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Travelers Diarrhea

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21. Rifamycin SV-MMX® for treatment of travelers' diarrhea: equally effective as ciprofloxacin and not associated with the acquisition of multi-drug resistant bacteria. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Rifamycin SV-MMX® for treatment of travelers' diarrhea: equally effective as ciprofloxacin and not associated with the acquisition of multi-drug resistant bacteria. The novel oral antibiotic formulation Rifamycin SV-MMX®, with a targeted delivery to the distal small bowel and colon, was superior to placebo in treating travellers' diarrhea (TD) in a previous study. Thus, a study was designed to compare this poorly absorbed antibiotic with the systemic agent ciprofloxacin.In a randomized double

2018 Journal of Travel Medicine Controlled trial quality: predicted high

22. Bismuth Subsalicylate's Role in the Prevention of Travelers' Diarrhea

Bismuth Subsalicylate's Role in the Prevention of Travelers' Diarrhea Bismuth Subsalicylate's Role in the Prevention of Travelers' Diarrhea - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov Hide glossary Glossary Study record managers: refer to the if submitting registration or results information. Search for terms x × Study Record Detail Saved Studies Save this study Warning You have reached the maximum number of saved studies (100). Please remove one or more studies before adding more. Bismuth (...) Subsalicylate's Role in the Prevention of Travelers' Diarrhea The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study sponsor and investigators. Listing a study does not mean it has been evaluated by the U.S. Federal Government. of clinical studies and talk to your health care provider before participating. Read our for details. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT03535272 Recruitment Status : Recruiting First Posted : May 24, 2018 Last Update Posted : May 25, 2018 See Sponsor

2018 Clinical Trials

23. Schistosomiasis in a returning international traveler with cyclic fevers and diarrhea Full Text available with Trip Pro

Schistosomiasis in a returning international traveler with cyclic fevers and diarrhea 29449243 2018 11 13 1715-5258 64 2 2018 Feb Canadian family physician Medecin de famille canadien Can Fam Physician Schistosomiasis in a returning international traveler with cyclic fevers and diarrhea. 123-126 Greer Emily E Family physician with Clinica Family Health Services in Boulder, Colo. Singh Kabir Harricharan KH Family physician with the Family Practice Center in Newport, Tenn. Blake Gregory G

2018 Canadian Family Physician

24. Tropical Travel Trouble 006 Watery Diarrhoea

Tropical Travel Trouble 006 Watery Diarrhoea Watery Diarrhoea • LITFL • Tropical Traveler Clinical Cases Emergency medicine and critical care medical education blog Search LITFL ... | | | Watery Diarrhoea , last update March 1, 2019 aka 006 Our medical student who caught shigella on a Nepalese elective has a thirst for adventure. They plan to help at a Bangladesh refugee camp but the latest CDC report states there have been some cases of cholera. They’ve done a little bit of reading and want (...) symptoms: Abdominal discomfort and borborygmi. Vomiting (typically watery). Profuse diarrhoea: typically “rice-water” stool, with a fishy odor. The diarrhoea is usually painless, without tenesmus. In adults, stool output can reach as high as 1 liter per hour and in children, 10 and 20 ml/kg/hour. This rate of fluid loss is not typically observed in other causes of diarrhoeal illness. Fever is uncommon. Rice Water Stool of Cholera Q7. If I have someone with rice water stool is that enough to make

2018 Life in the Fast Lane Blog

25. Tropical Travel Trouble 004 Bloody Diarrhoea

Tropical Travel Trouble 004 Bloody Diarrhoea Bloody Diarrhoea • LITFL • Tropical Travel Clinical Case Emergency medicine and critical care medical education blog Search LITFL ... | | | Bloody Diarrhoea , last update March 1, 2019 aka 004 A medical student who has just returned from their elective in Nepal presents with 1 week of bloody diarrhoea. He had been in the lowlands and stayed with a family in the local village. The diarrhoea started three days prior to leaving Nepal, but is getting (...) -restricted settings or in daycare. Travellers to endemic areas (represents 9% of travellersdiarrhoea). Men who have sex with men. Immunocompromised (HIV, steroids, immunosuppression) Malnourished Globally shigella is the second-leading cause of diarrhoea deaths after rotavirus, responsible for 164,300 deaths worldwide, of which 54,900 are children under 5 years of age. Q5. What are the classic clinical features? Answer and interpretation Shigella was the major pathogen in dysentery (attributable

