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Travelers Diarrhea

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141. Campylobacter jejuni is Not an Important Pathogen as a Cause of Diarrhea in US Travelers to Mexico. (PubMed)

Campylobacter jejuni is Not an Important Pathogen as a Cause of Diarrhea in US Travelers to Mexico. Campylobacter jejuni is an unusual cause of travelers' diarrhea acquired in Mexico, but previous studies have relied only on stool culture for diagnosis. We conducted a cohort study to determine if antibody seroconversion to C jejuni would better reflect the occurrence of infection acquired in Mexico. Serum IgG, IgA, and IgM antibodies to Campylobacter seroconverted in only 2 of 353 participants (...) (0.6%). These data further support that C jejuni infection is an unusual cause of travelers' diarrhea in US visitors to Mexico.© 2010 International Society of Travel Medicine.

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2011 Journal of Travel Medicine

142. CTX-M-15-producing Enteroaggregative Escherichia coli as Cause of Travelers' Diarrhea. (PubMed)

CTX-M-15-producing Enteroaggregative Escherichia coli as Cause of Travelers' Diarrhea. Travelers' diarrhea is a major public health problem. From patients in whom diarrhea developed after travel to India, 5 enteroaggregative Escherichia coli strains carrying β-lactamase CTX-M-15 were identified; 3 belonged to clonal complex sequence type 38. This β-lactamase contributes to the multidrug resistance of enteroaggregative E. coli, thereby limiting therapeutic alternatives.

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2011 Emerging Infectious Diseases

143. Self-Limited Travelers' Diarrhea by Isospora belli in a Patient With Dengue Infection. (PubMed)

Self-Limited Travelers' Diarrhea by Isospora belli in a Patient With Dengue Infection. Isospora belli diarrhea is usually associated with immunosuppression. This parasite has rarely been reported as a cause of travelers' diarrhea in immunocompetent patients. We present a clinical case of travelers' diarrhea due to I belli in a patient with transient lymphopenia secondary to dengue infection.© 2011 International Society of Travel Medicine.

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2011 Journal of Travel Medicine

144. Statement on pregnancy and travel

Statement on pregnancy and travel 1 CCDR Canada Communicable Disease Report RMTC Relevé des maladies transmissibles au Canada March 2010 • Volume 36 • ACS-2 March 2010 • Volume 36 • DCC-2 ISSN 1481-8531 Committee to Advise on Tropical Medicine and Travel* † STATEMENT ON PREGNANCY AND TRAVEL This correction note was published in the CCDR Volume 40-8 on April 17, 2014 The “Statement on Pregnancy and Travel” by the Committee to Advise on Tropical Medicine and Travel (CATMAT) † published in March (...) . + This statement was prepared by C. Beallor and approved by CATMAT. CATMAT gratefully acknowledges the work of Dr. Gideon Koren for his contribution to the development of the statement. † Committee to Advise on Tropical Medicine and Travel. Statement on Pregnancy and Travel. Can Comm Dis Rep 2010:36:ACS-2. 2 or respected authorities on the basis of clinical ex- perience, descriptive studies, or reports of expert committees.) In a further paragraph in the motion sickness section, a statement regarding the lack

2010 CPG Infobase

145. Differential Diagnosis of Illness in Travelers Arriving From Sierra Leone, Liberia, or Guinea: A Cross-sectional Study From the GeoSentinel Surveillance Network. (PubMed)

travelers was malaria (n = 310 [40.3%]), with Plasmodium falciparum or severe malaria in 267 (86%) and non-P. falciparum malaria in 43 (14%). Acute diarrhea was the second most common diagnosis among nonimmigrant travelers (n = 95 [12.3%]). Such common diagnoses as upper respiratory tract infection, urinary tract infection, and influenza-like illness occurred in only 26, 9, and 7 returning travelers, respectively. Few instances of typhoid fever (n = 8), acute HIV infection (n = 5), and dengue (n = 2 (...) Differential Diagnosis of Illness in Travelers Arriving From Sierra Leone, Liberia, or Guinea: A Cross-sectional Study From the GeoSentinel Surveillance Network. The largest-ever outbreak of Ebola virus disease (EVD), ongoing in West Africa since late 2013, has led to export of cases to Europe and North America. Clinicians encountering ill travelers arriving from countries with widespread Ebola virus transmission must be aware of alternate diagnoses associated with fever and other nonspecific

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2015 Annals of Internal Medicine

