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Travelers Diarrhea

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21. Effects of short- and long-course antibiotics on the lower intestinal microbiome as they relate to traveller's diarrhea. (PubMed)

Effects of short- and long-course antibiotics on the lower intestinal microbiome as they relate to traveller's diarrhea. Antibiotics have profound and lasting effects on the lower intestinal (gut) microbiome that can both promote resistance and increase susceptibility to colonization and infection; knowledge of these changes is important to the prevention and treatment of traveler's diarrhea.Recent data from epidemiologic and modern metagenomics studies were reviewed in regard to how (...) such findings could inform the prevention and treatment of traveler's diarrhea.Although it is well recognized that antibiotics increase the risk for Clostridium difficile infection, it is less recognized how they predispose patients to typically foodborne pathogens such as Salmonella or Camplyobacter spp. While these pathogens account for only a fraction of traveler's diarrhea, such predisposition reflects how antibiotic exposure that precedes or occurs during travel may increase the risk for infection

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2017 Journal of Travel Medicine

22. Epidemiology of travellers' diarrhea. (PubMed)

Epidemiology of travellers' diarrhea. Travellers' diarrhea (TD) continues to be the most frequent health problem in travellers with destinations in lower income parts of the world as compared with where they reside, even if that risk has slightly decreased.A systematic review was published 18 months ago; now PubMed was searched for more recent publications relating to travel, diarrhea, epidemiology, incidence, risk.A trend to decreasing incidence rates have been noted in this as compared (...) with the last century, but TD remains frequent. The clinical picture varies from a trivial ailment to severe with subsequent hospitalization. Of great concern are long-term sequelae, particularly post-infectious irritable bowel syndrome. The most important risk factors are the destination and duration of exposure among the environmental factors, whereas the age is the most relevant host factor.Even if improved hygienic conditions in low-income countries often visited by travellers have resulted in slightly

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2017 Journal of Travel Medicine

23. Resistant pathogens as causes of traveller's diarrhea globally and impact(s) on treatment failure and recommendations. (PubMed)

Resistant pathogens as causes of traveller's diarrhea globally and impact(s) on treatment failure and recommendations. : Diarrhea is a frequent clinical syndrome affecting international travellers. Bacterial etiologic agents have a long history of emergent antimicrobial resistance against commonly used antibiotics. Current approaches applying first-line antimicrobial therapy are being challenged by increasingly resistant organisms. This review summarizes recent epidemiological and clinical (...) evidence of antibiotic resistance among enteropathogens causing traveller's diarrhea and the subsequent impact on current treatment recommendations.: The PubMed database was systemically searched for articles related to antibiotic susceptibility and diarrheal pathogens.: Antibiotic resistance related to travellers' diarrhea has increased in recent years. Most notably, fluoroquinolone resistance has expanded from the Campylobacter -associated cases well documented in Southeast Asia in the 1990s

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2017 Journal of Travel Medicine

24. Medications for the prevention and treatment of travellers' diarrhea. (PubMed)

Medications for the prevention and treatment of travellers' diarrhea. . Travellers' diarrhea (TD) remains one of the most common illnesses encountered by travellers to less developed areas of the world. Because bacterial pathogens such as enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC), enteroaggregative E. coli , Campylobacter spp. and Shigella spp. are the most frequent causes, antibiotics have been useful in both prevention and treatment of TD.Results of trials that assessed the use of medications (...) for the prevention and treatment of TD were identified through PubMed and MEDLINE searches using search terms 'travellers' diarrhea', 'prevention' and 'treatment'. References of articles were also screened for additional relevant studies.Prevention of TD with antibiotics has been recommended only under special circumstances. Doxycycline, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, fluoroquinolones and rifaximin have been used for prevention, but at present the first three antibiotics may have limited use secondary

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2017 Journal of Travel Medicine

25. Etiology of travellers' diarrhea. (PubMed)

Etiology of travellers' diarrhea. Eleven published studies of the etiology of travellers' diarrhea (TD) were reviewed define the etiology of TD and to exam newly developed technology such as Real-Time multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to identify multiple pathogens in one assay to define the cause of TD. Using PCR methods bacterial pathogens were found in 72% of patients acquiring diarrhea in Latin America and in 80% in travellers with illness acquired in Southeast Asia (...) ). In these studies, enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli as the predominant pathogen (42% in Latin America and 28% in Southeast Asia). Ciprofloxacin-resistant Campylobacter was commonly associated with TD in Southeast Asia. Multiplex PCR has improved the detection of enteropathogens and allowed better assessment returning travellers hospitalized with TD and those with persistent diarrhea.© International Society of Travel Medicine, 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions

