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Triage of Children with Diarrhea

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1. Triage of Children with Diarrhea

Triage of Children with Diarrhea Triage of Children with Diarrhea Toggle navigation Brain Head & Neck Chest Endocrine Abdomen Musculoskeletal Skin Infectious Disease Hematology & Oncology Cohorts Diagnostics Emergency Findings Procedures Prevention & Management Pharmacy Resuscitation Trauma Emergency Procedures Ultrasound Cardiovascular Emergencies Lung Emergencies Infectious Disease Pediatrics Neurologic Emergencies Skin Exposure Miscellaneous Abuse Cancer Administration 4 Triage of Children (...) with Diarrhea Triage of Children with Diarrhea Aka: Triage of Children with Diarrhea , Pediatric Diarrhea Red Flags From Related Chapters II. Indications: Urgent or emergent evaluation for red flag symptoms and signs Age <3 months: > 100.4 F (38 C) Age >3 months: > 104 F (40 C) Caregiver report of dehydration signs See Decreased tearing (sensitive parent reported marker for dehydration) Decreased fluid intake Decreased Age <1 year old: last urine >8 hours earlier Age >1 year old: last urine >12 hours

2018 FP Notebook

2. Assessing Dehydration Employing End-Tidal Carbon Dioxide in Children With Vomiting and Diarrhea. (Abstract)

and presented for emergency department (ED) care because of vomiting and/or diarrhea. End-tidal carbon dioxide measurements were performed after triage. The diagnostic standard was weight change determined from serial measurements after symptom resolution. A receiver operating characteristic curve was constructed to identify a cut-point to predict 5% or more dehydration.In total, 195 children were enrolled. Among the 169 (87%) with EtCO2 measurements, the median (interquartile range [IQR]) was 30.4 (27.8 (...) Assessing Dehydration Employing End-Tidal Carbon Dioxide in Children With Vomiting and Diarrhea. Serum bicarbonate reflects dehydration severity in children with gastroenteritis. Previous work in children receiving intravenous rehydration has correlated end-tidal carbon dioxide (EtCO2) with serum bicarbonate. We evaluated whether EtCO2 predicts weight change in children with vomiting and/or diarrhea.A prospective cohort study was conducted. Eligible children were 3 months to 10 years old

2017 Pediatric Emergency Care

3. CRACKCast E173 – Infectious Diarrheal Disease and Dehydration

be administered per the “rule of 50,” whereby the percent dextrose multiplied by the number of mL per kilogram equals. For neonates, a 10% dextrose solution should be given at approximately 5 mL/kg. Children 1 month old to approximately 8 years old or 25 kg should be given 2 mL/kg of 25% dextrose. Associated with Hypo/Hypernatremia = these kids are more sick appearing than the eunatremic child. Hyponatremia Hx of: vomiting/diarrhea with free water replacement; or SIADH Need LABS to make the dx; get urine (...) stool culture; thus the emergency clinician must order these tests separately. Refer to Box 172.3 in Rosen’s 9 th edition for indications for medical evaluation of children with acute diarrhea Young (e.g., <6 months old or weight <8 kg) History of premature birth, chronic medical conditions or concurrent illness Fever to at least 38 degrees for infants, <3 months or at least 39 degrees for children 3-36 months old Visible blood or mucus in stool High output , including frequent and substantial

2018 CandiEM

4. Evaluation of Fecal Calprotectin Screening and a Gastroenterology Questionnaire for Triaging Children With Chronic Abdominal Pain and/or Diarrhea Referred to a Pediatric Gastroenterology Service

Evaluation of Fecal Calprotectin Screening and a Gastroenterology Questionnaire for Triaging Children With Chronic Abdominal Pain and/or Diarrhea Referred to a Pediatric Gastroenterology Service Evaluation of Fecal Calprotectin Screening and a Gastroenterology Questionnaire for Triaging Children With Chronic Abdominal Pain and/or Diarrhea Referred to a Pediatric Gastroenterology Service - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov Hide glossary Glossary Study record managers: refer (...) to the if submitting registration or results information. Search for terms x × Study Record Detail Saved Studies Save this study Warning You have reached the maximum number of saved studies (100). Please remove one or more studies before adding more. Evaluation of Fecal Calprotectin Screening and a Gastroenterology Questionnaire for Triaging Children With Chronic Abdominal Pain and/or Diarrhea Referred to a Pediatric Gastroenterology Service The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility

