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Toxin Induced Odors

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1. Toxin Induced Odors

Toxin Induced Odors Toxin Induced Odors Toggle navigation Brain Head & Neck Chest Endocrine Abdomen Musculoskeletal Skin Infectious Disease Hematology & Oncology Cohorts Diagnostics Emergency Findings Procedures Prevention & Management Pharmacy Resuscitation Trauma Emergency Procedures Ultrasound Cardiovascular Emergencies Lung Emergencies Infectious Disease Pediatrics Neurologic Emergencies Skin Exposure Miscellaneous Abuse Cancer Administration 4 Toxin Induced Odors Toxin Induced Odors Aka (...) : Toxin Induced Odors From Related Chapters II. Causes: Odors Bitter Almonds Mothballs Camphor or horseradish (Mnemonic: TOADS-P-ee smells like ) Thallium Toxicity Arsenic Dimethyl Sulfoxide (DMSO) Phosphite Peanuts Vacor (PNU) Carrots Water hemlock Rotten Eggs Sulfur dioxide Hydrogen Sulfide Wintergreen Methyl s Gasoline Hydrocarbons Fruity (DKA) Isopropanol Pears Freshly Mown Hey Geraniums Images: Related links to external sites (from Bing) These images are a random sampling from a Bing search

2018 FP Notebook

2. Toxin Induced Odors

Toxin Induced Odors Toxin Induced Odors Toggle navigation Brain Head & Neck Chest Endocrine Abdomen Musculoskeletal Skin Infectious Disease Hematology & Oncology Cohorts Diagnostics Emergency Findings Procedures Prevention & Management Pharmacy Resuscitation Trauma Emergency Procedures Ultrasound Cardiovascular Emergencies Lung Emergencies Infectious Disease Pediatrics Neurologic Emergencies Skin Exposure Miscellaneous Abuse Cancer Administration 4 Toxin Induced Odors Toxin Induced Odors Aka (...) : Toxin Induced Odors From Related Chapters II. Causes: Odors Bitter Almonds Mothballs Camphor or horseradish (Mnemonic: TOADS-P-ee smells like ) Thallium Toxicity Arsenic Dimethyl Sulfoxide (DMSO) Phosphite Peanuts Vacor (PNU) Carrots Water hemlock Rotten Eggs Sulfur dioxide Hydrogen Sulfide Wintergreen Methyl s Gasoline Hydrocarbons Fruity (DKA) Isopropanol Pears Freshly Mown Hey Geraniums Images: Related links to external sites (from Bing) These images are a random sampling from a Bing search

2015 FP Notebook

3. “Parasite-induced aposematism” protects entomopathogenic nematode parasites against invertebrate enemies (PubMed)

“Parasite-induced aposematism” protects entomopathogenic nematode parasites against invertebrate enemies Aposematism is a well-known strategy in which prey defend themselves from predation by pairing defenses such as toxins, with warning signals that are often visually conspicuous color patterns. Here, we examine the possibility that aposematism can be induced in a host by colonies of infectious parasites in order to protect the parasites from the consequences of attacks on the host (...) that the nematode parasites also produce a warning odor, which functions to repel nocturnally active predators (in this case, the beetle Pterostichus madidus). We show that beetles decrease their feeding on infected insect prey as the age of infection increases and that olfactory cues associated with the infections are effective mechanisms for deterring beetle predation, even at very early stages of infection. We propose that "parasite-induced aposematism" from the nematodes serves to replace the antipredator

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2015 Behavioral Ecology

4. Assessment of cranial nerve mononeuropathy

the motor and sensory innervation to the head. The effects of a mononeuropathy depend on where in its pathway the nerve is affected and the aetiology. The signs and symptoms of a cranial nerve mononeuropathy vary depending on which nerve is affected. Olfactory (I) Anatomy Olfaction begins with transduction of odorants from the air into the nasal mucosa. These odorants diffuse or are transported to bipolar receptor cells located in the olfactory neuroepithelium in the roof of the nasal chamber. Action (...) potentials are induced in these cells, which synapse with olfactory bulb glomeruli. Moran DT, Rowley JC 3rd, Jafek BW, et al. The fine structure of the olfactory mucosa in man. J Neurocytol. 1982;11:721-746. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7143026?tool=bestpractice.com The receptor cell axons project through the cribriform plate of the ethmoid bone and synapse within the glomerular layer of the olfactory bulb. The paired olfactory bulbs are located at the base of the frontal lobe overlying