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2017 Journal of Travel Medicine

26. Changes in microbiome during and after travellers' diarrhea: what we know and what we do not. (PubMed)

Changes in microbiome during and after travellers' diarrhea: what we know and what we do not. The study of bacterial pathogens has advanced from culture on plates to basic biochemical studies; to sequencing reference genomes and attempting to ascribe those qualities to the whole species; to evaluating complete communities based on the universal marker of the 16S rRNA gene; to now sequencing all available nucleic acids in any sample to characterize the community as a whole. These types (...) , understood and potentially used as either markers of disease, or diagnostics. This review provides a brief overview of the state of the use of microbiome studies using Travellers Diarrhea samples and what those studies have told us. More importantly these studies highlight what is remaining to be elucidated.© International Society of Travel Medicine, 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

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2017 Journal of Travel Medicine

27. Management of travelers' diarrhea by local physicians in tropical and subtropical countries--a questionnaire survey. (PubMed)

Management of travelers' diarrhea by local physicians in tropical and subtropical countries--a questionnaire survey. There is an ongoing debate as to whether patients with travelers' diarrhea (TD) should self-medicate with a travel kit in developing countries or whether they should consult local doctors. Thus, we have analyzed TD management conducted by local health professionals.Practicing physicians recommended to tourists in Goa (India), Mombasa (Kenya), and Phuket (Thailand) were invited (...) of the different patients. Mainly practitioners who owned a clinic would have hospitalized patients with TD.Many physicians in destination countries treat TD patients similarly to the treatments prescribed in the "Western world." A minority uses obsolete antimicrobials. Polypharmacy and the high rate of invasive procedures with a theoretical risk of nosocomial infection are of concern. Training initiatives for both local physicians and travelers might be beneficial, and the guidelines should be based

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2017 Journal of Travel Medicine

28. Travelers' diarrhea in children visiting tropical countries. (PubMed)

Travelers' diarrhea in children visiting tropical countries. We studied a group of 174 Portuguese children (aged 2 mo-16 y) who mostly traveled to tropical Portuguese-speaking countries and found an attack rate of 21.8% for travelers' diarrhea, much lower than previously described. We also showed that African rate analysis by region may hide significant differences between countries.

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2017 Journal of Travel Medicine

29. Cyclospora cayetanensis in a patient with travelers' diarrhea: case report and review. (PubMed)

Cyclospora cayetanensis in a patient with travelers' diarrhea: case report and review. In recent years, several studies have shown that Cyclospora cayetanensis is a worldwide intestinal pathogen, and it has been implicated in a number of sporadic cases and epidemic outbreaks of diarrheal illness in several endemic areas. The parasite is associated with prolonged and relapsing watery diarrhea in immunocompetent persons, as well as in AIDS patients. Most reports of Cyclospora infection concern (...) travelers visiting endemic countries. In European countries, a few cases of Cyclospora cayetanensis infection have been reported, and almost all of them were observed in persons after foreign travel.

2017 Journal of Travel Medicine

30. Correlation between adherence to precautions issued by the WHO and diarrhea among long-term travelers to India. (PubMed)

Correlation between adherence to precautions issued by the WHO and diarrhea among long-term travelers to India. Travelers' diarrhea is the most common infectious disease afflicting travelers to developing countries. Most studies investigating the benefits of recommendations regarding the consumption of food and water have focused on short-term travelers. We investigated the benefits of adherence to the precautions from the World Health Organization (WHO) among long-term travelers.We asked 140 (...) incidental travelers in India traveling for at least 2 months to complete a questionnaire about their adherence to the WHO precautions and the occurrence of diarrhea. Adherence was graded on a scale of 1 to 6 (least to most).The mean age of the 114 travelers whose questionnaires were eligible was 26.6 +/- 5.7 years, and the median duration of their trip was 5 months. None of them adhered strictly to the entire set of rules. The mean individual adherence was 3.4 (range 1.2-5.8). The vast majority

2017 Journal of Travel Medicine

31. Dientamoeba fragilis as a cause of travelers' diarrhea: report of seven cases. (PubMed)

Dientamoeba fragilis as a cause of travelers' diarrhea: report of seven cases. Dientamoeba fragilis is a pathogenic trichomonad parasite that causes gastrointestinal disease in humans. We report seven cases of travelers' diarrhea caused by D fragilis in patients who had traveled to overseas destinations within Asia or the Pacific which occurred over an 8-month period. Patients presented with diarrhea lasting from 5 days to over 4 weeks. Dientamoeba fragilis should be considered as a cause (...) of diarrhea in returning travelers.

