How to Trip Rapid Review

Step 1: Select articles relevant to your search (remember the system is only optimised for single intervention studies)

Step 2: press

Step 3: review the result, and maybe amend the or if you know better! If we're unsure of the overall sentiment of the trial we will display the conclusion under the article title. We then require you to tell us what the correct sentiment is.

161 results for

Trichothecene Mycotoxin

by
...
Latest & greatest
Alerts

Export results

Use check boxes to select individual results below

SmartSearch available

Trip's SmartSearch engine has discovered connected searches & results. Click to show

1. Preparative Separation and Purification of Trichothecene Mycotoxins from the Marine Fungus Fusarium sp. LS68 by High-Speed Countercurrent Chromatography in Stepwise Elution Mode (Full text)

Preparative Separation and Purification of Trichothecene Mycotoxins from the Marine Fungus Fusarium sp. LS68 by High-Speed Countercurrent Chromatography in Stepwise Elution Mode The contamination of foods and animal feeds with trichothecene mycotoxins is a growing concern for human and animal health. As such, large quantities of pure trichothecene mycotoxins are necessary for food safety monitoring and toxicological research. A new and effective method for the purification of trichothecene (...) mycotoxins from a marine fungus, Fusarium sp. LS68, is described herein. Preparative high-speed countercurrent chromatography (HSCCC) was utilized for the scalable isolation and purification of four trichothecene mycotoxins for the first time in stepwise elution mode, with a biphasic solvent system composed of hexanes-EtOAc-CH₃OH-H₂O (6:4:5:5, v/v/v/v) and (8.5:1.5:5:5,v/v/v/v). This preparative HSCCC separation was performed on 200 mg of crude sample to yield four trichothecene mycotoxins, roridin E (1

2018 Marine drugs PubMed

2. Microbial detoxification of eleven food and feed contaminating trichothecene mycotoxins (Full text)

Microbial detoxification of eleven food and feed contaminating trichothecene mycotoxins Contamination of agricultural commodities with multiple trichothecene mycotoxins, produced by toxigenic Fusarium species, is a food safety issue, which greatly affects grain production and marketing worldwide. Importantly, exposure to multiple trichothecenes may increase toxicity in animals due to their synergistic and/or additive effects. To address the problem this study aimed to achieve a novel biological (...) and the finding that bacterial cell culture lysate retained activity suggests that certain cytoplasmic reductases may be responsible for the de-epoxidation activity.This study reports the enrichment procedure for obtaining an effective and stable microbial consortium DX100 capable of de-epoxidizing several food contaminating trichothecene mycotoxins. DX100, which has de-epoxidation ability under wide range of conditions, represents a unique enzymatic source which has great industrial potential for reducing

2017 BMC biotechnology PubMed

3. De Novo Transcriptome Analysis of Plant Pathogenic Fungus Myrothecium roridum and Identification of Genes Associated with Trichothecene Mycotoxin Biosynthesis (Full text)

De Novo Transcriptome Analysis of Plant Pathogenic Fungus Myrothecium roridum and Identification of Genes Associated with Trichothecene Mycotoxin Biosynthesis Myrothecium roridum is a plant pathogenic fungus that infects different crops and decreases the yield of economical crops, including soybean, cotton, corn, pepper, and tomato. Until now, the pathogenic mechanism of M. roridum has remained unclear. Different types of trichothecene mycotoxins were isolated from M. roridum, and trichothecene (...) to trichothecene biosynthesis were annotated. The expression levels of these genes were also predicted and validated through quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Tri5 gene encoding trichodiene synthase was cloned and expressed, and the purified trichodiene synthase was able to catalyze farnesyl pyrophosphate into different kinds of sesquiterpenoids.Tri4 and Tri11 genes were expressed in Escherichia coli, and their corresponding enzymatic properties were characterized. The phylogenetic tree

2017 International journal of molecular sciences PubMed

4. Intestinal toxicity of the type B trichothecene mycotoxin fusarenon-X: whole transcriptome profiling reveals new signaling pathways (Full text)