2018 Life in the Fast Lane Blog

26. Can a galacto-oligosaccharide reduce the risk of traveller's diarrhoea? A placebo-controlled, randomized, double-blind study. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Can a galacto-oligosaccharide reduce the risk of traveller's diarrhoea? A placebo-controlled, randomized, double-blind study. Diarrhoea is a common medical problem affecting travellers to Asia, Africa and Latin America. The use of prophylactic antimicrobial agents may increase the risk of contracting resistant bacteria. Findings indicate that oligosaccharides, i.e. carbohydrate chains of 3-10 monosaccharides, reduce the risk of diarrhoea.We performed a placebo-controlled, double-blind study (...) of a galacto-oligosaccharide, B-GOS (Bimuno®, Clasado Ltd, Milton Keynes UK), vs placebo for participants travelling to countries with a high/intermediate risk of diarrhoea for 7-15 days. The participants ingested 2.7g of B-GOS daily from 5 days prior to departure throughout the travel period, and returned a questionnaire, with a diarrhoea log, after their return. The case definition of diarrhoea was three or more loose stools per day.Of 523 enrolled subjects, 334 travellers managed to comply per protocol

2017 Journal of Travel Medicine Controlled trial quality: predicted high

27. Use of antimicrobial agents for treatment and prevention of travellers' diarrhoea in the face of enhanced risk of transient fecal carriage of multi-drug resistant enterobacteriaceae: setting the stage for consensus recommendations. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Use of antimicrobial agents for treatment and prevention of travellers' diarrhoea in the face of enhanced risk of transient fecal carriage of multi-drug resistant enterobacteriaceae: setting the stage for consensus recommendations. The recommendation that antibiotics should be used for routine therapy of travellers' diarrhoea is being reconsidered in view of growing evidence that the therapy may lead to intestinal carriage of multi-drug resistant (MDR) colonic microbiota. This review attempts (...) to put the issues of therapy and MDR acquisition in perspective to help in the establishment of therapeutic recommendations for travellers' diarrhoea.The existing literature showing the risk and consequences of acquisition of MDR microbiota in antibiotic-treated travellers was reviewed. Issues important to the development of firm evidence-based recommendations for antibiotics use for treatment and prevention of travellers' diarrhoea were researched.Six areas of research needed to allow

2017 Journal of Travel Medicine

28. A prospective study of travellers' diarrhoea - analysis of pathogen findings by destination in various (sub)tropical regions. Full Text available with Trip Pro

A prospective study of travellers' diarrhoea - analysis of pathogen findings by destination in various (sub)tropical regions. Eighty million travellers visiting (sub)tropical regions contract travellers' diarrhoea (TD) each year, yet prospective data comparing the prevalence of TD pathogens in various geographical regions are scarce. Our recent study using modern molecular methods found enteropathogenic (EPEC) and enteroaggregative (EAEC) Escherichia coli to be the most frequent pathogens (...) , followed by enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC) and Campylobacter. We revisited our data to compare the findings by geographical region.A total of 459 prospectively recruited travellers provided stool samples and completed questionnaires before and after visiting destinations in various geographical regions. A multiplex quantitative real-time PCR assay was used to analyse Salmonella, Yersinia, Campylobacter jejuni/Campylobacter coli, Shigella, Vibrio cholerae, EPEC, EAEC, ETEC, enterohaemorrhagic E. coli

2017 Clinical Microbiology and Infection

29. Trial Evaluating Ambulatory Therapy of Travelers' Diarrhea (TrEAT TD) Study: A Randomized Controlled Trial Comparing 3 Single-Dose Antibiotic Regimens With Loperamide. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Trial Evaluating Ambulatory Therapy of Travelers' Diarrhea (TrEAT TD) Study: A Randomized Controlled Trial Comparing 3 Single-Dose Antibiotic Regimens With Loperamide. Recommended treatment for travelers' diarrhea includes the combination of an antibiotic, usually a fluoroquinolone or azithromycin, and loperamide for rapid resolution of symptoms. However, adverse events, postdose nausea with high-dose azithromycin, effectiveness of single-dose rifaximin, and emerging resistance to front-line (...) agents are evidence gaps underlying current recommendations.A randomized, double-blind trial was conducted in 4 countries (Afghanistan, Djibouti, Kenya, and Honduras) between September 2012 and July 2015. US and UK service members with acute watery diarrhea were randomized and received single-dose azithromycin (500 mg; 106 persons), levofloxacin (500 mg; 111 persons), or rifaximin (1650 mg; 107 persons), in combination with loperamide (labeled dosing). The efficacy outcomes included clinical cure

2017 Clinical Infectious Diseases Controlled trial quality: predicted high

30. 'Holiday sickness'-reported exploratory outcome of over 500 United Kingdom holidaymakers with travellers' diarrhoea. Full Text available with Trip Pro

