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Microbial Inhibition of Fusarium Pathogens and Biological Modification of Trichothecenes in Cereal Grains Fungi of the genus Fusarium infect cereal crops during the growing season and cause head blight and other diseases. Their toxic secondary metabolites (mycotoxins) contaminate grains. Several dozen toxic compounds produced by fungal pathogens have been identified to date. Type B trichothecenes-deoxynivalenol, its acetyl derivatives and nivalenol (produced mainly by F. graminearum and F (...) . culmorum)-are most commonly detected in cereal grains. "T-2 toxin" (produced by, among others, F. sporotrichioides) belongs to type-A trichothecenes which are more toxic than other trichothecenes. Antagonistic bacteria and fungi can affect pathogens of the genus Fusarium via different modes of action: direct (mycoparasitism or hyperparasitism), mixed-path (antibiotic secretion, production of lytic enzymes) and indirect (induction of host defense responses). Microbial modification of trichothecenes
such as maize and other staple foods exist, available published research focuses only on Aspergillus and Fusarium mycotoxins, namely aflatoxins, deoxynivalenol (DON), trichothecenes, fumonisins, and zearalenone (ZEA). Occurrence of mycotoxins in the food chain has been mainly associated with poor agricultural practices. Analysis of mycotoxins has been done mainly using chromatographic and immunological methods. Zimbabwe has adopted European standards, but the legislation is quite flexible, with testing (...) Current Status of Mycotoxin Contamination of Food Commodities in Zimbabwe Agricultural products, especially cereal grains, serve as staple foods in sub-Saharan Africa. However, climatic conditions in this region can lead to contamination of these commodities by moulds, with subsequent production of mycotoxins posing health risks to both humans and animals. There is limited documentation on the occurrence of mycotoxins in sub-Saharan African countries, leading to the exposure
Multiwalled Carbon Nanotube for One-Step Cleanup of 21 Mycotoxins in Corn and Wheat Prior to Ultraperformance Liquid Chromatographyâ€“Tandem Mass Spectrometry Analysis One-step solid-phase extraction (SPE) using a multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) for simultaneous analysis of 21 mycotoxins, including nine trichothecenes, zearalenone (ZEN) and its derivatives, four aflatoxins, and two ochratoxins, in corn and wheat was developed. Several key parameters affecting the performance of the one-step (...) SPE procedure-types of MWCNT, combinations with five sorbents (octadecylsilyl (C18), hydrophilic⁻lipophilic balance (HLB), mixed-mode cationic exchange (MCX), silica gel, and amino-propyl (NH₂)), and filling amounts of the MWCNTs-were thoroughly investigated. The combination of 20 mg carboxylic MWCNT and 200 mg C18 was proven to be the most effective, allowing the quantification of all analyzed mycotoxins in corn and wheat. Under the optimized cleanup procedure prior to ultraperformance liquid
comprehensively discussed the role of mycotoxins (trichothecenes, zearalenone, fumonisins, ochratoxins, and aflatoxins) toward gut health and gut microbiota. Certainly, mycotoxins cause perturbation in the gut, particularly in the intestinal epithelial. Recent insights have generated an entirely new perspective where there is a bi-directional relationship exists between mycotoxins and gut microbiota, thus suggesting that our gut microbiota might be involved in the development of mycotoxicosis. The bacteria (...) Mycotoxin: Its Impact on Gut Health and Microbiota The secondary metabolites produced by fungi known as mycotoxins, are capable of causing mycotoxicosis (diseases and death) in human and animals. Contamination of feedstuffs as well as food commodities by fungi occurs frequently in a natural manner and is accompanied by the presence of mycotoxins. The occurrence of mycotoxins' contamination is further stimulated by the on-going global warming as reflected in some findings. This review