Intestinal toxicity of the type B trichothecene mycotoxin fusarenon-X: whole transcriptome profiling reveals new signaling pathways The few data available on fusarenon-X (FX) do not support the derivation of health-based guidance values, although preliminary results suggest higher toxicity than other regulated trichothecenes. Using histo-morphological analysis and whole transcriptome profiling, this study was designed to obtain a global view of the intestinal alterations induced by FX (...) . Deoxynivalenol (DON) served as a benchmark. FX induced more severe histological alterations than DON. Inflammation was the hallmark of the molecular toxicity of both mycotoxins. The benchmark doses for the up-regulation of key inflammatory genes by FX were 4- to 45-fold higher than the previously reported values for DON. The transcriptome analysis revealed that both mycotoxins down-regulated the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) and liver X receptor - retinoid X receptor (LXR-RXR) signaling

2017 Scientific reports PubMed

5. An overview of the toxicology and toxicokinetics of fusarenon-X, a type B trichothecene mycotoxin (Full text)

An overview of the toxicology and toxicokinetics of fusarenon-X, a type B trichothecene mycotoxin Fusarenon-X (FX) is a type B trichothecene mycotoxin that is frequently observed along with deoxynivalenol (DON) and nivalenol (NIV) in agricultural commodities. This review aims to give an overview of the literature concerning the toxicology and toxicokinetics of FX. FX is primarily found in cereals grown in temperate regions, but it can also be found worldwide because of the global transport

2016 The Journal of Veterinary Medical Science PubMed

6. Aerobic De-Epoxydation of Trichothecene Mycotoxins by a Soil Bacterial Consortium Isolated Using In Situ Soil Enrichment (Full text)

Aerobic De-Epoxydation of Trichothecene Mycotoxins by a Soil Bacterial Consortium Isolated Using In Situ Soil Enrichment Globally, the trichothecene mycotoxins deoxynivalenol (DON) and nivalenol (NIV) are among the most widely distributed mycotoxins that contaminate small grain cereals. In this study, a bacterial consortium, PGC-3, with de-epoxydation activity was isolated from soil by an in situ soil enrichment method. Screening of 14 soil samples that were sprayed with DON revealed that 4 (...) indicated that PGC-3 comprised 10 bacterial genera. Among these, one species, Desulfitobacterium, showed a steady increase in relative abundance, from 0.03% to 1.55% (a 52-fold increase), as higher concentrations of DON were used in the subculture media, from 0 to 500 μg/mL. This study establishes the foundation to further develop bioactive agents that can detoxify trichothecene mycotoxins in cereals and enables for the characterization of detoxifying genes and their regulation.

2016 Toxins PubMed

7. Enhancement of trichothecene mycotoxins of Fusarium oxysporum by ferulic acid aggravates oxidative damage in Rehmannia glutinosa Libosch (Full text)

Enhancement of trichothecene mycotoxins of Fusarium oxysporum by ferulic acid aggravates oxidative damage in Rehmannia glutinosa Libosch Rehmannia glutinosa is an important medicinal herb that cannot be replanted in the same field due to the effects of autotoxic substances. The effects of these substances on R. glutinosa in continuous cropping systems are unknown. In the present study, bioassays revealed that R. glutinosa exhibited severe growth restriction and higher disease indices in the FO (...) +FA (F.oxysporum pretreated with ferulic acid) treatment. The increases in the contents of MDA and H2O2 were greater in the FA+FO treatment than in the FA or FO only treatments, respectively. Consistent with this result, the enzyme activities in the seedlings increased with treatment time. To identify the main factor underlying the increased pathogenicity of FO, macroconidia and trichothecene mycotoxins coproduced by FO were separated and used to treat R. glutinosa seedlings. The MDA and H2O2

2016 Scientific reports PubMed

8. Trichothecene Mycotoxin

Trichothecene Mycotoxin Trichothecene Mycotoxin Toggle navigation Brain Head & Neck Chest Endocrine Abdomen Musculoskeletal Skin Infectious Disease Hematology & Oncology Cohorts Diagnostics Emergency Findings Procedures Prevention & Management Pharmacy Resuscitation Trauma Emergency Procedures Ultrasound Cardiovascular Emergencies Lung Emergencies Infectious Disease Pediatrics Neurologic Emergencies Skin Exposure Miscellaneous Abuse Cancer Administration 4 Trichothecene Mycotoxin Trichothecene (...) Mycotoxin Aka: Trichothecene Mycotoxin , T2 toxin , Trichothecene From Related Chapters II. Pathophysiology Agent Trichothecene Mycotoxins Produced by filamentous fungi (molds) Inactivation Extremely stable in heat and UV light Destruction requires heating 1500 F for 30 minutes Brief exposure to sodium inactivates Transmission Used as aerosolized Laos, Kampuchea, Afghanistan in late 1970's Aerosol: "yellow rain" drops of yellow fluid III. Symptoms and signs Skin Local pain Skin redness s Skin necrosis