'Holiday sickness'-reported exploratory outcome of over 500 United Kingdom holidaymakers with travellers' diarrhoea. To ascertain any predictors of potential food poisoning pathogens and development of post-infective irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) in UK travellers. An analysis was undertaken on prospectively collected data on 527 patients reporting symptoms of suspected food poisoning between June 2012 and June 2015.Positive stool sample indicative of food poisoning pathogens and diagnosis (...) for longer durations were significantly more at risk of developing post-infective IBS, whilst medical aid and treatment abroad was found to reduce the odds of a positive stool sample.© International Society of Travel Medicine, 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

2017 Journal of Travel Medicine

31. Effects of short- and long-course antibiotics on the lower intestinal microbiome as they relate to traveller's diarrhea. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Effects of short- and long-course antibiotics on the lower intestinal microbiome as they relate to traveller's diarrhea. Antibiotics have profound and lasting effects on the lower intestinal (gut) microbiome that can both promote resistance and increase susceptibility to colonization and infection; knowledge of these changes is important to the prevention and treatment of traveler's diarrhea.Recent data from epidemiologic and modern metagenomics studies were reviewed in regard to how (...) such findings could inform the prevention and treatment of traveler's diarrhea.Although it is well recognized that antibiotics increase the risk for Clostridium difficile infection, it is less recognized how they predispose patients to typically foodborne pathogens such as Salmonella or Camplyobacter spp. While these pathogens account for only a fraction of traveler's diarrhea, such predisposition reflects how antibiotic exposure that precedes or occurs during travel may increase the risk for infection

2017 Journal of Travel Medicine

32. New molecular diagnostic tools in traveller's diarrhea. Full Text available with Trip Pro

New molecular diagnostic tools in traveller's diarrhea. Traveller's diarrhea can be caused by bacteria, protozoa, helminths and viruses. Globally, the most common causes of traveller's diarrhea are two pathotypes of Escherichia coli (enterotoxigenic and enteroaggregative) and Shigella, although there are significant variations according to the geographic area visited. While traveller's diarrhea is usually a mild, self-limiting disease, half of the travellers with traveller's diarrhea have some (...) limitation in their activities during the journey and up to 10% present persistent diarrhea or other complications, making microbiological diagnosis necessary. The aim of this article is to describe the application of new molecular diagnostic tools mainly based on multiplex PCR, including their advantages and disadvantages as well as the current gaps that requiring further study.© International Society of Travel Medicine, 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions

2017 Journal of Travel Medicine

33. Epidemiology of travellers' diarrhea. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Epidemiology of travellers' diarrhea. Travellers' diarrhea (TD) continues to be the most frequent health problem in travellers with destinations in lower income parts of the world as compared with where they reside, even if that risk has slightly decreased.A systematic review was published 18 months ago; now PubMed was searched for more recent publications relating to travel, diarrhea, epidemiology, incidence, risk.A trend to decreasing incidence rates have been noted in this as compared (...) with the last century, but TD remains frequent. The clinical picture varies from a trivial ailment to severe with subsequent hospitalization. Of great concern are long-term sequelae, particularly post-infectious irritable bowel syndrome. The most important risk factors are the destination and duration of exposure among the environmental factors, whereas the age is the most relevant host factor.Even if improved hygienic conditions in low-income countries often visited by travellers have resulted in slightly

2017 Journal of Travel Medicine

34. Resistant pathogens as causes of traveller's diarrhea globally and impact(s) on treatment failure and recommendations. Full Text available with Trip Pro

evidence of antibiotic resistance among enteropathogens causing traveller's diarrhea and the subsequent impact on current treatment recommendations.: The PubMed database was systemically searched for articles related to antibiotic susceptibility and diarrheal pathogens.: Antibiotic resistance related to travellers' diarrhea has increased in recent years. Most notably, fluoroquinolone resistance has expanded from the Campylobacter -associated cases well documented in Southeast Asia in the 1990s (...) Resistant pathogens as causes of traveller's diarrhea globally and impact(s) on treatment failure and recommendations. : Diarrhea is a frequent clinical syndrome affecting international travellers. Bacterial etiologic agents have a long history of emergent antimicrobial resistance against commonly used antibiotics. Current approaches applying first-line antimicrobial therapy are being challenged by increasingly resistant organisms. This review summarizes recent epidemiological and clinical

2017 Journal of Travel Medicine

35. Medications for the prevention and treatment of travellers' diarrhea. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Medications for the prevention and treatment of travellers' diarrhea. . Travellers' diarrhea (TD) remains one of the most common illnesses encountered by travellers to less developed areas of the world. Because bacterial pathogens such as enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC), enteroaggregative E. coli , Campylobacter spp. and Shigella spp. are the most frequent causes, antibiotics have been useful in both prevention and treatment of TD.Results of trials that assessed the use of medications (...) for the prevention and treatment of TD were identified through PubMed and MEDLINE searches using search terms 'travellers' diarrhea', 'prevention' and 'treatment'. References of articles were also screened for additional relevant studies.Prevention of TD with antibiotics has been recommended only under special circumstances. Doxycycline, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, fluoroquinolones and rifaximin have been used for prevention, but at present the first three antibiotics may have limited use secondary

