the design and implementation of science-driven governance schemes feasible. Starting from Nigeria as leading African Country, this article (i) overviews available data on mycotoxins exposure in Africa; (ii) discusses new food safety issues, such as the environment-feed-food chain and toxic exposures of food producing animals

2017 Frontiers in public health

43. Aerosolization of Mycotoxins after Growth of Toxinogenic Fungi on Wallpaper (Full text)

by Penicillium brevicompactum, Aspergillus versicolor and Stachybotrys chartarum during their growth on wallpaper and the possible subsequent aerosolization of produced mycotoxins from contaminated substrates.We demonstrated that mycophenolic acid, sterigmatocystin and macrocyclic trichothecenes (sum of 4 major compounds) could be produced at levels of 1.8, 112.1 and 27.8 mg/m2, respectively on wallpaper. Moreover, part of the produced toxins could be aerosolized from substrate. The propensity (...) macrocyclic trichothecenes (especially satratoxin H and verrucarin J) can also be found on smaller particles that can penetrate deeply in the respiratory tract upon inhalation. These elements are important for risk assessment related to mouldy environments.IMPORTANCE The possible colonisation of building material by toxinogenic fungi in case of moistening raises the question of the subsequent exposure of occupants to aerosolized mycotoxins. In this study, we demonstrated that three different toxinogenic

2017 Applied and environmental microbiology

44. Acetylated Deoxynivalenol Generates Differences of Gene Expression that Discriminate Trichothecene Toxicity (Full text)

Acetylated Deoxynivalenol Generates Differences of Gene Expression that Discriminate Trichothecene Toxicity Deoxynivalenol (DON), which is a toxic secondary metabolite generated by Fusarium species, is synthesized through two separate acetylation pathways. Both acetylation derivatives, 3-acetyl-DON (3ADON) and 15-acetyl-DON (15ADON), also contaminate grain and corn widely. These derivatives are deacetylated via a variety of processes after ingestion, so it has been suggested that they have (...) the same toxicity as DON. However, in the intestinal entry region such as the duodenum, the derivatives might come into contact with intestinal epithelium cells because metabolism by microflora or import into the body has not progressed. Therefore, the differences of toxicity between DON and these derivatives need to be investigated. Here, we observed gene expression changes in the yeast pdr5Δ mutant strain under concentration-dependent mycotoxin exposure conditions. 15ADON exposure induced significant

2016 Toxins

45. Modeling the emetic potencies of food-borne trichothecenes by benchmark dose methodology (Full text)

Modeling the emetic potencies of food-borne trichothecenes by benchmark dose methodology Trichothecene mycotoxins commonly co-contaminate cereal products. They cause immunosuppression, anorexia, and emesis in multiple species. Dietary exposure to such toxins often occurs in mixtures. Hence, if it were possible to determine their relative toxicities and assign toxic equivalency factors (TEFs) to each trichothecene, risk management and regulation of these mycotoxins could become more (...) comprehensive and simple. We used a mink emesis model to compare the toxicities of deoxynivalenol, 3-acetyldeoxynivalenol, 15-acetyldeoxynivalenol, nivalenol, fusarenon-X, HT-2 toxin, and T-2 toxin. These toxins were administered to mink via gavage and intraperitoneal injection. The United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) benchmark dose software was used to determine benchmark doses for each trichothecene. The relative potencies of each of these toxins were calculated as the ratios

2016 Food and chemical toxicology : an international journal published for the British Industrial Biological Research Association

46. Comparison of Volatiles Profile and Contents of Trichothecenes Group B, Ergosterol, and ATP of Bread Wheat, Durum Wheat, and Triticale Grain Naturally Contaminated by Mycobiota (Full text)

Comparison of Volatiles Profile and Contents of Trichothecenes Group B, Ergosterol, and ATP of Bread Wheat, Durum Wheat, and Triticale Grain Naturally Contaminated by Mycobiota In natural conditions cereals can be infested by pathogenic fungi. These can reduce the grain yield and quality by contamination with mycotoxins which are harmful for plants, animals, and humans. To date, performed studies of the compounds profile have allowed for the distinction of individual species of fungi. The aim (...) of this study was to determine the profile of volatile compounds and trichothecenes of group B, ergosterol, adenosine triphosphate content carried out on a representative sample of 16 genotypes of related cereals: triticale, bread wheat, and durum wheat. Based on an analysis of volatile compounds by means of gas chromatography mass spectrometry and with the use of an electronic nose, volatile profiles for cereals were determined. Differentiation is presented at four levels through discriminant analysis

2016 Frontiers in plant science

47. Simultaneous determination of major type A and B trichothecenes, zearalenone and certain modified metabolites in Finnish cereal grains with a novel liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric method (Full text)