Mycotoxin Biosynthesis and Central Metabolism Are Two Interlinked Pathways in Fusarium graminearum, as Demonstrated by the Extensive Metabolic Changes Induced by Caffeic Acid Exposure Fusarium graminearum is a major plant pathogen that causes devastating diseases of cereals and produces type B trichothecene (TCTB) mycotoxins in infected grains. A comprehensive understanding of the molecular and biochemical mechanisms underlying the regulation of TCTB biosynthesis is required for improving (...) . graminearumIMPORTANCEFusarium graminearum is a major plant pathogen that causes devastating diseases of cereal crops and produces type B trichothecene (TCTB) mycotoxins in infected grains. The best way to restrict consumer exposure to TCTB is to limit their production before harvest, which requires increasing the knowledge on the mechanisms that regulate their biosynthesis. Using a metabolomics approach, we investigated the interconnection between the TCTB production pathway and several fungal metabolic pathways. We
occurrence of the most important trichothecenes and zearalenone in cereals/cereal products, their metabolism, and the potential toxicity of the metabolites. Only very limited data are available for the majority of the identified mycotoxins. Most studies concern biologically modified trichothecenes, mainly deoxynivalenol-3-glucoside, which is less toxic than its parent compound (deoxynivalenol). It is resistant to the digestion processes within the gastrointestinal tract and is not absorbed (...) Modified Fusarium Mycotoxins in Cereals and Their Productsâ€”Metabolism, Occurrence, and Toxicity: An Updated Review Mycotoxins are secondary fungal metabolites, toxic to humans, animals and plants. Under the influence of various factors, mycotoxins may undergo modifications of their chemical structure. One of the methods of mycotoxin modification is a transformation occurring in plant cells or under the influence of fungal enzymes. This paper reviews the current knowledge on the natural
Production of TrichotheceneMycotoxins by Fusarium Species in Shake Culture Twelve T-2 toxin-producing isolates and four fusarenon-X-producing isolates of Fusarium species were examined for their ability to produce trichothecenemycotoxins in shake culture and jar fermentation. T-2 toxin producers such as Fusarium solani, F. sporotrichiodes, and F. tricinctum produced T-2 toxin and neosolaniol in semisynthetic medium. F. solani M-1-1 produced the largest amount of the mycotoxins in a nutrient
Comparative Studies on Microbial and Chemical Modifications of TrichotheceneMycotoxins The microbial modification of several trichothecenemycotoxins by trichothecene-producing strains of Fusarium nivale and F. solani was studied. These results were compared with the corresponding chemical modifications. The growing mycelia of Fusarium spp. did not convert 4beta-acetoxy-3alpha,7alpha, 15-trihydroxy-12, 13-epoxytrichothec-9-en-8-one (fusarenon) into 3alpha,4beta, 7alpha,15-tetrahydroxy-12,13 (...) on the results and available knowledge concerning the transformation of trichothecenes, mechanisms for biological modifications of these mycotoxins are postulated.
Biological and Chemical Detection of TrichotheceneMycotoxins of Fusarium Species The procedure for biological and chemical detection of trichothecene-type mycotoxins and its application to the screening of Fusarium for toxic strains were described.