2013 Clinical Trials

5. Current epidemiology and guidance for COVID-19 caused by SARS-CoV-2 virus, in children: March 2020

, contrary to circulating influenza viruses, is less than in adults. A recent review of just over 2000 cases in children from China, ranging in age from 1.5 months to 17 years, found that most had either a documented contact with an infected case or were part of family clusters [ ] . Symptoms in children are similar to those in adults, namely fever, dry cough, and fatigue, with some also experiencing abdominal pain and diarrhea. Although very few cases were young infants, this group seemed to be more (...) prone to severe disease compared with older children: 10.6% of infants less than a year old presented with severe or critical illness, compared with 7.3% of children aged 1 to 5, 4.2% (in children aged 6 to 10), 4.1% (in the 11 to 15 age group), and 3.0%, in adolescents 16 years and older. One 14-year-old child in this cohort died [ ] . Another cohort of 171 children from Wuhan with virologically confirmed infection reported that 15.8% had neither symptoms nor radiological abnormalities

2020 Canadian Paediatric Society

6. Surviving Sepsis Campaign International Guidelines for the Management of Septic Shock and Sepsis-Associated Organ Dysfunction in Children Full Text available with Trip Pro

, London, United Kingdom. 3 Department of Medicine, Division of Critical Care, and Department of Health Research Methods and Impact, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON, Canada. 4 Department of Pediatrics (to Dr. Agus), Department of Anesthesiology, Critical Care and Pain (to Drs. Mehta and Randolph), Boston Children’s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA. 5 C.S. Mott Children’s Hospital, Ann Arbor, MI. 6 St. Mary’s Hospital, London, United Kingdom. 7 Paediatric Critical Care Research Group (...) Pediatric Society, and the French Society of Intensive Care. The remaining authors have disclosed that they do not have any potential conflicts of interest. For information regarding this article, E-mail: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine: doi: 10.1097/PCC.0000000000002198 Free Metrics Abstract Objectives: To develop evidence-based recommendations for clinicians caring for children (including infants, school-aged children, and adolescents) with septic shock and other sepsis -associated organ dysfunction

2020 Society of Critical Care Medicine

7. Triage of Children with Diarrhea

Triage of Children with Diarrhea Triage of Children with Diarrhea Toggle navigation Brain Head & Neck Chest Endocrine Abdomen Musculoskeletal Skin Infectious Disease Hematology & Oncology Cohorts Diagnostics Emergency Findings Procedures Prevention & Management Pharmacy Resuscitation Trauma Emergency Procedures Ultrasound Cardiovascular Emergencies Lung Emergencies Infectious Disease Pediatrics Neurologic Emergencies Skin Exposure Miscellaneous Abuse Cancer Administration 4 Triage of Children (...) with Diarrhea Triage of Children with Diarrhea Aka: Triage of Children with Diarrhea , Pediatric Diarrhea Red Flags From Related Chapters II. Indications: Urgent or emergent evaluation for red flag symptoms and signs Age <3 months: > 100.4 F (38 C) Age >3 months: > 104 F (40 C) Caregiver report of dehydration signs See Decreased tearing (sensitive parent reported marker for dehydration) Decreased fluid intake Decreased Age <1 year old: last urine >8 hours earlier Age >1 year old: last urine >12 hours

2015 FP Notebook

8. Emergency management of adrenal insufficiency in children: advocating for treatment options in outpatient and field settings

suspension vs. commercial tablets. J Clin Pharmacol 2015;55:452–7. 53 Spomer N, Klingmann V , Stoltenberg I, et al. Acceptance of uncoated mini- tablets in young children: results from a prospective exploratory cross-over study. Arch Dis Child 2012;97:283–6. 54 Klingmann V , Spomer N, Lerch C, et al. Favorable acceptance of mini-tablets compared with syrup: a randomized controlled trial in infants and preschool children. J Pediatr 2013;163:1728–32. 55 Neumann U, Whitaker MJ, Wiegand S, et al. Absorption (...) infancy to early childhood, smaller doses and incremental adjustments are required to avoid the adverse effects of glucocorticoid excess including obesity, hyperten- sion, impaired growth, osteoporosis and insulin resistance. However, lack of availability of tablets in strengths lower than 5 mg makes dosing of infants difficult and less precise. Currently there is no commercially available liquid formu- lation that provides dosing in 0.1 mg increments since with- drawal of hydrocortisone cypionate