2018 FP Notebook

9. T-2 Mycotoxin

, based on signs and symptoms (which may include skin pain and blistering, vomiting and diarrhoea, respiratory symptoms, and bleeding) and a history of exposure to contaminated grains and/or droplets. Systemic symptoms may develop. Mainstay of management is supportive care with aggressive fluid and electrolyte replacement. Mortality rates associated with untreated exposure vary from 10% to 16%. Definition T-2 mycotoxin is a group A trichothecene mycotoxin, mostly produced by Fusarium species of fungi (...) T-2 Mycotoxin T-2 Mycotoxin - Symptoms, diagnosis and treatment | BMJ Best Practice You'll need a subscription to access all of BMJ Best Practice Search  T-2 Mycotoxin Last reviewed: February 2019 Last updated: April 2018 Summary In the event of aerosol exposure, first responders should wear personal protective equipment and evacuate the adjacent area. Decontamination and use of protective clothing are vital, as human-to-human transmission may occur via skin contact. Diagnosis is clinical

2018 BMJ Best Practice

10. Identification and trichothecene genotypes of Fusarium graminearum species complex from wheat in Taiwan (Full text)

Identification and trichothecene genotypes of Fusarium graminearum species complex from wheat in Taiwan Fusarium head blight (FHB) of wheat caused by Fusarium graminearum species complex (FGSC) is a devastating disease worldwide. The pathogens not only reduce the yield of wheat, but also impact the quality of wheat by contamination with trichothecene mycotoxins. A systematic investigation on the pathogens of FHB in Taiwan is lacking. Here, molecular and morphological approaches were used (...) to identify species of the Taiwanese FGSC isolates and determine their trichothecene genotypes.In this study, a total of 195 isolates of FGSC from diseased wheat were collected from 8 areas of northern and central Taiwan. All isolates were subjected to seedling inoculation for verification of pathogenicity. The pathogenic isolates were genetically characterized by sequence characterized amplified region (SCAR), PCR- restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP), phylogenetic analysis and fixed

2017 Botanical studies PubMed

11. Identification and Characterization of Carboxylesterases from Brachypodium distachyon Deacetylating Trichothecene Mycotoxins (Full text)

Identification and Characterization of Carboxylesterases from Brachypodium distachyon Deacetylating Trichothecene Mycotoxins Increasing frequencies of 3-acetyl-deoxynivalenol (3-ADON)-producing strains of Fusarium graminearum (3-ADON chemotype) have been reported in North America and Asia. 3-ADON is nearly nontoxic at the level of the ribosomal target and has to be deacetylated to cause inhibition of protein biosynthesis. Plant cells can efficiently remove the acetyl groups of 3-ADON (...) , but the underlying genes are yet unknown. We therefore performed a study of the family of candidate carboxylesterases (CXE) genes of the monocot model plant Brachypodium distachyon. We report the identification and characterization of the first plant enzymes responsible for deacetylation of trichothecene toxins. The product of the BdCXE29 gene efficiently deacetylates T-2 toxin to HT-2 toxin, NX-2 to NX-3, both 3-ADON and 15-acetyl-deoxynivalenol (15-ADON) into deoxynivalenol and, to a lesser degree, also

2015 Toxins PubMed

12. A Lipid Transfer Protein Increases the Glutathione Content and Enhances Arabidopsis Resistance to a Trichothecene Mycotoxin (Full text)

A Lipid Transfer Protein Increases the Glutathione Content and Enhances Arabidopsis Resistance to a Trichothecene Mycotoxin Fusarium head blight (FHB) or scab is one of the most important plant diseases worldwide, affecting wheat, barley and other small grains. Trichothecene mycotoxins such as deoxynivalenol (DON) accumulate in the grain, presenting a food safety risk and health hazard to humans and animals. Despite considerable breeding efforts, highly resistant wheat or barley cultivars (...) are not available. We screened an activation tagged Arabidopsis thaliana population for resistance to trichothecin (Tcin), a type B trichothecene in the same class as DON. Here we show that one of the resistant lines identified, trichothecene resistant 1 (trr1) contains a T-DNA insertion upstream of two nonspecific lipid transfer protein (nsLTP) genes, AtLTP4.4 and AtLTP4.5. Expression of both nsLTP genes was induced in trr1 over 10-fold relative to wild type. Overexpression of AtLTP4.4 provided greater

