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Topical Analgesic

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15881. Analgesic efficacy of morphine applied topically to painful ulcers. (PubMed)

Analgesic efficacy of morphine applied topically to painful ulcers. The analgesic effects of morphine applied topically to painful ulcers was assessed in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover pilot study of five patients with painful sacral sores. Patients were treated for two days with either 10 mg morphine sulfate or placebo (water for injection) applied topically to the ulcer. After a two-day wash-out period, patients were crossed over for a further two days (...) of the alternative treatment. Patients were asked to rate analgesia using a visual analogue scale (VAS) and to document any local or systemic adverse effects. All patients reported lower VAS scores with morphine compared to placebo and no local or systemic adverse events attributable to morphine were noted by either patients or nursing staff. This pilot study suggests that morphine applied topically is an effective method of producing local analgesia, well tolerated by patients, and not associated with systemic

2003 Journal of pain and symptom management

15882. A randomised controlled trial to test the analgesic efficacy of topical morphine on minor superficial and partial thickness burns in accident and emergency departments. (Full text)

A randomised controlled trial to test the analgesic efficacy of topical morphine on minor superficial and partial thickness burns in accident and emergency departments. To test the analgesic efficacy of topical morphine on superficial burns within the emergency department by comparing pain scores, comfort ratings and analgesia taken by participants.A placebo-controlled three-treatment randomised controlled trial was undertaken. 59 participants were randomly allocated to receive a dressing (...) receiving morphine were the only group to reduce pain scores by >20 mm on two consecutive time intervals (2 and 6 h). At 12 h the morphine group reported the highest pain scores. Only 4/15 participants receiving topical morphine administered additional analgesia compared with 12/17 receiving the Jelonet dressing and 6/17 receiving Intrasite and water (p = 0.055). However, when all analgesia was taken into account, the morphine group was administered the greatest amount. Overall, the placebo group

2007 Emergency Medicine Journal PubMed

15883. Topical pranoprofen 0.1% is as effective anti-inflammatory and analgesic agent as diclofenac sodium 0.1% after strabismus surgery. (PubMed)

Topical pranoprofen 0.1% is as effective anti-inflammatory and analgesic agent as diclofenac sodium 0.1% after strabismus surgery. To compare the anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects of topical pranoprofen 0.1% with diclofenac sodium 0.1% after strabismus surgery, 40 patients were prospectively randomized and assigned into 2 groups. Signs and symptoms of inflammation, as well as intraocular pressure (IOP) of patients, were evaluated at 1 day and 1 and 3 weeks following surgery. Both groups

2007 Journal of ocular pharmacology and therapeutics : the official journal of the Association for Ocular Pharmacology and Therapeutics

15884. Routine immunization practices: use of topical anesthetics and oral analgesics. (PubMed)

Routine immunization practices: use of topical anesthetics and oral analgesics. Immunization pain is a global public health issue. Despite an abundance of data that demonstrate the efficacy of local anesthetics for decreasing immunization pain, their adoption in practice has not been determined. Our objective was to evaluate analgesic use during childhood immunization.We used a cluster-sampling survey of pediatricians in the greater Toronto area (who administer immunizations) and multiparous (...) %]). Postinjection, analgesics were used in 33% of immunizations (acetaminophen [86%] and ibuprofen [14%]).A minority of pediatricians and mothers use topical local anesthetics during childhood immunization despite evidence to support their use. Oral analgesics are used more commonly, but this practice is not consistent with scientific evidence. Knowledge-translation strategies are needed to increase the use of local anesthesia.

2007 Pediatrics

15885. Evaluation of the analgesic and topical anti-inflammatory effects of Hypericum reflexum L. fil. (PubMed)

Evaluation of the analgesic and topical anti-inflammatory effects of Hypericum reflexum L. fil. The present study investigates the analgesic and topical anti-inflammatory effects of the infusion, methanol extract and fractions of the aerial part in blossom of Hypericum reflexum L. fil. in mice. The acetic acid-induced writhing test, formalin test, tail flick test and the tetradecanoylphorbol acetate (TPA)-induced ear inflammation model in mice were used to determine these effects. Our findings (...) show that oral administration of all extracts tested from this species significantly inhibit acetic acid-induced writhing in mice. Only the methanol extract and chloroform fraction were significantly active in both phases of formalin-induced pain and in the tail flick assays, suggesting that they may have central analgesic properties. On the other hand, the topical treatment of methanol extract, butanol and chloroform fractions of this species significantly reduced the TPA-induced ear oedema