2019 Pediatric Endocrine Society

9. Management of Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus during illness in children and young people under 18 years (Sick Day Rules)

medicine : a journal of the Society of Critical Care Medicine and the World Federation of Pediatric Intensive and Critical Care Societies 2012;13:e103-7. 21. Sottosanti M, Morrison GC, Singh RN, et al. Dehydration in children with diabetic ketoacidosis: a prospective study. Archives of disease in childhood 2012;97:96-100. 22. Pouderoux P, Friedman N, Shirazi P, Ringelstein JG, Keshavarzian A. Effect of carbonated water on gastric emptying and intragastric meal distribution. Digestive diseases (...) to high blood glucose levels. Cytokine release in response to infection can also lead to some degree of insulin resistance. 2 Diarrhoea and vomiting may reduce blood glucose levels with a possibility of hypoglycaemia rather than hyperglycaemia. Ketones may still be produced in significant quantities even with hypoglycaemia in gastroenteritis 3 . 2. Importance of Local ‘Sick-Day’ Rules NICE guidelines recommend that children and young people with T1DM should be offered clear guidance for the management

2019 British Society for Paediatric Endocrinology and Diabetes

10. Clinical Practice Parameters for Hemodynamic Support of Pediatric and Neonatal Septic Shock Full Text available with Trip Pro

Department of Pediatrics, University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, WA. 34 Division of Critical Care, Department of Pediatrics, Stanford University School of Medicine, Palo Alto, CA. 35 Pediatric Critical Care Medicine, The Children’s Hospital at Montefiore, The Pediatric Hospital for Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY. 36 Department of Pediatrics, University of British Columbia, UBC & BC Children’s Hospital Professor in Critical Care—Global Child Health, Vancouver, BC, Canada. 37 (...) Department of Pediatrics, Naval Medical Center San Diego and University of California San Diego School of Medicine, San Diego, CA. 38 Department of Pediatrics and Pediatric Critical Care Medicine, The Valley Hospital, Ridgewood, NJ. 39 Cardiothoracic ICU, National University Hospital, Singapore. 40 Paediatric ICU, The Royal Children’s Hospital, Melbourne, Australia. 41 Department of Paediatrics, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Australia. 42 Children’s Hospital of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA. 43

2017 Society of Critical Care Medicine

11. Child Abuse, Elder Abuse, and Intimate Partner Violence

): 335-43. 13. Wood JN, Fakeye O, Feudtner C, et al. Development of guidelines for skeletal survey in young children with fractures. Pediatrics. 2014; 134(1): 45-53. 14. Rangel EL, Cook BS, Bennett BL, et al. Eliminating disparity in evaluation for abuse in infants with head injury: Use of a screening guideline. J Pediatr Surg. 2009; 44(6):1229-34; discussion 34-5. 15. Higginbotham N, Lawson KA, Gettig K, et al. Utility of a child abuse screening guideline in an urban pediatric emergency department (...) without a clear history of trauma is an important sentinel injury, and the infant requires a careful evaluation for abuse. 18-20 References 1. Taitz J, Moran K, O’Meara M. Long bone fractures in children under 3 years of age: Is abuse being missed in Emergency Department presentations? Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health. 2004;40(4):170-4. 2. Pierce MC, Kaczor K, Acker D, Webb T, Brenzel A, Lorenz DJ, et al. History, injury, and psychosocial risk factor commonalities among cases of fatal and near

2019 American College of Surgeons

12. Accuracy of Triage for Children With Chronic Illness and Infectious Symptoms. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Accuracy of Triage for Children With Chronic Illness and Infectious Symptoms. This prospective observational study aimed to assess the validity of the Manchester Triage System (MTS) for children with chronic illnesses who presented to the emergency department (ED) with infectious symptoms.Children (<16 years old) presenting to the ED of a university hospital between 2008 and 2011 with dyspnea, diarrhea/vomiting, or fever were included. Chronic illness was classified on the basis (...) of International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification, codes. The validity of the MTS was assessed by comparing the urgency categories of the MTS with an independent reference standard on the basis of abnormal vital signs, life-threatening working diagnosis, resource utilization, and follow-up. Overtriage, undertriage, and correct triage were calculated for children with and without a chronic illness. The performance was assessed by sensitivity, specificity, and diagnostic odds