2018 BMJ Best Practice

5. Paediatric Urology

., et al. Correction of congenital penile curvature using modified tunical plication with absorbable sutures: the long-term outcome and patient satisfaction. Eur Urol, 2007. 52: 261. 271. Sasso, F., et al. Penile curvature: an update for management from 20 years experience in a high volume centre. Urologia, 2016. 83: 130. 272. Gittes, R.F., et al. Injection technique to induce penile erection. Urology, 1974. 4: 473. 273. Schultheiss, D., et al. Congenital and acquired penile deviation treated

2019 European Association of Urology

6. Comprehensive Systematic Review Summary: Treatment of Tics in People with Tourette Syndrome and Chronic Tic Disorders

representatives was recruited to develop this guideline. This guideline follows the methodologies outlined in the 2011 edition of the AAN’s guideline development process manual. Results: There was high confidence that the Comprehensive Behavioral Intervention for Tics was more likely than psychoeducation and supportive therapy to reduce tics. There was moderate confidence that haloperidol, risperidone, aripiprazole, tiapride, clonidine, onabotulinum toxin A injections, 5-ling granule, Ningdong granule (...) for tics, including neurostimulation, and the risks associated with their use. A systematic review was performed to develop recommendations pertaining to the treatments of tics in children and adults with TS or chronic tic disorders. Antipsychotic medications have been commonly prescribed for this purpose, since the 1960s. The adverse effects associated with antipsychotic medications, 18 including movement disorders such as acute and tardive dystonia, tardive dyskinesia, akathisia and drug-induced

2019 American Academy of Neurology

7. Evaluation and Treatment of Hirsutism in Premenopausal Women

( , ). Androgens appear to induce vellus follicles in sex-specific areas to develop into terminal hairs, which are larger and more heavily pigmented. Hairs grow in nonsynchronous cycles, and the growth (anagen) phase (which varies with body area) is ∼4 months for facial hair. Due to the long hair growth cycle, it takes ∼6 months to detect the effects of hormonal therapy and ∼9 months for these effects to become maximal. Hirsutism results from an interaction between the plasma androgens and the apparent (...) of uncut hair, which gives the illusion of thicker hair. Chemical depilatory agents are also commonly used to dissolve the hair. Most depilatories contain sulfur and have an unpleasant odor. In addition, irritant dermatitis can occur. Epilation methods, such as plucking or waxing, are relatively safe and inexpensive, but cause some discomfort. These methods do not cause an increase in hair diameter. Scarring, folliculitis, and hyperpigmentation (particularly in women of color) may occur. Although

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2018 The Endocrine Society

9. Evaluation and Treatment of Hirsutism in Premenopausal Women

( , ). Androgens appear to induce vellus follicles in sex-specific areas to develop into terminal hairs, which are larger and more heavily pigmented. Hairs grow in nonsynchronous cycles, and the growth (anagen) phase (which varies with body area) is ∼4 months for facial hair. Due to the long hair growth cycle, it takes ∼6 months to detect the effects of hormonal therapy and ∼9 months for these effects to become maximal. Hirsutism results from an interaction between the plasma androgens and the apparent (...) of uncut hair, which gives the illusion of thicker hair. Chemical depilatory agents are also commonly used to dissolve the hair. Most depilatories contain sulfur and have an unpleasant odor. In addition, irritant dermatitis can occur. Epilation methods, such as plucking or waxing, are relatively safe and inexpensive, but cause some discomfort. These methods do not cause an increase in hair diameter. Scarring, folliculitis, and hyperpigmentation (particularly in women of color) may occur. Although

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2018 The Endocrine Society

10. Paediatric Urology

., et al. Correction of congenital penile curvature using modified tunical plication with absorbable sutures: the long-term outcome and patient satisfaction. Eur Urol, 2007. 52: 261. 271. Sasso, F., et al. Penile curvature: an update for management from 20 years experience in a high volume centre. Urologia, 2016. 83: 130. 272. Gittes, R.F., et al. Injection technique to induce penile erection. Urology, 1974. 4: 473. 273. Schultheiss, D., et al. Congenital and acquired penile deviation treated

2018 European Association of Urology

11. Identification and Symptom Management of Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome

; exertional dyspnea; urinary frequency; irritable bowel syndrome (IBS); nausea b) Neuroendocrine Yes ? No ? b) Neuroendocrine: Low body temperature; cold extremities; sweating; intolerance to heat or cold; reduced tolerance for stress; other symptoms worsen with stress; weight change; abnormal appetite c) Immune Yes ? No ? c) Immune: Recurrent flu-like symptoms; sore throats; tender lymph nodes; fevers; new sensitivities to food, medicines, odors or chemicals Table 1: Validated ME/CFS Symptom Checklist (...) condition with multiple triggers and clinical courses. Both predisposing and precipitating factors are thought to contribute to the developing condition. Predisposing Factors Precipitating and Causal Factors ? Mostly occurs among female gender adults ? Can be familial or inherited 3 ME/CFS is thought to occur following: 4 ? Environmental toxin exposure ? A recent vaccination ? A significant physical or emotional trauma ? Occasionally no identifiable trigger Table 3: Predisposing, Precipitating