Simultaneous determination of major type A and B trichothecenes, zearalenone and certain modified metabolites in Finnish cereal grains with a novel liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric method A reliable and sensitive liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric method was developed for the simultaneous quantitative determination in cereals of the Fusarium mycotoxins HT-2 toxin, T-2 toxin, deoxynivalenol, nivalenol and zearalenone, as well as the modified metabolites 3-acetyl (...) of deoxynivalenol were unusually high in 2013, especially in oats, with some cases exceeding the maximum legislative limits for unprocessed oats placed on the market for first-stage processing. All modified mycotoxins analysed were detected, and the natural occurrence of some of these compounds (e.g. zearalenone-16-glucoside and nivalenol-3-glucoside) in barley, oats and/or wheat was documented for the first time.

2015 Analytical and bioanalytical chemistry

48. Natural Co-Occurrence of Mycotoxins in Foods and Feeds and Their in vitro Combined Toxicological Effects (Full text)

mycotoxins aflatoxins (AFs), ochratoxin A (OTA), zearalenone (ZEA), fumonisins (FUM) and trichothecenes (TCTs), especially deoxynivalenol (DON). Concerning cereals and derived cereal product samples, among the 127 mycotoxin combinations described in the literature, AFs+FUM, DON+ZEA, AFs+OTA, and FUM+ZEA are the most observed. However, only a few studies specified the number of co-occurring mycotoxins with the percentage of the co-contaminated samples, as well as the main combinations found. Studies (...) Natural Co-Occurrence of Mycotoxins in Foods and Feeds and Their in vitro Combined Toxicological Effects Some foods and feeds are often contaminated by numerous mycotoxins, but most studies have focused on the occurrence and toxicology of a single mycotoxin. Regulations throughout the world do not consider the combined effects of mycotoxins. However, several surveys have reported the natural co-occurrence of mycotoxins from all over the world. Most of the published data has concerned the major

2016 Toxins

49. Impact of mycotoxin on immune response and consequences for pig health (Full text)

Impact of mycotoxin on immune response and consequences for pig health Mycotoxins are fungal secondary metabolites detected in many agricultural commodities, especially cereals. Due to their high consumption of cereals, pigs are exposed to these toxins. In the European Union, regulations and/or recommendations exist in pig feed for aflatoxins, ochratoxin A, fumonisins, zearalenone, and trichothecenes, deoxynivalenol and T-2 toxin. These mycotoxins have different toxic effects, but they all (...) target the immune system. They have immunostimulatory or immunosuppressive effects depending on the toxin, the concentration and the parameter investigated. The immune system is primarily responsible for defense against invading organisms. The consequences of the ingestion of mycotoxin-contaminated feed are an increased susceptibility to infectious diseases, a reactivation of chronic infection and a decreased vaccine efficacy. In this review we summarized the data available on the effect

2016 Animal Nutrition

50. Stachybotrys mycotoxins: from culture extracts to dust samples (Full text)

Stachybotrys mycotoxins: from culture extracts to dust samples The filamentous fungus Stachybotrys chartarum is known for its toxic metabolites and has been associated with serious health problems, including mycotoxicosis, among occupants of contaminated buildings. Here, we present results from a case study, where an ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) method was developed for known and tentatively identified compounds characterized via UHPLC (...) -quadruple time-of-flight (QTOF) screening of fungal culture extracts, wall scrapings and reference standards. The UHPLC-MS/MS method was able to identify 12 Stachybotrys metabolites, of which four could be quantified based on authentic standards and a further six estimated based on similarity to authentic standards. Samples collected from walls contaminated by S. chartarum in a water-damaged building showed that the two known chemotypes, S and A, coexisted. More importantly, a link between mycotoxin

2016 Analytical and bioanalytical chemistry

51. Protein engineering of Saccharomyces cerevisiae transporter Pdr5p identifies key residues that impact Fusarium mycotoxin export and resistance to inhibition (Full text)

, this organism has an efficient drug export network known as the pleiotropic drug resistance (PDR) network, which consists of a family of multidrug exporters. This study describes the first study that has evaluated the potential involvement of all known or putative ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters from the PDR network in exporting the F. graminearum trichothecene mycotoxins deoxynivalenol (DON) and 15-acetyl-deoxynivalenol (15A-DON) from living yeast cells. We found that Pdr5p appears to be the only (...) Protein engineering of Saccharomyces cerevisiae transporter Pdr5p identifies key residues that impact Fusarium mycotoxin export and resistance to inhibition Cereal infection by the broad host range fungal pathogen Fusarium graminearum is a significant global agricultural and food safety issue due to the deposition of mycotoxins within infected grains. Methods to study the intracellular effects of mycotoxins often use the baker's yeast model system (Saccharomyces cerevisiae); however