2013 Pediatrics

13. How Important Are Parental Age and Educational Level in Nonurgent Admissions to the Pediatric Emergency Department? (Abstract)

of a tertiary care pediatric referral center. A questionnaire that was prepared to understand the reasons underlying nonurgent admissions was administered to the parents of 1033 children who were classified as nonurgent cases using the Pediatric Canadian Triage and Acuity Scale (4-5).The most common reasons for nonurgent admissions were the concern for progression in child's complaints, the complaints with an onset outside working hours, and the parental perception that more cautious and better care (...) How Important Are Parental Age and Educational Level in Nonurgent Admissions to the Pediatric Emergency Department? The aims of the present study were to investigate the reasons parents prefer the pediatric emergency department for nonurgent admissions and to evaluate the effect of parental age and educational level on nonurgent admissions and the relationship between the reasons for nonurgent admissions and child age.We conducted a cross-sectional survey at an emergency department

2019 Pediatric Emergency Care

14. Development and Initial Validation of a Frontline Health Worker mHealth Assessment Platform (MEDSINC<sup>®</sup>) for Children 2-60 Months of Age. Full Text available with Trip Pro

LHPs. In addition, MEDSINC triage recommendation distributions were highly correlated with those of LHPs, whereas usability and feasibility responses from LHP/FLW were collectively positive for ease of use, learning, and job performance. These results indicate that the MEDSINC platform could significantly increase pediatric health-care capacity in LMICs by improving FLWs' ability to accurately assess health status and triage of children, facilitating early life-saving therapeutic interventions. (...) Development and Initial Validation of a Frontline Health Worker mHealth Assessment Platform (MEDSINC®) for Children 2-60 Months of Age. Approximately 3 million children younger than 5 years living in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) die each year from treatable clinical conditions such as pneumonia, dehydration secondary to diarrhea, and malaria. A majority of these deaths could be prevented with early clinical assessments and appropriate therapeutic intervention

2019 American Journal of Tropical Medicine & Hygiene

15. Epidemiology of patients presenting to a pediatric emergency department in Karachi, Pakistan. Full Text available with Trip Pro

consecutive weeks (July 2013). Participants' chief complaints and medical care were documented. Patients were followed-up at 48-h and 14-days via telephone.Of 3115 participants, 1846 were triaged to the outpatient department and 1269 to the ED. Patients triaged to the ED had a median age of 2.0 years (IQR 0.5-4.0); 30% were neonates (< 28 days). Top chief complaints were fever (45.5%), diarrhea/vomiting (32.3%), respiratory (23.1%), abdominal (7.5%), and otolaryngological problems (5.8%). Temperature (...) Epidemiology of patients presenting to a pediatric emergency department in Karachi, Pakistan. There is little data describing pediatric emergencies in resource-poor countries, such as Pakistan. We studied the demographics, management, and outcomes of patients presenting to the highest-volume, public, pediatric emergency department (ED) in Karachi, Pakistan.In this prospective, observational study, we approached all patients presenting to the 50-bed ED during 28 12-h study periods over four

2018 BMC Emergency Medicine

16. Unusual Cancers of Childhood Treatment (PDQ®): Health Professional Version

guidelines or recommendations for making health care decisions. This summary is reviewed regularly and updated as necessary by the PDQ Pediatric Treatment Editorial Board, which is editorially independent of the National Cancer Institute (NCI). The summary reflects an independent review of the literature and does not represent a policy statement of NCI or the National Institutes of Health (NIH). General Information About Unusual Cancers of Childhood Introduction Cancer in children and adolescents is rare (...) , although the overall incidence of childhood cancer has been slowly increasing since 1975.[ ] Referral to medical centers with multidisciplinary teams of cancer specialists experienced in treating cancers that occur in childhood and adolescence should be considered for children and adolescents with cancer. This multidisciplinary team approach incorporates the skills of the primary care physician, pediatric surgeons, radiation oncologists, pediatric medical oncologists/hematologists, rehabilitation