2016 Toward Optimized Practice

12. Clinical Practice Guidelines for Clostridium difficile Infection in Adults and Children

of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) in adults and children. CDI is defined by the presence of symptoms (usually diarrhea) and either a stool test positive for C. difficile toxins or detection of toxigenic C. difficile , or colonoscopic or histopathologic findings revealing pseudomembranous colitis. In addition to diagnosis and management, recommended methods of infection control and environmental management of the pathogen are presented. The panel followed a process used in the development of other (...) , and should efforts be made to achieve this target? Patients with unexplained and new-onset ≥3 unformed stools in 24 hours are the preferred target population for testing for CDI (weak recommendation, very low quality of evidence) . VII. What is the best-performing method (ie, in use positive and negative predictive value) for detecting patients at increased risk for clinically significant C. difficile infection in commonly submitted stool specimens? Use a stool toxin test as part of a multistep algorithm

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2017 Infectious Diseases Society of America

13. Acne clinical guideline

, A.A., Brandling-Bennett, H.A., Giberti, S. et al. Evaluation of digital skin images submitted by patients who received practical training or an online tutorial. J Telemed Telecare . 2006 ; 12 : 79–82 | | | , x 31 Choi, C.W., Choi, J.W., Park, K.C., and Youn, S.W. Ultraviolet-induced red fluorescence of patients with acne reflects regional casual sebum level and acne lesion distribution: qualitative and quantitative analyses of facial fluorescence. Br J Dermatol . 2012 ; 166 : 59–66 | | , x 32 Choi

2016 American Academy of Dermatology

14. Controversies in Migraine Management

known triggers. These include stress, hormones in women, hunger (missed or delayed meals), too little or too much sleep, lack of regular exercise, certain foods and food additives, and odors (perfumes, cigarette smoke). Clinical understanding of the basis for migraine headaches is still at an early stage. Initially thought to be caused by dilation and constriction of blood vessels in the head, experts now believe that electrical activity in the surface layer of the brain (characterized by waves (...) statistically improved. Adverse events were more common with BOTOX and led to 3.5% of active arm participants withdrawing from the study compared with 1.4% of participants in the placebo arm. ©Institute for Clinical and Economic Review, 2014 Page ES7 Table ES3. Primary Outcomes in the PREEMPT Trials of Botulinum Toxin for the Prevention of Migraine Headaches Study Group* N Headache days per month Reduction by at least 50% in migraine days Use of rescue medication doses Chronic Migraine – Placebo control

2014 California Technology Assessment Forum

15. Electronic Cigarettes

, the byproducts from their aerosols produce very low levels of air toxins. Proponents of e-cigarettes maintain that these products emulate smoking behavior without exposing the user to the toxic smoke constituents of conventional cigarettes that are deleterious to health, so there would be a public health benefit if individual smokers completely switched or substantially reduced their cigarette smoking habit. However, the use of e-cigarettes could be a problem at the population level. For instance, e (...) of nicotine without exposure to combustion products. Smokeless tobacco users take in as much nicotine as cigarette smokers, although not by the pulmonary route. The most extensive and rigorous epidemiological studies on smokeless tobacco use come from Scandinavia, where a large percentage of men use snus, a smokeless tobacco product that contains nicotine but relatively low levels of carcinogens and other toxins. These studies report only a very small cardiovascular disease risk in snus users compared

2014 American Heart Association

16. Pruritus (PDQ®): Health Professional Version

, the incidence of pruritus in that condition is given. Table 1. Pruritus Differential With Little or No Primary Dermatitis Disease State Prevalence of Pruritus (%) Neoplastic – Hodgkin disease 30 [ ] – Non-Hodgkin lymphoma 15 [ ] – Leukemias 5 [ ] – Carcinoid syndrome – Paraproteinemias Iron deficiency anemia Polycythemia rubra vera ≤50 [ ] Hyper-IgE syndromes Parasitic helminthic infection Drug-induced eosinophilia Chronic renal insufficiency 57 [ ] Liver disease – Primary biliary cirrhosis 69 [ ] – Viral (...) hepatitis infection 15 [ ] – Cholestatic disease – Autoimmune hepatitis Thyroid dysfunction – Hashimoto thyroiditis – Hypothyroidism – Hyperthyroidism Medication induced – Opioids (codeine, morphine, butorphanol) – Hydroxyethyl starch – Antimalarials (chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine, quinacrine) – 8-methoxypsoralen – Beta blockers – Hormones (estrogens, testosterone, progestins, anabolic steroids) – Phenothiazines – Aspirin – HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors Diabetes mellitus HIV infection Post-herpetic

