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Travelers Diarrhea

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141. Norovirus: new developments and implications for travelers’ diarrhea Full Text available with Trip Pro

Norovirus: new developments and implications for travelers’ diarrhea Noroviruses are the leading cause of acute gastroenteritis in the United States and are responsible for at least 50 % of acute gastroenteritis outbreaks occurring worldwide each year. In addition, noroviruses have caused outbreaks on cruise ships, in nursing homes and hospitals, and in deployed military personnel, but its role in the etiology of travelers' diarrhea is not well defined. The aim of this review is to describe (...) the role of noroviruses in travelers' diarrhea in terms of epidemiology, current diagnostics, treatment and vaccine development efforts. Studies have shown prevalence rates of noroviruses in travelers' diarrhea cases ranging from 10-65 %. It is likely that norovirus prevalence rates are highly underestimated in travelers' diarrhea due to rapid onset, short duration of the illness, limited availability of laboratory facilities, and the fact that most clinical laboratories lack the diagnostic capability

2016 Tropical diseases, travel medicine and vaccines

142. Incidence of Campylobacter concisus and C. ureolyticus in traveler’s diarrhea cases and asymptomatic controls in Nepal and Thailand Full Text available with Trip Pro

examination for common enteric pathogens to include C. jejuni and C. coli by culture from two case-control traveler's diarrhea (TD) studies conducted in Thailand (cases = 26; controls = 30) and Nepal (cases = 83; controls = 75) respectively were assayed by PCR for the detection of Campylobacter 16S rRNA and two specific heat shock protein genes specific for C. concisus (cpn60) and C. ureolyticus (Hsp60) respectively.Campylobacter 16S rRNA was detected in 28.5% (61/214) of the pathogen-negative TD stool (...) . concisus and C. ureolyticus detected from traveler's diarrhea cases from travelers to Nepal and Thailand.

2017 Gut pathogens

143. Antibiotic Therapy for Acute Watery Diarrhea and Dysentery Full Text available with Trip Pro

Antibiotic Therapy for Acute Watery Diarrhea and Dysentery Diarrheal disease affects a large proportion of military personnel deployed to developing countries, resulting in decreased job performance and operational readiness. Travelers' diarrhea is self-limiting and generally resolves within 5 days; however, antibiotic treatment significantly reduces symptom severity and duration of illness. Presently, azithromycin is the preferred first-line antibiotic for the treatment of acute watery (...) . Another alternate for acute watery diarrhea is rifaximin (200 mg 3 times per day for 3 days); however, it should not be used with invasive illness. Use of loperamide in combination with antibiotic treatment is also beneficial as it has been shown to further reduce gastrointestinal symptoms and duration of illness. Because of regional differences in the predominance of pathogens and resistance levels, choice of antibiotic should take travel destination into consideration.Reprint & Copyright © 2017

2017 Military medicine

144. Preface: Guidelines for the Treatment of Travelers’ Diarrhea in Deployed Military Personnel Full Text available with Trip Pro

Preface: Guidelines for the Treatment of Travelers’ Diarrhea in Deployed Military Personnel Diarrheal disease frequently affects military personnel deployed to developing countries, resulting in decreased job performance and potential negative impacts on military operational readiness. Travelers' diarrhea is a self-limiting illness; however, antibiotic treatment (with and without use of adjunct loperamide therapy) has been shown to significantly reduce clinical presentation of symptoms (...) and duration of illness. Nonetheless, the choice of first-line antibiotics must be carefully considered as increasing resistance of enteric pathogens in endemic regions has rendered many first-line antibiotics ineffective (e.g., Campylobacter spp. are resistant to fluoroquinolones in Southeast Asia). Presently, there are no standardized recommendations for the treatment of travelers' diarrhea among deployed military personnel. Therefore, an expert panel was convened to develop evidence-based, consensus

2017 Military medicine

145. Commentary: Implementation and Evaluation of Deployment Health Guidelines on Acute Diarrhea Management – a medical call to arms Full Text available with Trip Pro