2017 Journal of Travel Medicine

36. Etiology of travellers' diarrhea. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Etiology of travellers' diarrhea. Eleven published studies of the etiology of travellers' diarrhea (TD) were reviewed define the etiology of TD and to exam newly developed technology such as Real-Time multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to identify multiple pathogens in one assay to define the cause of TD. Using PCR methods bacterial pathogens were found in 72% of patients acquiring diarrhea in Latin America and in 80% in travellers with illness acquired in Southeast Asia (...) ). In these studies, enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli as the predominant pathogen (42% in Latin America and 28% in Southeast Asia). Ciprofloxacin-resistant Campylobacter was commonly associated with TD in Southeast Asia. Multiplex PCR has improved the detection of enteropathogens and allowed better assessment returning travellers hospitalized with TD and those with persistent diarrhea.© International Society of Travel Medicine, 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions

2017 Journal of Travel Medicine

37. Changes in microbiome during and after travellers' diarrhea: what we know and what we do not. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Changes in microbiome during and after travellers' diarrhea: what we know and what we do not. The study of bacterial pathogens has advanced from culture on plates to basic biochemical studies; to sequencing reference genomes and attempting to ascribe those qualities to the whole species; to evaluating complete communities based on the universal marker of the 16S rRNA gene; to now sequencing all available nucleic acids in any sample to characterize the community as a whole. These types (...) , understood and potentially used as either markers of disease, or diagnostics. This review provides a brief overview of the state of the use of microbiome studies using Travellers Diarrhea samples and what those studies have told us. More importantly these studies highlight what is remaining to be elucidated.© International Society of Travel Medicine, 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

2017 Journal of Travel Medicine

38. Guidelines for the prevention and treatment of travelers' diarrhea: a graded expert panel report. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Guidelines for the prevention and treatment of travelers' diarrhea: a graded expert panel report. : Travelers' diarrhea causes significant morbidity including some sequelae, lost travel time and opportunity cost to both travelers and countries receiving travelers. Effective prevention and treatment are needed to reduce these negative impacts.: This critical appraisal of the literature and expert consensus guideline development effort asked several key questions related to antibiotic and non (...) -antibiotic prophylaxis and treatment, utility of available diagnostics, impact of multi-drug resistant (MDR) colonization associated with travel and travelers' diarrhea, and how our understanding of the gastrointestinal microbiome should influence current practice and future research. Studies related to these key clinical areas were assessed for relevance and quality. Based on this critical appraisal, guidelines were developed and voted on using current standards for clinical guideline development

2017 Journal of Travel Medicine

39. Travellers' diarrhoea-a survey of practice. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Travellers' diarrhoea-a survey of practice. Travellers' diarrhoea (TD) is a common problem, affecting millions of tourists each year and creating a large economic burden. Risk factors for TD are known and guidelines exist to assist practitioners in advising travellers on how to prevent and treat TD. However, data are lacking regarding actual prescribing practices or approaches used in TD management. This study aims to establish a baseline which identifies uniformities and diversities (...) in practice.An online survey created using the SurveyMonkey tool was developed to test respondent approaches to TD pre-travel management. An invitation to participate in the survey was distributed early 2016 through selected Australian and New Zealand speciality travel medicine centres and through the electronic mailing list of the International Society of Travel Medicine (ISTM). Descriptive statistics and analyses using Chi Square analysis and two-sided Fishers exact tests for significance were used.Three

2017 Journal of Travel Medicine

40. Preparing HIV-infected children and adolescents for travel

Preparing HIV-infected children and adolescents for travel 1 Guideline: Preparing HIV-infected children and adolescents for travel Authors: Natalie Prevatt Date of preparation: February 2017 Next review date: February 2019 Contents Summary 2 Introduction to the guideline 2 General travel health and safety advice for travel 2 Traveller’s diarrhoea: prevention and treatment 4 Malaria prevention 4 Personal protection 6 Chemoprophylaxis 6 Important interactions between antimalarials and ART 7 (...) they travel What to cover: • Give general travel advice on avoiding road traffic accident, drowning incidents and on water and food hygiene • Give prophylaxis for traveller’s diarrhoea • Explain ABCD of malaria prevention • Recommend malaria personal protection measures • Prescribe malaria prophylaxis • Discuss the need for travel vaccines and refer to a travel service for vaccination by a travel medicine practitioner 3 • Travel insurance is essential and is it essential to declare HIV. If any condition

2018 The Children's HIV Association

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