2016 PDQ - NCI's Comprehensive Cancer Database

17. Volatile secondary metabolites as aposematic olfactory signals and defensive weapons in aquatic environments (PubMed)

experiments on the zebrafish showed that this vertebrate aquatic model also avoids food treated with one of the terpenes, after having experienced gastrointestinal malaise. The fish refused the food after repeatedly touching it with their mouths. The compounds studied thus act simultaneously as (i) toxins, (ii) avoidance-learning inducers, and (iii) aposematic odorant cues. Although they produce a characteristic smell when exposed to air, the compounds are detected by direct contact with the emitter (...) edwardsi and its specialist predator, the nudibranch gastropod Tritonia striata, from potential predators. Food treated with the terpenes elicited avoidance responses in the cooccurring shrimp Palaemon elegans Rejection was also induced in the shrimp by the memory recall of postingestive aversive effects (vomiting), evoked by repeatedly touching the food with chemosensory mouthparts. Consistent with their emetic properties once ingested, the compounds were highly toxic to brine shrimp. Further

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2017 Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America

18. Diagnosis and Treatment of Perianal Crohn Disease: NASPGHAN Clinical Report and Consensus Statement

, especially by means of genome-wide association studies. An association of CD fistulae and abscesses has been linked to specific gene variants at the susceptibility locus on chromosome 5q31 (IBD5), including OCTN (14) and IRGM (14–16). Impaired OCTN activity or expression may reduce carni- tine transport, which can lead to defects in oxygen burst–mediated pathogen killing, fatty acid oxidation defects in the intestinal epithelial cells, or defects in transport of bacterial toxins into and out (...) to pass stool normally despite having a rectal stricture. Nevertheless, although children with PCD may not complain of pain, the functional impairments (consti- pation, incontinence, spontaneous drainage) and the social implica- tions (odor, stained undergarments, anxiety) are often significant. PERIANAL FISTULA Diagnosis Diagnosing PF in CD is extremely important because this ultimately influences not only the medical but also the surgical management and approach to therapy (Fig. 1). In addition

2013 North American Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition

19. Hyperhidrosis and bromhidrosis. A guide to assessment and management.

, and outlines current treatment options. Discussion Hyperhidrosis can be either generalised or focal. Generalised hyperhidrosis may be primary and idiopathic or secondary to systemic disease. Treatment may require oral anticholinergic agents. Focal hyperhidrosis is usually primary and responds to topical measures. Specialist referral for botulinum toxin A, iontophoresis or sympathectomy should be considered for severe cases. Bromhidrosis usually responds to antiperspirants, fragrance and antibacterial (...) odour. As this conveys strong non-verbal signals, 3 it can cause significant social embarrassment, especially if the patient has selective anosmia – the inability to perceive odour. 3 Bromhidrosis is due to biotransformation of odourless natural secretions into volatile odorous molecules 4 and is closely linked with excessive sweating. in the axilla, corynebacterium in the resident microflora are thought to be important in this biotransformation. sudiferous (sweat) glands are divided into eccrine

2013 Clinical Practice Guidelines Portal

20. An Organic Anion Transporter 1 (OAT1)-centered Metabolic Network (PubMed)

predictions in wet-lab assays, together with re-evaluation of existing transport and knock-out metabolomics data, generated an experimentally validated, confidence ranked set of OAT1-interacting endogenous compounds enabling construction of an "OAT1-centered metabolic interaction network." Pathway and enrichment analysis indicated an important role for OAT1 in metabolism involving: the TCA cycle, tryptophan and other amino acids, fatty acids, prostaglandins, cyclic nucleotides, odorants, polyamines (...) , and vitamins. The partly validated reconstructed network is also consistent with a major role for OAT1 in modulating metabolic and signaling pathways involving uric acid, gut microbiome products, and so-called uremic toxins accumulating in chronic kidney disease. Together, the findings are compatible with the hypothesized role of drug transporters in remote inter-organ and inter-organismal communication: The Remote Sensing and Signaling Hypothesis (Nigam, S. K. (2015) Nat. Rev. Drug Disc. 14, 29). The fact

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2016 The Journal of biological chemistry

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