Commentary: Implementation and Evaluation of Deployment Health Guidelines on Acute Diarrhea Management – a medical call to arms 28885923 2019 01 07 2019 01 07 1930-613X 182 S2 2017 09 Military medicine Mil Med Implementation and Evaluation of Deployment Health Guidelines on Acute Diarrhea Management: A Medical Call to Arms. 53-56 10.7205/MILMED-D-17-00076 Riddle Mark S MS Enteric Disease Department, Naval Medical Research Center, 503 Robert Grant Avenue, Silver Spring, MD 20910. Tribble David (...) D Infectious Disease Clinical Research Program, Preventive Medicine and Biostatistics Department, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, 4301 Jones Bridge Road, Bethesda, MD 20814. eng Y01 AI005072 AI NIAID NIH HHS United States Y01 AI005072-05 AI NIAID NIH HHS United States Journal Article Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S. England Mil Med 2984771R 0026-4075 IM Diarrhea therapy Disease Management Guidelines as Topic standards Humans

2017 Military medicine

146. Management of Acute Diarrheal Illness during Deployment: A Deployment Health Guideline and Expert Panel Report Full Text available with Trip Pro

, antibiotics for self-treatment of travelers' diarrhea, what antibiotics/regimens should be considered for treatment of acute watery diarrhea and febrile diarrhea and/or dysentery, and when and what laboratory diagnostics should be used to support management of deployment-related travelers' diarrhea. Studies of acute diarrhea management in military and other travelers were assessed for relevance and quality. On the basis of this critical appraisal, guideline recommendations were developed and graded (...) by the Expert Panel using good standards in clinical guideline development methodology.New definitions for defining the severity of diarrhea during deployment were established. A total of 13 graded recommendations on the topics of prophylaxis, therapy and diagnosis, and follow-up were developed. In addition, four non-graded consensus-based statements were adopted.Successful management of acute diarrheal illness during deployment requires action at the provider, population, and commander levels. Strong

2017 Military medicine

147. Prevention of Antibiotic-Associated Diarrhoea With Prolardii

Prevention of Antibiotic-Associated Diarrhoea With Prolardii Prevention of Antibiotic-Associated Diarrhoea With Prolardii - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov Hide glossary Glossary Study record managers: refer to the if submitting registration or results information. Search for terms x × Study Record Detail Saved Studies Save this study Warning You have reached the maximum number of saved studies (100). Please remove one or more studies before adding more. Prevention of Antibiotic-Associated (...) Diarrhoea With Prolardii (PAADI) The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study sponsor and investigators. Listing a study does not mean it has been evaluated by the U.S. Federal Government. Read our for details. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT03256708 Recruitment Status : Active, not recruiting First Posted : August 22, 2017 Last Update Posted : April 3, 2018 Sponsor: Therabel Pharma SA/NV Collaborator: ECSOR Information provided by (Responsible Party): Therabel

2017 Clinical Trials

148. Gut microbiota-mediated protection against diarrheal infections. Full Text available with Trip Pro

resistance and thus prevent travellers' diarrheal.© International Society of Travel Medicine, 2016. Published by Oxford University Press All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com (...) Gut microbiota-mediated protection against diarrheal infections. The mammalian gut microbiota is a highly abundant and diverse microbial community that resides in the gastrointestinal tract. One major benefit that the gut microbiota provides to its host is colonization resistance-the ability to prevent colonization by foreign microbes, including diarrheal pathogens such as Clostridium difficile , Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium and diarrheagenic Escherichia coli .We conducted