2016 MicrobiologyOpen

52. Antioxidant Secondary Metabolites in Cereals: Potential Involvement in Resistance to Fusarium and Mycotoxin Accumulation (Full text)

trichothecenes and fumonisins. Many factors such as environmental, agronomic or genetic ones may contribute to high levels of accumulation of mycotoxins in the grain and there is an urgent need to implement efficient and sustainable management strategies to reduce mycotoxin contamination. Actually, fungicides are not fully efficient to control the mycotoxin risk. In addition, because of harmful effects on human health and environment, their use should be seriously restricted in the near future. To durably (...) Antioxidant Secondary Metabolites in Cereals: Potential Involvement in Resistance to Fusarium and Mycotoxin Accumulation Gibberella and Fusarium Ear Rot and Fusarium Head Blight are major diseases affecting European cereals. These diseases are mainly caused by fungi of the Fusarium genus, primarily Fusarium graminearum and Fusarium verticillioides. These Fusarium species pose a serious threat to food safety because of their ability to produce a wide range of mycotoxins, including type B

2016 Frontiers in microbiology

53. The intestinal barrier as an emerging target in the toxicological assessment of mycotoxins (Full text)

exposure to certain mycotoxins, especially trichothecenes and patulin, affects the intestinal barrier integrity and can result in an increased translocation of harmful stressors. It is therefore hypothesized that human exposure to certain mycotoxins, particularly deoxynivalenol, as the major trichothecene, may play an important role in etiology of various chronic intestinal inflammatory diseases, such as inflammatory bowel disease, and in the prevalence of food allergies, particularly in children. (...) The intestinal barrier as an emerging target in the toxicological assessment of mycotoxins Mycotoxins, the secondary metabolites of fungal species, are the most frequently occurring natural food contaminants in human and animal diets. Risk assessment of mycotoxins focused as yet on their mutagenic, genotoxic and potential carcinogenic effects. Recently, there is an increasing awareness of the adverse effects of various mycotoxins on vulnerable structures in the intestines. In particular

2016 Archives of toxicology

54. Co-Occurrence of Regulated, Masked and Emerging Mycotoxins and Secondary Metabolites in Finished Feed and Maize—An Extensive Survey (Full text)

Co-Occurrence of Regulated, Masked and Emerging Mycotoxins and Secondary Metabolites in Finished Feed and Maize—An Extensive Survey Global trade of agricultural commodities (e.g., animal feed) requires monitoring for fungal toxins. Also, little is known about masked and emerging toxins and metabolites. 1926 samples from 52 countries were analysed for toxins and metabolites. Of 162 compounds detected, up to 68 metabolites were found in a single sample. A subset of 1113 finished feed, maize (...) occurred at median concentrations of 250 μ g·kg - 1 in Europe, at levels similar to DON and ZEN. The latter were frequently correlated with DON-3-glucoside and ZEN-14-sulfate. Co-occurrence of regulated toxins was frequent with e.g., enniatins, and moniliformin. Correlation was observed between DON and DON-3-glucoside and with beauvericin. Results indicate that considerably more than 25% of agricultural commodities could be contaminated with mycotoxins as suggested by FAO, although this is at least

2016 Toxins

55. Aphids transform and detoxify the mycotoxin deoxynivalenol via a type II biotransformation mechanism yet unknown in animals (Full text)

Aphids transform and detoxify the mycotoxin deoxynivalenol via a type II biotransformation mechanism yet unknown in animals Biotransformation of mycotoxins in animals comprises phase I and phase II metabolisation reactions. For the trichothecene deoxynivalenol (DON), several phase II biotransformation reactions have been described resulting in DON-glutathiones, DON-glucuronides and DON-sulfates made by glutathione-S-transferases, uridine-diphosphoglucuronyl transferases and sulfotransferases

2016 Scientific reports

56. Mycotoxigenic Potentials of Fusarium Species in Various Culture Matrices Revealed by Mycotoxin Profiling (Full text)

, F. musae, F. tricinctum, F. oxysporum, F. equiseti, F. sacchari, F. concentricum, F. andiyazi. Group II, as type A trichothecenes producers, included F. langsethiae, F. sporotrichioides, F. polyphialidicum, while Group III were found to mainly produce type B trichothecenes, comprising of F. culmorum, F. poae, F. meridionale and F. graminearum. A comprehensive picture, which presents the mycotoxin-producing patterns by the selected fungal species in various matrices, is obtained for the first (...) Mycotoxigenic Potentials of Fusarium Species in Various Culture Matrices Revealed by Mycotoxin Profiling In this study, twenty of the most common Fusarium species were molecularly characterized and inoculated on potato dextrose agar (PDA), rice and maize medium, where thirty three targeted mycotoxins, which might be the secondary metabolites of the identified fungal species, were detected by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Statistical analysis was performed