2015 PloS one PubMed

13. Comparison of Anorectic Potencies of Type A Trichothecenes T-2 Toxin, HT-2 Toxin, Diacetoxyscirpenol, and Neosolaniol (Full text)

Comparison of Anorectic Potencies of Type A Trichothecenes T-2 Toxin, HT-2 Toxin, Diacetoxyscirpenol, and Neosolaniol Trichothecene mycotoxins are common contaminants in cereal grains and negatively impact human and animal health. Although anorexia is a common hallmark of type B trichothecenes-induced toxicity, less is known about the anorectic potencies of type A trichothecenes. The purpose of this study was to compare the anorectic potencies of four type A trichothecenes (T-2 toxin (T-2), HT (...) , 0.01, and 0.1 mg/kg BW, respectively. Taken together, the results suggest that (1) type A trichothecenes could dose-dependently elicit anorectic responses following both oral gavage and IP exposure in mice; (2) the anorectic responses follow an approximate rank order of T-2 = HT-2 = NEO > DAS for oral exposure, and DAS > T-2 = HT-2 = NEO for IP administration; (3) IP exposure to T-2, HT-2, DAS, and NEO evoked stronger anorectic effects than oral exposure. From a public health perspective

2018 Toxins PubMed

14. Variation in the Microbiome, Trichothecenes, and Aflatoxins in Stored Wheat Grains in Wuhan, China (Full text)

Variation in the Microbiome, Trichothecenes, and Aflatoxins in Stored Wheat Grains in Wuhan, China Contamination by fungal and bacterial species and their metabolites can affect grain quality and health of wheat consumers. In this study, sequence analyses of conserved DNA regions of fungi and bacteria combined with determination of trichothecenes and aflatoxins revealed the microbiome and mycotoxins of wheat from different silo positions (top, middle, and bottom) and storage times (3, 6, 9 (...) in wheat were 13⁻34% higher in all positions at 3 months compared to T₀, and mycotoxins in wheat from middle and bottom positions at 6 to 12 months were 24⁻57% higher than at T₀. The relative abundance of toxigenic Aspergillus and aflatoxins were low at T₀ and during storage. This study provides information on implementation and design of fungus and mycotoxin management strategies as well as prediction models.

2018 Toxins PubMed

15. Evolution of structural diversity of trichothecenes, a family of toxins produced by plant pathogenic and entomopathogenic fungi (Full text)

Evolution of structural diversity of trichothecenes, a family of toxins produced by plant pathogenic and entomopathogenic fungi Trichothecenes are a family of terpenoid toxins produced by multiple genera of fungi, including plant and insect pathogens. Some trichothecenes produced by the fungus Fusarium are among the mycotoxins of greatest concern to food and feed safety because of their toxicity and frequent occurrence in cereal crops, and trichothecene production contributes to pathogenesis (...) of some Fusarium species on plants. Collectively, fungi produce over 150 trichothecene analogs: i.e., molecules that share the same core structure but differ in patterns of substituents attached to the core structure. Here, we carried out genomic, phylogenetic, gene-function, and analytical chemistry studies of strains from nine fungal genera to identify genetic variation responsible for trichothecene structural diversity and to gain insight into evolutionary processes that have contributed

2018 PLoS pathogens PubMed

16. Changes in Phenylpropanoid and Trichothecene Production by Fusarium culmorum and F. graminearum Sensu Stricto via Exposure to Flavonoids (Full text)

to flavonoids. With emphasis on quercetin, mycotoxin accumulation in the media was significantly decreased by luteolin, kaempferol, naringenin and apigenin. However, in some cases, apigenin led to the increase of mycotoxin content in the media. Gene expression experiments of Tri genes responsible for trichothecene biosynthesis (Tri4, Tri5 and Tri10) proved that the inhibition of mycotoxin production by flavonoids occurred at the transcriptional level. However, the changes in Tri transcript levels were (...) Changes in Phenylpropanoid and Trichothecene Production by Fusarium culmorum and F. graminearum Sensu Stricto via Exposure to Flavonoids Flavonoids are a group of hydroxylated polyphenolic compounds widely distributed in the plant kingdom. Biosynthesis of these compounds involves type III PKSs, whose presence has been recently predicted in some fungal species through genome sequencing efforts. In this study, for the first time it was found that Fusaria produce flavonoids on solid YES medium