146. Travelers' Diarrhea and Others (PubMed)

Travelers' Diarrhea and Others 18747617 2010 06 30 2018 11 13 0093-0415 123 6 1975 Dec The Western journal of medicine West. J. Med. Travelers' diarrhea and others. 497-8 Greenberg R N RN Center for Disease Control, New Orleans. eng Journal Article United States West J Med 0410504 0093-0415 1975 12 1 0 0 1975 12 1 0 1 1975 12 1 0 0 ppublish 18747617 PMC1130438 N Engl J Med. 1975 Jun 26;292(26):1403-5 166309 Ann Intern Med. 1972 Jun;76(6):993-1008 4554885 Lancet. 1975 Feb 1;1(7901):242-6 46387 N

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1975 Western Journal of Medicine

147. Laboratory investigation of diarrhea in travelers to Mexico: evaluation of methods for detecting enterotoxigenic Echerichia coli. (PubMed)

Laboratory investigation of diarrhea in travelers to Mexico: evaluation of methods for detecting enterotoxigenic Echerichia coli. A laboratory investigation was conducted on cultures collected from travelers before, during, and after a trip to Mexico to characterize the etiology of traveler's diarrhea. Four laboratory methods for detecting enterotoxigenicity of Escherichia coli were evaluated: the infant mouse assay, the Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell assay, the Y1 adrenal cell assay (...) , and the rabbit ileal loop. Although a number of common enteric pathogens were identified as a cause of traveler's diarrhea, including six serotypes of Salmonella, two serotypes of Shigella, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Giardia lamblia, and Entamoeba histolytica, enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli was most commonly isolated. Strains were identified that produced only heat-labile enterotoxin (LT), only heat-stable enterotoxin (ST), or both LT and ST. The infant mouse assay yielded results falling into two distinct

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1976 Journal of clinical microbiology

148. Prevention of traveller's diarrhea with doxycycline. (PubMed)

Prevention of traveller's diarrhea with doxycycline. 427684 1979 06 29 2018 11 13 0008-4409 120 7 1979 Apr 07 Canadian Medical Association journal Can Med Assoc J Prevention of traveller's diarrhea with doxycycline. 794-5 Armstrong J B JB eng Letter Canada Can Med Assoc J 0414110 0008-4409 N12000U13O Doxycycline AIM IM Diarrhea prevention & control Doxycycline therapeutic use Humans Travel 1979 4 7 1979 4 7 0 1 1979 4 7 0 0 ppublish 427684 PMC1818942 N Engl J Med. 1978 Apr 6;298(14):758-63

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1979 Canadian Medical Association Journal

149. Travelers' Diarrhea (PubMed)

Travelers' Diarrhea On the average, one-fourth of North Americans visiting developing countries experience a self-limited diarrheal illness that interferes with holiday or business activities. Recent work suggests that these episodes are caused by a small inoculum of enteropathogenic Escherichia coli which are common in the country visited and rare in the country of origin. Neither antimicrobial treatment nor anti-diarrheal agents have proven benefit once the illness has begun. Despite its (...) frequent use, iodochlorhydroxyquin has not been shown in double blind studies to be effective as a preventive agent, and may be dangerous. The status of furazolidone for prevention of tourist diarrhea is questionable. Both neomycin sulfate and phythalylsulfathiazole have demonstrated efficacy as chemoprophylactics in Mexico. However, their use should be restricted to limited types of travel and travelers. General admonitions concerning avoidance of certain ingestibles are recommended; despite

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1973 California Medicine

150. Enteropathogenic Escherichia Coli (EPEC) in Infants' and Travelers' Diarrhea (PubMed)

Enteropathogenic Escherichia Coli (EPEC) in Infants' and Travelers' Diarrhea 18747457 2010 06 30 2018 11 13 0093-0415 121 4 1974 Oct The Western journal of medicine West. J. Med. Enteropathogenic Escherichia Coli (EPEC) in Infants' and Travelers' Diarrhea. 317-8 Cronin C C eng Journal Article United States West J Med 0410504 0093-0415 1974 10 1 0 0 1974 10 1 0 1 1974 10 1 0 0 ppublish 18747457 PMC1130232 J Pediatr. 1971 Jul;79(1):1-11 4933215 N Engl J Med. 1971 Jul 1;285(1):1-9 4996788

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1974 Western Journal of Medicine

151. Effect of a lactobacilli preparation on traveler's diarrhea. A randomized, double blind clinical trial. (PubMed)

Effect of a lactobacilli preparation on traveler's diarrhea. A randomized, double blind clinical trial. The effectiveness of prophylactic ingestion of a commercial preparation of lactobacilli (Lactinex) for the prevention or modification of traveler's diarrhea was tested in a randomized double blind clinical trial in 50 volunteer travelers to Mexico from the United States. Twenty-six subjects received the lactobacilli preparation and 24 received placebo. The incidence of diarrhea and its (...) duration during the 4 weeks of observation were quite similar for the two preparations: 35% for lactobacilli-treated subjects and 29% for placebo subjects. Typically, the diarrhea was mild, lasting 2 days. From the observations during this study we conclude that prophylactic ingestion of lactobacilli for 1 week does not reduce the incidence or duration of traveler's diarrhea either during the period of ingestion or during the following 3 weeks.