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2017 Journal of Travel Medicine

32. A report on a cluster of travelers' diarrhea among Cambodian students visiting Thailand. (PubMed)

A report on a cluster of travelers' diarrhea among Cambodian students visiting Thailand. Travelers' diarrhea is an important gastrointestinal disorder in developing countries.A cluster of travelers' diarrhea among Cambodian students visiting Thailand is described in this article.Nine cases of travelers' diarrhea were identified. These cases were among Cambodian students visiting Thailand under an exchange program. All presented with symptoms of diarrhea and nausea, and all improved within (...) that day.The prevention of gastrointestinal illness as well as recommendations for hygienic precautions for travelers who plan to visit tropical Asia, where the high prevalence of gastrointestinal disorder is documented, are important. In addition, a similar practice among local travelers within tropical Asia is also necessary.

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2017 Journal of Travel Medicine

33. Clinical Trial of CBS-2004 in Prevention of Travelers' Diarrhea

Clinical Trial of CBS-2004 in Prevention of Travelers' Diarrhea Clinical Trial of CBS-2004 in Prevention of Travelers' Diarrhea - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov Hide glossary Glossary Study record managers: refer to the if submitting registration or results information. Search for terms x × Study Record Detail Saved Studies Save this study Warning You have reached the maximum number of saved studies (100). Please remove one or more studies before adding more. Clinical Trial of CBS-2004 (...) in Prevention of Travelers' Diarrhea The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study sponsor and investigators. Listing a study does not mean it has been evaluated by the U.S. Federal Government. Read our for details. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02736539 Recruitment Status : Withdrawn (Commercial strategy) First Posted : April 13, 2016 Last Update Posted : July 21, 2017 Sponsor: Clasado Biosciences Ltd Information provided by (Responsible Party): Clasado Biosciences

2016 Clinical Trials

34. A Study Comparing Two Rifaximin Tablets in Patients With Travelers' Diarrhea.

A Study Comparing Two Rifaximin Tablets in Patients With Travelers' Diarrhea. A Study Comparing Two Rifaximin Tablets in Patients With Travelers' Diarrhea. - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov Hide glossary Glossary Study record managers: refer to the if submitting registration or results information. Search for terms x × Study Record Detail Saved Studies Save this study Warning You have reached the maximum number of saved studies (100). Please remove one or more studies before adding more (...) . A Study Comparing Two Rifaximin Tablets in Patients With Travelers' Diarrhea. The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study sponsor and investigators. Listing a study does not mean it has been evaluated by the U.S. Federal Government. Read our for details. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02920242 Recruitment Status : Terminated (Terminated due to low enrollment) First Posted : September 30, 2016 Results First Posted : March 25, 2019 Last Update Posted : March 25

2016 Clinical Trials

35. Traveler's Diarrhea Prophylaxis

Traveler's Diarrhea Prophylaxis Travelers Diarrhea Prophylaxis Toggle navigation Brain Head & Neck Chest Endocrine Abdomen Musculoskeletal Skin Infectious Disease Hematology & Oncology Cohorts Diagnostics Emergency Findings Procedures Prevention & Management Pharmacy Resuscitation Trauma Emergency Procedures Ultrasound Cardiovascular Emergencies Lung Emergencies Infectious Disease Pediatrics Neurologic Emergencies Skin Exposure Miscellaneous Abuse Cancer Administration 4 Traveler's Diarrhea (...) Prophylaxis Traveler's Diarrhea Prophylaxis Aka: Traveler's Diarrhea Prophylaxis , Prophylaxis of Traveler's Diarrhea , Prevention of Traveler's Diarrhea , Traveler's Diarrhea Prevention II. Prevention: Traveler's Diarrhea Rule 1: "Boil it, Cook it, Peel it or Forget it" Preparing your own food ensures safety (avoid food prepared by street vendors) Dry foods (e.g. breads, chips) are typically safe Exposures to avoid Avoid raw, unpeeled vegetables, lettucs, tomatoes Avoid pre-peeled fruit Avoid tap water