2018 Toxins PubMed

17. UDP-Glucosyltransferases from Rice, Brachypodium, and Barley: Substrate Specificities and Synthesis of Type A and B Trichothecene-3-O-β-d-glucosides (Full text)

UDP-Glucosyltransferases from Rice, Brachypodium, and Barley: Substrate Specificities and Synthesis of Type A and B Trichothecene-3-O-β-d-glucosides Trichothecene toxins are confirmed or suspected virulence factors of various plant-pathogenic Fusarium species. Plants can detoxify these to a variable extent by glucosylation, a reaction catalyzed by UDP-glucosyltransferases (UGTs). Due to the unavailability of analytical standards for many trichothecene-glucoconjugates, information (...) on such compounds is limited. Here, the previously identified deoxynivalenol-conjugating UGTs HvUGT13248 (barley), OsUGT79 (rice) and Bradi5g03300 (Brachypodium), were expressed in E. coli, affinity purified, and characterized towards their abilities to glucosylate the most relevant type A and B trichothecenes. HvUGT13248, which prefers nivalenol over deoxynivalenol, is also able to conjugate C-4 acetylated trichothecenes (e.g., T-2 toxin) to some degree while OsUGT79 and Bradi5g03300 are completely inactive

2018 Toxins PubMed

18. Microbial Inhibition of Fusarium Pathogens and Biological Modification of Trichothecenes in Cereal Grains (Full text)

Microbial Inhibition of Fusarium Pathogens and Biological Modification of Trichothecenes in Cereal Grains Fungi of the genus Fusarium infect cereal crops during the growing season and cause head blight and other diseases. Their toxic secondary metabolites (mycotoxins) contaminate grains. Several dozen toxic compounds produced by fungal pathogens have been identified to date. Type B trichothecenes-deoxynivalenol, its acetyl derivatives and nivalenol (produced mainly by F. graminearum and F (...) . culmorum)-are most commonly detected in cereal grains. "T-2 toxin" (produced by, among others, F. sporotrichioides) belongs to type-A trichothecenes which are more toxic than other trichothecenes. Antagonistic bacteria and fungi can affect pathogens of the genus Fusarium via different modes of action: direct (mycoparasitism or hyperparasitism), mixed-path (antibiotic secretion, production of lytic enzymes) and indirect (induction of host defense responses). Microbial modification of trichothecenes

2017 Toxins PubMed

19. Antioxidant agents against trichothecenes: new hints for oxidative stress treatment (Full text)

Antioxidant agents against trichothecenes: new hints for oxidative stress treatment Trichothecenes are a group of mycotoxins mainly produced by fungi of genus Fusarium. Due to high toxicity and widespread dissemination, T-2 toxin and deoxynivalenol (DON) are considered to be the most important compounds of this class. Trichothecenes generate free radicals, including reactive oxygen species (ROS), which induce lipid peroxidation, decrease levels of antioxidant enzymes, and ultimately lead (...) ) regulating anti-inflammatory actions. Finally, we summarize some decontamination methods, including bacterial and yeast biotransformation and degradation, as well as mycotoxin-binding agents. This review provides a comprehensive overview of antioxidant agents against trichothecenes and casts new light on the attenuation of oxidative stress.

2017 Oncotarget PubMed

20. ToxGen: an improved reference database for the identification of type B-trichothecene genotypes in Fusarium (Full text)

ToxGen: an improved reference database for the identification of type B-trichothecene genotypes in Fusarium Type B trichothecenes, which pose a serious hazard to consumer health, occur worldwide in grains. These mycotoxins are produced mainly by three different trichothecene genotypes/chemotypes: 3ADON (3-acetyldeoxynivalenol), 15ADON (15-acetyldeoxynivalenol) and NIV (nivalenol), named after these three major mycotoxin compounds. Correct identification of these genotypes is elementary for all (...) studies relating to population surveys, fungal ecology and mycotoxicology. Trichothecene producers exhibit enormous strain-dependent chemical diversity, which may result in variation in levels of the genotype's determining toxin and in the production of low to high amounts of atypical compounds. New high-throughput DNA-sequencing technologies promise to boost the diagnostics of mycotoxin genotypes. However, this requires a reference database containing a satisfactory taxonomic sampling of sequences

2017 PeerJ PubMed

To help you find the content you need quickly, you can filter your results via the categories on the right-hand side >>>>