2017 Journal of Travel Medicine

149. Comparison of phenotypic and WGS-derived antimicrobial resistance profiles of Shigella sonnei isolated from cases of diarrhoeal disease in England and Wales, 2015. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Comparison of phenotypic and WGS-derived antimicrobial resistance profiles of Shigella sonnei isolated from cases of diarrhoeal disease in England and Wales, 2015. Phenotypic and genotypic methods for the detection of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in Shigella sonnei in England and Wales were compared and evaluated.WGS data from 341 isolates of S. sonnei isolated between June 2015 and January 2016 were mapped to genes known to be associated with phenotypic AMR. Antimicrobial susceptibility (...) , sulphonamides, tetracyclines and streptomycin, occurring in 97 (28.4%) isolates. Resistances to ciprofloxacin and the third-generation cephalosporins, not detected in England and Wales prior to 2002, were identified in 18.2% and 12% of isolates, respectively. Three hundred and four (89.1%) isolates were MDR. There was no significant association between any of the AMR determinants tested and recent foreign travel in male or female cases. The number of isolates of S. sonnei harbouring blaTEM-1 and ermB/mphA

2017 Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy

150. Traveler's Diarrhea Management

Traveler's Diarrhea Management Travelers Diarrhea Management Toggle navigation Brain Head & Neck Chest Endocrine Abdomen Musculoskeletal Skin Infectious Disease Hematology & Oncology Cohorts Diagnostics Emergency Findings Procedures Prevention & Management Pharmacy Resuscitation Trauma Emergency Procedures Ultrasound Cardiovascular Emergencies Lung Emergencies Infectious Disease Pediatrics Neurologic Emergencies Skin Exposure Miscellaneous Abuse Cancer Administration 4 Traveler's Diarrhea (...) Management Traveler's Diarrhea Management Aka: Traveler's Diarrhea Management From Related Chapters II. Precautions : Overall Avoid trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole ( , ) and due to high resistance rates Most is self-limited and spontaneously resolves WITHOUT antibiotics Use of antibiotics (esp. self treatment) is associated with multi-drug resistance, c. diff : Travel to Southeast Asia, Thailand, India or Nepal -resistant is common as first-line agent is preferred in these cases s Antimalarials and both

2015 FP Notebook

151. Traveler's Diarrhea

, diarrhea travelers' , diarrhoea travellers , travelers' diarrhea , traveler's diarrhea , Travellers' diarrhoea (disorder) , Travellers' diarrhea , Traveler's diarrhea , Turista , Traveler's diarrhoea , Traveler's diarrhea (disorder) Dutch reizigersdiarree French Diarrhée du voyageur German Reisediarrhoe Italian Diarrea del viaggiatore Portuguese Diarreia do viajante Spanish Diarrea del viajero , diarrea del viajero (trastorno) , diarrea del viajero , turista Japanese 旅行者下痢 , リョコウシャゲリ Czech Průjem (...) sampling from a Bing search on the term "Travelers Diarrhea." Click on the image (or right click) to open the source website in a new browser window. Related Studies (from Trip Database) Ontology: Traveler's diarrhea (C0277528) Concepts Disease or Syndrome ( T047 ) SnomedCT 186165000 , 367091004 , 11840006 English Travelers' diarrhea , Travellers' diarrhoea , Traveller's diarrhea , Traveller's diarrhoea , traveller's diarrhoea , traveller's diarrhea , diarrhea travelers , turista , diarrhea traveler's

2015 FP Notebook

152. Traveler's Diarrhea Prophylaxis

Traveler's Diarrhea Prophylaxis Travelers Diarrhea Prophylaxis Toggle navigation Brain Head & Neck Chest Endocrine Abdomen Musculoskeletal Skin Infectious Disease Hematology & Oncology Cohorts Diagnostics Emergency Findings Procedures Prevention & Management Pharmacy Resuscitation Trauma Emergency Procedures Ultrasound Cardiovascular Emergencies Lung Emergencies Infectious Disease Pediatrics Neurologic Emergencies Skin Exposure Miscellaneous Abuse Cancer Administration 4 Traveler's Diarrhea (...) Prophylaxis Traveler's Diarrhea Prophylaxis Aka: Traveler's Diarrhea Prophylaxis , Prophylaxis of Traveler's Diarrhea , Prevention of Traveler's Diarrhea , Traveler's Diarrhea Prevention II. Prevention: Traveler's Diarrhea Rule 1: "Boil it, Cook it, Peel it or Forget it" Preparing your own food ensures safety (avoid food prepared by street vendors) Dry foods (e.g. breads, chips) are typically safe Exposures to avoid Avoid raw, unpeeled vegetables, lettucs, tomatoes Avoid pre-peeled fruit Avoid tap water