Biological Modification of TrichotheceneMycotoxins: Acetylation and Deacetylation of Deoxynivalenols by Fusarium spp Attempts were made to elucidate the acetyl transformation of novel trichothecenemycotoxins, 3a,7a,15-trihydroxy-12,13-epoxytrichothec-9-en-8-one (deoxynivalenol) and its derivatives, by trichothecene-producing strains of Fusarium nivale, F. roseum, and F. solani. In the peptone-supplemented Czapek-Dox medium, F. roseum converted 3a-acetoxy-7a,15-dihydroxy-12,13-epoxytrichothec
The Status of Fusarium Mycotoxins in Sub-Saharan Africa: A Review of Emerging Trends and Post-Harvest Mitigation Strategies towards Food Control Fusarium fungi are common plant pathogens causing several plant diseases. The presence of these molds in plants exposes crops to toxic secondary metabolites called Fusarium mycotoxins. The most studied Fusarium mycotoxins include fumonisins, zearalenone, and trichothecenes. Studies have highlighted the economic impact of mycotoxins produced by Fusarium (...) . These arrays of toxins have been implicated as the causal agents of wide varieties of toxic health effects in humans and animals ranging from acute to chronic. Global surveillance of Fusarium mycotoxins has recorded significant progress in its control; however, little attention has been paid to Fusarium mycotoxins in sub-Saharan Africa, thus translating to limited occurrence data. In addition, legislative regulation is virtually non-existent. The emergence of modified Fusarium mycotoxins, which may
T-2 mycotoxin: toxicological effects and decontamination strategies Mycotoxins are highly diverse secondary metabolites produced in nature by a wide variety of fungus which causes food contamination, resulting in mycotoxicosis in animals and humans. In particular, trichothecenesmycotoxin produced by genus fusarium is agriculturally more important worldwide due to the potential health hazards they pose. It is mainly metabolized and eliminated after ingestion, yielding more than 20 metabolites (...) consists of the inhibition of protein synthesis and oxidative damage to cells followed by the disruption of nucleic acid synthesis and ensuing apoptosis. In this review, the possible hazards, historical significance, toxicokinetics, and the genotoxic and cytotoxic effects along with regulatory guidelines and recommendations pertaining to the trichothecenemycotoxin are discussed. Furthermore, various techniques utilized for toxin determination, pathophysiology, prophylaxis and treatment using herbal
prevalent masked mycotoxins and evidence is mounting that DON3Glc and possibly other masked trichothecenes are stable in conditions prevailing in the upper gut and are not absorbed intact. DON3Glc is also not toxic per se, but is hydrolyzed by colonic microbes and further metabolized to DOM-1 in some individuals. Masked zearalenone is rather more bio-reactive with some evidence on gastric and small intestinal hydrolysis as well as hydrolysis by intestinal epithelium and components of blood. Microbial (...) Do Plant-Bound Masked Mycotoxins Contribute to Toxicity? Masked mycotoxins are plant metabolites of mycotoxins which co-contaminate common cereal crops. Since their discovery, the question has arisen if they contribute to toxicity either directly or indirectly through the release of the parent mycotoxins. Research in this field is rapidly emerging and the aim of this review is to summarize the latest knowledge on the fate of masked mycotoxins upon ingestion. Fusarium mycotoxins are the most
(3-AcDON and 15-AcDON), nivalenol (NIV), neosolaniol (NEO), fusarenon-X, (FUS-X), T-2 toxin (T-2) and HT-2 toxin (HT-2), fumonisin B1 and B2 (FB1 and FB2), and four emerging mycotoxins: three enniatins (ENA, ENA1, and ENB), and beauvericin (BEA). Twenty-nine samples were analyzed to provide an overview on mycotoxin presence: 27 samples of durum wheat pasta, and two samples of baby food. Analytical results concluded that trichothecenes showed the highest incidence, mainly DON, NIV (...) Multi-Mycotoxin Analysis in Durum Wheat Pasta by Liquid Chromatography Coupled to Quadrupole Orbitrap Mass Spectrometry A simple and rapid multi-mycotoxin method for the determination of 17 mycotoxins simultaneously is described in the present survey on durum and soft wheat pasta samples. Mycotoxins included in the study were those mainly reported in cereal samples: ochratoxin-A (OTA), aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), zearalenone (ZON), deoxynivalenol (DON), 3-and 15-acetyl-deoxynivalenol
Multi-mycotoxin analysis using dried blood spots and dried serum spots In this study, a rapid multi-mycotoxin approach was developed for biomonitoring and quantification of 27 important mycotoxins and mycotoxin metabolites in human blood samples. HPLC-MS/MS detection was used for the analysis of dried serum spots (DSS) and dried blood spots (DBS). Detection of aflatoxins (AFB1, AFB2, AFG1, AFG2, AFM1), trichothecenes (deoxynivalenol, DON; DON-3-glucoronic acid, DON-3-GlcA; T-2; HT-2; and HT-2-4 (...) and 2'R-OTA, all samples were positive for EnB. This methodical study establishes a validated multi-mycotoxin approach for the detection of 27 mycotoxins and metabolites in dried blood/serum spots based on a fast sample preparation followed by sensitive HPLC-MS/MS analysis. Graphical Abstract ᅟ.