2018 PDQ - NCI's Comprehensive Cancer Database

17. A Comparison of Diarrheal Severity Scores in the MAL-ED Multisite Community Based Cohort Study. Full Text available with Trip Pro

. Because they require no assumptions about health care access or utilization, they are useful in refining estimates of the burden of diarrheal disease, in estimating the effect of disease control interventions, and in triaging children for referral in low- and middle-income countries in which the rates of morbidity and mortality after diarrhea remain high. (...) %) resulted in hospitalization. The area under the curve of each score as a predictor of hospitalization was 0.84 (95% confidence interval: 0.81, 0.87) (Clark), 0.85 (0.82, 0.88) (MAL-ED), and 0.87 (0.84, 0.89) (CODA). Severity was also associated with etiology and episode duration. Although families were more likely to seek care for severe diarrhea, approximately half of severe cases never reached the health system.Community-based diarrheal severity scores are predictive of relevant child health outcomes

2016 Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition

18. The Management of Community-Acquired Pneumonia in Infants and Children Older Than 3 Months of Age Full Text available with Trip Pro

outcome, is very uncertain. a RCTs, randomized controlled trials. SITE-OF-CARE MANAGEMENT DECISIONS I. When Does a Child or Infant With CAP Require Hospitalization? Recommendations 1. Children and infants who have moderate to severe CAP, as defined by several factors, including respiratory distress and hypoxemia (sustained saturation of peripheral oxygen [SpO 2 ], <90 % at sea level) ( ) should be hospitalized for management, including skilled pediatric nursing care. (strong recommendation; high (...) The Management of Community-Acquired Pneumonia in Infants and Children Older Than 3 Months of Age We use cookies to enhance your experience on our website. By continuing to use our website, you are agreeing to our use of cookies. You can change your cookie settings at any time. Management of Community-Acquired Pneumonia in Infants and Children Older Than 3 Months of Age: Clinical Practice Guidelines by the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society and the Infectious Diseases Society of America

2011 Infectious Diseases Society of America

19. Oral Rehydration Therapy Protocol in Pediatric Dehydration

Miscellaneous Abuse Cancer Administration 4 Oral Rehydration Therapy Protocol in Pediatric Dehydration Oral Rehydration Therapy Protocol in Pediatric Dehydration Aka: Oral Rehydration Therapy Protocol in Pediatric Dehydration , Dehydration Management in Children with Oral Replacement , Pediatric Diarrhea Fluid Replacement From Related Chapters II. Indications Mild to moderate Mild to moderate III. Precautions Use (ORS) as this most closely mirrors related losses : 50 mEq/L (WHO ORS contains 75 mEq/L, older (...) will require IV fluids Consider a single dose of ( ) to aid starting (see below) Delivery of fluids Use a syringe (infants) Spoon or cup (children) (if unable to take orally) Safe, effective, and less expensive than s Conversions One teaspoon: 5 ml One ounce: 30 ml (2 tbs) V. Management: Oral Protocol See Mild Dehydration (standard replacement) Total ORS: 50 ml/kg over 4 hours by syringe, spoon or cup Give 1 ml/kg of ORS by syringe every 5 minutes for 4 hours or Give 3 ml/kg of ORS every 15 minutes for 4

2018 FP Notebook

20. Risk factors for death in children during inpatient treatment of severe acute malnutrition: a prospective cohort study. Full Text available with Trip Pro

), and a capillary refill time >2 s (HR: 3.9; 95% CI: 1.4, 11.3). HIV infection was not associated with mortality (HR: 3.0; 95% CI: 0.7, 12.4), which was most likely due to low power. Biochemical risk factors were a plasma C-reactive protein concentration >15 mg/L on admission and low plasma phosphate that was measured on day 2 (HR: 8.7; 95% CI: 2.5, 30.1), particularly in edematous children. The replacement of F-75 with unfortified rice porridge to ameliorate diarrhea was associated with a higher risk of death (...) phosphate. The identified clinical risk factors may potentially improve the triage of children with malnutrition. This trial was registered at www.isrctn.com as ISRCTN55092738.© 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

2016 American Journal of Clinical Nutrition

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