2015 FP Notebook

153. Trial Evaluating Ambulatory Treatment of Travelers' Diarrhea

Trial Evaluating Ambulatory Treatment of Travelers' Diarrhea Trial Evaluating Ambulatory Treatment of Travelers' Diarrhea - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov Hide glossary Glossary Study record managers: refer to the if submitting registration or results information. Search for terms x × Study Record Detail Saved Studies Save this study Warning You have reached the maximum number of saved studies (100). Please remove one or more studies before adding more. Trial Evaluating Ambulatory (...) Treatment of Travelers' Diarrhea (TrEAT TD) The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study sponsor and investigators. Listing a study does not mean it has been evaluated by the U.S. Federal Government. Read our for details. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01618591 Recruitment Status : Terminated (AWD arm was completed. ADF diarrhea arm was unable to fill completely and there are no funds remaining to continue recruiting/enrolling.) First Posted : June 13, 2012 Last

2012 Clinical Trials

154. Geographic, symptomatic and laboratory predictors of parasitic and bacterial causes of diarrhoea in travellers. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Geographic, symptomatic and laboratory predictors of parasitic and bacterial causes of diarrhoea in travellers. An observational study of patients presenting with diarrhoea to a walk-in service for returning travellers was conducted with the aim of identifying features that would help predict whether pathogens were bacterial or parasitic. In total, 509 cases were included, of which a bacterial aetiology was found in 55/440 (12.5%) and a parasitic cause in 51/428 (11.9%). Patients with symptoms (...) of ≤14 days were significantly more likely to have a bacterial diagnosis than those with longer symptoms (p<0.001), whereas parasitic causes of diarrhoea were not associated with length of symptoms and became proportionately more likely with time. Raised CRP, faecal white cells and fever were all predictive of positive bacterial culture (p<0.001, p=0.001 and p=0.001, respectively) but did not predict parasitic infection. Travellers to South and Southeast Asia were more likely to have parasites

2012 Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine & Hygiene

155. A severe case of Aeromonas veronii biovar sobria traveller's diarrhoea characterized by Vibrio parahaemolyticus co-isolation. Full Text available with Trip Pro

A severe case of Aeromonas veronii biovar sobria traveller's diarrhoea characterized by Vibrio parahaemolyticus co-isolation. We report a severe case of travellers' diarrhoea in a patient returning from Ecuador to Italy with the concomitant presence of Aeromonas veronii biovar sobria and Vibrio parahaemolyticus in their faeces. Based on diagnostic results, epidemiological information and the clinical outcome, we conclude that the real aetiological agent was A. veronii biovar sobria, while V

2012 Journal of Medical Microbiology

156. A Cluster of Acute Diarrhea Suspected to Be Cholera in French Travelers in Haiti, December 2010. Full Text available with Trip Pro

A Cluster of Acute Diarrhea Suspected to Be Cholera in French Travelers in Haiti, December 2010. A cluster of 21 cases of watery diarrhea suspected to be cholera that involved French military policemen and young volunteers occurring in the context of the Haiti cholera outbreak is described. The attack rate (AR) was higher among young volunteers (71.4%) than among policemen (15.3%) (p < 0.0001). There was a significant association between raw vegetables consumption and watery diarrhea (...) in the young volunteer group. If we consider the raw vegetables consumers only, AR was lower among doxycycline-exposed subjects (relative risk: 0.2; 95% confidence interval: 0.1-0.4). The main aspect that is of scientific interest is the potential prophylactic effect of doxycycline used for malaria prophylaxis on the watery diarrhea AR.© 2012 International Society of Travel Medicine.