1978 Gastroenterology

152. Prophylactic doxycycline for travelers' diarrhea: results of a prospective double-blind study of Peace Corps volunteers in Morocco. (PubMed)

Prophylactic doxycycline for travelers' diarrhea: results of a prospective double-blind study of Peace Corps volunteers in Morocco. A second randomized double-blind study to determine the efficacy of doxycycline, 100 mg daily, for the prevention of travelers' diarrhea was carried out among 50 Peace Corps Volunteers during their first 10 wk in Morocco. The volunteers took either doxycycline or placebo for 3 wk, and were observed for an additional 7 wk. Eleven of 24 taking the placebo and 2 of 26 (...) taking doxycycline had travelers' diarrhea during the treatment period (P less than 0.01). One week after cessation of the doxycycline, however, persons in that group developed an increase in frequency of travelers' diarrhea (P less than 0.05) so that by 3 wk after the drug was stopped, there were no differences between groups. Enterotoxigenic E. coli, most of which were sensitive to doxycycline, were the most frequently isolated pathogens during the entire study. This study corroborates

1979 Gastroenterology

153. Primary Care Corner with Geoffrey Modest MD: International Travel and Gut Microbiome Changes

-producing Enterobacteriaceae and carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae), and finding significant colonization overall but especially in those who developed traveler’s diarrhea and even much more so in those who took antibiotics for it (see ). The current study adds greatly to the concern about GI microbiome changes with travel by looking at the larger microbiome, not just a couple of concerning species as above (see doi:10.1128/AAC.00933-15​). Details: They used “explorative shotgun metagenomic (...) to antibiotics, though 23 of the 35 did participate in hospital-based patient work. In doing the metagenomic sequencing, they limited their assessment to genes conferring verified resistance phenotypes (i.e., those genes known to be associated with resistant bacterial infections). 69% (12 of 17 going to Central Africa and 12/18 to the Indian peninsula) had travelersdiarrhea for a median of 4 days. None were exposed to antibiotic treatment in the 6-month period before or during the travel, though those who

2015 Evidence-Based Medicine blog

154. Global TravEpiNet: A National Consortium of Clinics Providing Care to International Travelers--Analysis of Demographic Characteristics, Travel Destinations, and Pretravel Healthcare of High-Risk US International Travelers, 2009-2011. (PubMed)

an antibiotic for self-treatment of travelers' diarrhea. Hepatitis A and typhoid were the most frequently administered vaccines. Data from Global TravEpiNet provide insight into the characteristics and pretravel healthcare of US international travelers who are at increased risk of travel-associated illness due to itinerary, purpose of travel, or existing medical conditions. Improved understanding of this epidemiologically significant population may help target risk-reduction strategies and interventions (...) Global TravEpiNet: A National Consortium of Clinics Providing Care to International Travelers--Analysis of Demographic Characteristics, Travel Destinations, and Pretravel Healthcare of High-Risk US International Travelers, 2009-2011.  International travel poses a risk of destination-specific illness and may contribute to the global spread of infectious diseases. Despite this, little is known about the health characteristics and pretravel healthcare of US international travelers, particularly

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2011 Clinical Infectious Diseases

155. Effectiveness of and Satisfaction With a Pharmacist-managed Travel Medicine Clinic

Frame: 1 week following return from travel according to participant's planned itinerary ] Response options: Traveller's diarrhea, Altitude sickness, Malaria, Fever (Dengue, Chikungunya), Respiratory illness, Other (specify) Frequency of management strategies of any health issues over the course of travel according to participant self-report through an online survey [ Time Frame: 1 week following return from travel according to participant's planned itinerary ] Response options: Nothing - it went (...) Effectiveness of and Satisfaction With a Pharmacist-managed Travel Medicine Clinic Effectiveness of and Satisfaction With a Pharmacist-managed Travel Medicine Clinic - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov Hide glossary Glossary Study record managers: refer to the if submitting registration or results information. Search for terms x × Study Record Detail Saved Studies Save this study Warning You have reached the maximum number of saved studies (100). Please remove one or more studies before