2018 FP Notebook

36. Traveler's Diarrhea Management

Traveler's Diarrhea Management Travelers Diarrhea Management Toggle navigation Brain Head & Neck Chest Endocrine Abdomen Musculoskeletal Skin Infectious Disease Hematology & Oncology Cohorts Diagnostics Emergency Findings Procedures Prevention & Management Pharmacy Resuscitation Trauma Emergency Procedures Ultrasound Cardiovascular Emergencies Lung Emergencies Infectious Disease Pediatrics Neurologic Emergencies Skin Exposure Miscellaneous Abuse Cancer Administration 4 Traveler's Diarrhea (...) Management Traveler's Diarrhea Management Aka: Traveler's Diarrhea Management From Related Chapters II. Precautions : Overall Avoid trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole ( , ) and due to high resistance rates Most is self-limited and spontaneously resolves WITHOUT antibiotics Use of antibiotics (esp. self treatment) is associated with multi-drug resistance, c. diff : Travel to Southeast Asia, Thailand, India or Nepal -resistant is common as first-line agent is preferred in these cases s Antimalarials and both

2018 FP Notebook

37. Traveler's Diarrhea

Traveler's Diarrhea Travelers Diarrhea Toggle navigation Brain Head & Neck Chest Endocrine Abdomen Musculoskeletal Skin Infectious Disease Hematology & Oncology Cohorts Diagnostics Emergency Findings Procedures Prevention & Management Pharmacy Resuscitation Trauma Emergency Procedures Ultrasound Cardiovascular Emergencies Lung Emergencies Infectious Disease Pediatrics Neurologic Emergencies Skin Exposure Miscellaneous Abuse Cancer Administration 4 Traveler's Diarrhea Traveler's Diarrhea Aka (...) : Traveler's Diarrhea , Travelers Diarrhea , Turkey Trots , Montezuma's Revenge , Delhi Belly From Related Chapters II. Epidemiology : 20-50% per short visit to endemic area (affects 10 million patients annually) Timing Peak for travelers from U.S. in October and June Ages affected Most common among younger patients (children, teens and young adults) Endemic Regions Developing countries in Africa, South Asia, Latin America, Middle East Highest risk countries Kenya Tunisia Morocco Egypt Mexico Honduras

2018 FP Notebook

38. Increased Risk for ESBL-Producing Bacteria from Co-administration of Loperamide and Antimicrobial Drugs for Travelers' Diarrhea(1). (PubMed)

Increased Risk for ESBL-Producing Bacteria from Co-administration of Loperamide and Antimicrobial Drugs for Travelers' Diarrhea(1). Antimicrobial drug treatment of travelers' diarrhea is known to increase the risk for colonization with extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae. Among 288 travelers with travelers' diarrhea, the colonization rate without medications was 21%. For treatment with loperamide only, the rate was 20%; with antimicrobial drugs alone, 40

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2016 Emerging Infectious Diseases

39. Travelers' Diarrhea in Children at Risk: An Observational Study From a Spanish Database. (PubMed)

Travelers' Diarrhea in Children at Risk: An Observational Study From a Spanish Database. Gastrointestinal symptoms are a common cause of consultation about children traveling to or coming from developing countries. The aim of this study was to identify the risk factors associated with gastrointestinal syndrome in children who travel.A prospective observational analytical and multicenter study was performed within +Redivi, a Spanish Tropical Medicine network on imported infections, from January (...) 2009 to December 2013. All participants aged 16 years and younger were included in the analysis. Ethical approval was obtained from all the participating centers.A total of 606 children ≤16 years of age were registered in the +Redivi database during the study period. Median age was 8.7 years (interquartile range, 4.4-12.4 years), 65.8% (399/606) were immigrants, 90% were >2 years old and 54% were male. Median travel duration, excluding immigrants, was 50 days (interquartile range, 30-150 days

2016 Pediatric Infectious Dsease Journal

40. Traveler's Diarrhea in Foreign Travelers in Southeast Asia: A Cross-Sectional Survey Study in Bangkok, Thailand. (PubMed)

Traveler's Diarrhea in Foreign Travelers in Southeast Asia: A Cross-Sectional Survey Study in Bangkok, Thailand. The effect of origin and destination country on traveler's diarrhea incidence rates in Southeast Asia is poorly understood, and research generally only addresses diarrhea in travelers from the developed world. This study evaluated the attack rate and effects of traveler's diarrhea by origin and destination and analyzed key risk factors. A self-administered questionnaire was provided (...) to foreign travelers departing Southeast Asia from Suvarnabhumi Airport, Bangkok, Thailand. It evaluated traveler demographics, relevant knowledge and practices, experiences of diarrhea, and the details and consequences of each diarrheal episode. A total of 7,963 questionnaires were completed between April 2010 and July 2011. Respondents were 56% male (mean age 35) with a mean and median duration of stay of 28 days and 10 days, respectively. Most respondents were from Europe (36.8%) or East Asia (33.4

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2015 American Journal of Tropical Medicine & Hygiene

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