2012 Journal of Travel Medicine

157. Fever in the returning international traveller: Initial assessment guidelines

and life-threatening illness, the most important of which is malaria. All febrile patients or patients complaining of fever should therefore be asked about recent travel. While fever in the returning traveller may be due to benign self-limited infections, such as common agents of travellersdiarrhea, or typical cosmopolitan causes unrelated to travel, it must be initially construed as a medical emergency, and warrants prompt and thorough evaluation. Accurate diagnosis and appropriate management (...) traveller may be due to tropical infections or illnesses that have more of a cosmopolitan distribution globally. Numerous large series of illness after international travel have repeatedly identified malaria (20-30%) , acute travellersdiarrhea (10-20%), and respiratory tract infections (10-15%) as the top causes of fever in travellers – (Table 1). Other common causes of fever in the returning traveller include dengue (5%), enteric fever due to Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi or Paratyphi (2-7

2011 CPG Infobase

158. Statement on older travellers

in the post-travel setting, and may herald serious and life-threatening illness, the most important of which is malaria. All febrile patients or patients complaining of fever should therefore be asked about recent travel. While fever in the returning traveller may be due to benign self-limited infections, such as common agents of travellersdiarrhea, or typical cosmopolitan causes unrelated to travel, it must be initially construed as a medical emergency , and warrants prompt and thorough evaluation (...) support with guidance in the evaluation and management of fever in the returning traveller beyond the initial phase. Epidemiology of fever in the returning traveller Fever in the returning traveller may be due to tropical infections or illnesses that have more of a cosmopolitan distribution globally . Numerous large series of illness after international travel have repeatedly identified malaria (20- 30%) 1 , acute travellersdiarrhea (10-20%), and respiratory tract infections (10-15%) as the top

2011 CPG Infobase

159. Medical Considerations before International Travel. Full Text available with Trip Pro

IM N Engl J Med. 2016 Oct 13;375(15):e32 27732813 N Engl J Med. 2016 Oct 13;375(15):e32 27732814 N Engl J Med. 2016 Oct 13;375(15):e32 27732815 N Engl J Med. 2016 Oct 13;375(15):e32 27732816 Arbovirus Infections prevention & control Diarrhea prevention & control Endemic Diseases prevention & control Humans Internationality Jet Lag Syndrome prevention & control Malaria prevention & control Rabies prevention & control Travel Travel Medicine Tuberculosis, Pulmonary prevention & control Vaccination (...) Medical Considerations before International Travel. 27468061 2016 08 09 2016 10 17 1533-4406 375 3 2016 Jul 21 The New England journal of medicine N. Engl. J. Med. Medical Considerations before International Travel. 247-60 10.1056/NEJMra1508815 Freedman David O DO From the William C. Gorgas Center for Geographic Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham (D.O.F.); the Division of Infectious Diseases, Mount Auburn Hospital, Cambridge, MA (L.H.C

2016 NEJM

160. Persistent Diarrhea: A Clinical Review. (Abstract)

Persistent Diarrhea: A Clinical Review. Diarrheal disease is commonly encountered in clinical practice. Persistent diarrhea (≥14 days) can be caused by pathogens that differ from those commonly seen in acute illness; proper etiologic diagnosis is important for appropriate therapeutic management. This review provides an overview of the epidemiology, etiology, diagnosis, and management of persistent diarrhea caused by infectious agents in immunocompetent individuals worldwide.Much of the data (...) on persistent diarrhea comes from studies of residents in or expatriates of developing countries and travelers to these regions where follow-up studies have been performed. Persistent diarrhea occurs in approximately 3% of individuals traveling to developing countries. Schistosoma mansoni (and rarely Schistosoma haematobium) intestinal infection is also not very common and is found only in endemic areas. The microbiologic causes of protracted diarrhea include detectable parasitic (eg, Giardia

2016 JAMA

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