2015 Clinical Trials

156. Diarrhoea - prevention and advice for travellers

. Economic appraisals No new economic appraisals relevant to England since 1 February 2013. Systematic reviews and meta-analyses No new systematic review or meta-analysis since 1 February 2013. Primary evidence Steffen, R., Hill, D. R., and DuPont, H. L. (2015) Traveler's diarrhea: a clinical review. JAMA 313 (1), 71-80. [ ] Randomized controlled trials published since the last revision of this topic: Zanger, P., Nurjadi, D., Gabor, J., et al. (2013) Effectiveness of rifaximin in prevention of diarrhoea (...) Diarrhoea - prevention and advice for travellers Diarrhoea - prevention and advice for travellers - NICE CKS Clinical Knowledge Summaries Share Diarrhoea - prevention and advice for travellers: Summary Travellers' diarrhoea is a clinical syndrome associated with contaminated food or water, that occurs during or shortly after travel. Acute watery diarrhoea and abdominal pain and cramps are experienced in 80% of cases of travellers' diarrhoea. For 20–50% of cases of travellers' diarrhoea

2013 NICE Clinical Knowledge Summaries

157. Tropical and travel-associated norovirus: current concepts. (PubMed)

Tropical and travel-associated norovirus: current concepts. We highlight recent advances relevant to understanding norovirus infections in the tropics, both in populations living in developing settings and travelers to these regions.Because of the decrease in diarrheal disease associated with the global rollout of vaccines against rotavirus, norovirus is emerging as the predominant cause of diarrhea morbidity among children in the tropics, and evidence suggests that it contributes to adult (...) disease in endemic populations and travelers. In addition to identifying potential target populations for preventive measures, we provide an update on norovirus vaccine development and concepts related to their implementation in low-income and middle-income countries.These current concepts related to norovirus-attributable disease burden, clinical significance, and economic impact can potentially be applied to tailoring efforts to prevent and mitigate the effects of this important enteropathogen.

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2015 Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases

158. Immediate Recall of Health Issues Discussed During a Pre-Travel Consultation. (PubMed)

(43%), Americas (21%), and Africa (17%). Doctors' and travelers' surveys showed variable levels of concordance: 94% of patients recalled discussion of malaria, 84% rabies, and 76% dengue. For malaria, 95% remembered discussions regarding insect repellents, and 92% recalled that medical advice should be sought if fever developed. For travelers with whom rabies was discussed, 94% recalled that medical advice must be urgently sought following a bite/scratch. For travelers' diarrhea (TD), 99% knew (...) Immediate Recall of Health Issues Discussed During a Pre-Travel Consultation. An important role of pre-travel consultations is to improve travelers' understanding of travel-related diseases, but the efficacy of education provided is unknown. This study sought to assess recall and knowledge immediately following a pre-travel consultation.The study was conducted at a hospital-based pre-travel clinic in Melbourne, Australia. Travelers aged ≥16 years seen between September 2010 and March 2012 were

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2015 Journal of Travel Medicine

159. High rate of acquisition but short duration of carriage of multidrug-resistant Enterobacteriaceae after travel to the tropics. (PubMed)

travelers (0.5%) acquired carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae. The acquisition rate was higher in Asia (142/196 [72.4%]) than in sub-Saharan Africa (93/195 [47.7%]) or Latin America (57/183 [31.1%]). MRE acquisition was associated with the type of travel, diarrhea, and exposure to β-lactams during the travel. Three months after return, 4.7% of the travelers carried MRE. Carriage lasted longer in travelers returning from Asia and in travelers with a high relative abundance of MRE at return.MRE (...) High rate of acquisition but short duration of carriage of multidrug-resistant Enterobacteriaceae after travel to the tropics. Multidrug-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (MRE) are widespread in the community, especially in tropical regions. Travelers are at risk of acquiring MRE in these regions, but the precise extent of the problem is not known.From February 2012 to April 2013, travelers attending 6 international vaccination centers in the Paris area prior to traveling to tropical regions were

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2015 Clinical Infectious Diseases

160. Traveler?s Diarrhea

Traveler?s Diarrhea Traveler’s Diarrhea - Gastrointestinal Disorders - MSD Manual Professional Edition Brought to you by The trusted provider of medical information since 1899 SEARCH SEARCH MEDICAL TOPICS Common Health Topics Resources QUIZZES & CASES Quizzes Cases The trusted provider of medical information since 1899 SEARCH SEARCH MEDICAL TOPICS Common Health Topics Resources QUIZZES & CASES Quizzes Cases / / / / IN THIS TOPIC OTHER TOPICS IN THIS CHAPTER Test your knowledge Helicobacter (...) gastrointestinal and respiratory illnesses but are less likely to... 3D Model GI Tract Video How to Insert a Nasogastric Tube SOCIAL MEDIA Add to Any Platform Loading , MD, MPH, Mayo Clinic College of Medicine Click here for Patient Education NOTE: This is the Professional Version. CONSUMERS: Traveler’s diarrhea is gastroenteritis that is usually caused by bacteria endemic to local water. Symptoms include vomiting and diarrhea. Diagnosis is mainly clinical. Treatment is with ciprofloxacin or azithromycin

2013 Merck Manual (19th Edition)

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