secondary metabolites, despite their importance as bioactive compounds with significance to medicine and agriculture. When triggered to produce sesquiterpene (trichothecene) mycotoxins, the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) of the phytopathogenic fungus Fusarium graminearum is reorganized both in vitro and in planta. Trichothecene biosynthetic enzymes accumulate in organized smooth ER with pronounced expansion at perinuclear- and peripheral positions. Fluorescence tagged trichothecene biosynthetic proteins co (...) Structural reorganization of the fungal endoplasmic reticulum upon induction of mycotoxin biosynthesis Compartmentalization of metabolic pathways to particular organelles is a hallmark of eukaryotic cells. Knowledge of the development of organelles and attendant pathways under different metabolic states has been advanced by live cell imaging and organelle specific analysis. Nevertheless, relatively few studies have addressed the cellular localization of pathways for synthesis of fungal
Modification of the Mycotoxin Deoxynivalenol Using Microorganisms Isolated from Environmental Samples The trichothecenemycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON) is a common contaminant of wheat, barley, and maize. New strategies are needed to reduce or eliminate DON in feed and food products. Microorganisms from plant and soil samples collected in Blacksburg, VA, USA, were screened by incubation in a mineral salt media containing 100 μg/mL DON and analysis by gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC/MS (...) nearly complete conversion of DON to the less toxic 3-epimer-DON (3-epi-DON). Our work extends previous studies that have demonstrated the potential for bioprospecting for microorganisms from the environment to remediate or modify mycotoxins for commercial applications, such as the reduction of mycotoxins in fuel ethanol co-products.
of mycotoxins. Members of three fungal genera, Aspergillus, Fusarium, and Penicillium, are the major mycotoxin producers. While over 300 mycotoxins have been identified, six (aflatoxins, trichothecenes, zearalenone, fumonisins, ochratoxins, and patulin) are regularly found in food, posing unpredictable and ongoing food safety problems worldwide. This review summarizes the toxicity of the six mycotoxins, foods commonly contaminated by one or more of them, and the current methods for detection and analysis (...) Occurrence, Toxicity, and Analysis of Major Mycotoxins in Food Mycotoxins are toxic secondary metabolites produced by certain filamentous fungi (molds). These low molecular weight compounds (usually less than 1000 Daltons) are naturally occurring and practically unavoidable. They can enter our food chain either directly from plant-based food components contaminated with mycotoxins or by indirect contamination from the growth of toxigenic fungi on food. Mycotoxins can accumulate in maturing corn
Survey of Alternaria Toxins and Other Mycotoxins in Dried Fruits in China Occurrence of toxigenic molds and mycotoxins on dried fruits is a worldwide problem, but limited information is available in China. A total of 220 dried fruits (raisins, dried apricots, dates and wolfberries) purchased from China were analyzed for 17 mycotoxins (i.e., Alternaria toxins, ochratoxin A (OTA), patulin (PAT) and trichothecenes) by UPLC-MS/MS, combined with a single-step cleanup. The result showed that at least (...) one mycotoxin was detected in 142 samples (64.6%). The lowest incidence of contaminated samples was observed in dried apricots (48.2%), and the highest incidence in dried wolfberries (83.3%). The Alternaria toxins seemed to be the major problem in dried fruits, rather than OTA or PAT. Tenuazonic acid (TeA) was the predominant mycotoxin, in both frequency and concentration, ranging from 6.9 to 5665.3 μg kg-1, followed by tentoxin (TEN; 20.5%), and mycophenolic acid (MPA; 19.5%). Moreover, raisins