2016 Toxins

57. Temporal dynamics, population characterization and mycotoxins accumulation of Fusarium graminearum in Eastern China (Full text)

Temporal dynamics, population characterization and mycotoxins accumulation of Fusarium graminearum in Eastern China Trichothecene genotype composition, mycotoxin production, genetic diversity, and population structure were analyzed, using 185 Fusarium strains collected from wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) throughout the Jiangsu province during 1976, 1983, 1998, 2006, and 2014. The results showed that 3-acetyldeoxynivalenol (3ADON) was consistently the predominant type in this region over 40 years (...) , and the nivalenol (NIV) type has emerged since 1998. Long-term rotation of wheat and rice (Oryza sativa L.), rather than fungicide application, crop fitness, or weather conditions, might be the main cause of this phenomenon. The genetic diversity results from two toxin synthetic genes, Pks4 and Tri10, and variable number of tandem repeat (VNTR) markers revealed the largest variance within the population in 1998, which was also the year with the highest production of mycotoxins. Population differentiation

2016 Scientific reports

58. Comparison of Trichothecene Biosynthetic Gene Expression between Fusarium graminearum and Fusarium asiaticum (Full text)

Comparison of Trichothecene Biosynthetic Gene Expression between Fusarium graminearum and Fusarium asiaticum Nivalenol (NIV) and deoxynivalenol (DON) are predominant Fusarium-producing mycotoxins found in grains, which are mainly produced by Fusarium asiaticum and F. graminearum. NIV is found in most of cereals grown in Korea, but the genetic basis for NIV production by F. asiaticum has not been extensively explored. In this study, 12 genes belonging to the trichothecene biosynthetic gene (...) is 2 days earlier than trichothecene accumulation in liquid medium. Comparison of the gene expression profiles identified an NIV-specific pattern in two transcription factor-encoding TRI genes (TRI6 and TRI10) and TRI101, which showed two gene expression peaks during both the early and late incubation periods. In addition, the amount of trichothecenes produced by both DON and NIV producers were correlated with the expression levels of TRI genes, regardless of the trichothecene chemotypes. Therefore

2014 The Plant Pathology Journal

59. Peptide YY3–36 and 5-Hydroxytryptamine Mediate Emesis Induction by Trichothecene Deoxynivalenol (Vomitoxin) (Full text)

Peptide YY3–36 and 5-Hydroxytryptamine Mediate Emesis Induction by Trichothecene Deoxynivalenol (Vomitoxin) Deoxynivalenol (DON, vomitoxin), a trichothecene mycotoxin produced by Fusarium sp. that frequently occurs in cereal grains, has been associated with human and animal food poisoning. Although a common hallmark of DON-induced toxicity is the rapid onset of emesis, the mechanisms for this adverse effect are not fully understood. Recently, our laboratory has demonstrated that the mink (...) (Neovison vison) is a suitable small animal model for investigating trichothecene-induced emesis. The goal of this study was to use this model to determine the roles of two gut satiety hormones, peptide YY3-36 (PYY3-36) and cholecystokinin (CCK), and the neurotransmitter 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) in DON-induced emesis. Following ip exposure to DON at 0.1 and 0.25mg/kg bw, emesis induction ensued within 15-30min and then persisted up to 120min. Plasma DON measurement revealed that this emesis period

2013 Toxicological Sciences

60. Antifungal Activity of Phenyl Derivative of Pyranocoumarin from Psoralea corylifolia L. Seeds by Inhibition of Acetylation Activity of Trichothecene 3-O-Acetyltransferase (Tri101) (Full text)

a mechanism for the antifungal activity. The ligand PDP showed bifurcated hydrogen bond interaction with active site residues at TYR 413 and a single hydrogen bond interaction at ARG 402 with a docking score -7.19 and glide energy of -45.78 kcal/mol. This indicated a strong binding of the ligand with the trichothecene 3-O-acetyltransferase, preventing as a result the acetylation of the trichothecene mycotoxin and destruction of the "self-defense mechanism" of the Fusarium sp. (...) Antifungal Activity of Phenyl Derivative of Pyranocoumarin from Psoralea corylifolia L. Seeds by Inhibition of Acetylation Activity of Trichothecene 3-O-Acetyltransferase (Tri101) Antifungal activity of petroleum ether extract of Psoralea corylifolia L. seed, tested against Fusarium sp. namely, Fusarium oxysporum, Fusarium moniliforme, and Fusarium graminearum, was evaluated by agar well diffusion assay. The chromatographic fractionation of the extract yielded a new phenyl derivative

2012 Journal of Biomedicine and Biotechnology

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