2006 Journal of Ethnopharmacology

15886. Anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity of the topical preparation of Verbena officinalis L. (PubMed)

Anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity of the topical preparation of Verbena officinalis L. Verbena officinalis has traditionally been used in herbal medicine in Navarra, Spain, in the treatment of topical inflammation. Due to the anti-inflammatory activity of Verbena officinalis 50% methanolic extract in i.p. and topical administration, the effects of several formulations were prepared and studied using carrageenan-induced edema and formalin testing. Piroxicam gel and methyl salicylate (...) ointment were studied as positive control for anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity, respectively. The edema inhibition of the preparations containing extract at the doses of 1-3% w/w were significantly different from the control group. The anti-inflammatory effect of VO-3% was similar to the effect of piroxicam gel 3 h after carrageenan injection. The analgesic activity of topical preparation with more than 2.5% w/w was observed in the early phase. This activity was observed in concentrations

2006 Journal of Ethnopharmacology

15887. Analgesic and topical anti-inflammatory activity of Hypericum canariense L. and Hypericum glandulosum Ait. (PubMed)

Analgesic and topical anti-inflammatory activity of Hypericum canariense L. and Hypericum glandulosum Ait. The present study investigates the analgesic and topical anti-inflammatory activities of the infusion, methanol extract and fractions of the aerial part in blossom of Hypericum canariense L. and Hypericum glandulosum Ait. in mice. The acetic acid-induced writhing test, tail flick test and the tetradecanoylphorbol acetate (TPA)-induced ear inflammation model in mice were used to determine (...) these effects. Our findings show that oral administration of methanol extracts, and the aqueous, butanol and chloroform fractions of both species and the infusions of Hypericum glandulosum significantly inhibit acetic acid-induced writhing in mice. Only the infusion, methanol extract and butanol and chloroform fractions of Hypericum glandulosum were significantly active in the tail flick assay, suggesting that they may have central analgesic properties. On the other hand, the topical treatment of all

2005 Journal of Ethnopharmacology

15888. Analgesic synergy between topical morphine and butamben in mice. (PubMed)

Analgesic synergy between topical morphine and butamben in mice. Studies have revealed that lidocaine is an effective analgesic when applied topically to the tail of a mouse in the radiant heat tail-flick assay. In addition, the topical combination of lidocaine with morphine revealed synergistic interactions between the two drugs. In the current studies, we demonstrate that topical butamben, benzocaine, and bupivacaine are active in the radiant heat tail-flick assay. In this assay, topical (...) lidocaine has a ceiling effect and displays a biphasic curve, with large doses markedly decreasing the responses almost to baseline levels. In contrast, butamben has an S-shape dose-dependent response in the assay and did not display a biphasic curve as seen with lidocaine, suggesting that topical butamben may have advantages over lidocaine. Both benzocaine and bupivacaine also showed dose-dependent analgesic activity in this model. Like lidocaine, butamben/morphine combinations displayed synergistic

2003 Anesthesia and Analgesia

15889. Intramuscular Temperature Rises With Topical Analgesics Used as Coupling Agents During Therapeutic Ultrasound. (PubMed)

Intramuscular Temperature Rises With Topical Analgesics Used as Coupling Agents During Therapeutic Ultrasound. OBJECTIVE: To compare the effectiveness of Nature's Chemist as an ultrasound coupling agent with the effectiveness of another topical analgesic (Biofreeze), Aquasonic 100, and a sham treatment in producing intramuscular (IM) temperature increase during a typical therapeutic ultrasound treatment. DESIGN AND SETTING: Subjects were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 treatment groups (n = 10

2001 Journal of athletic training

15890. Topical analgesics, indomethacin plaster and diclofenac emulgel for low back pain: a parallel study. (PubMed)

Topical analgesics, indomethacin plaster and diclofenac emulgel for low back pain: a parallel study. 8855630 1996 11 12 2013 11 21 0125-2208 79 8 1996 Aug Journal of the Medical Association of Thailand = Chotmaihet thangphaet J Med Assoc Thai Topical analgesics, indomethacin plaster and diclofenac emulgel for low back pain: a parallel study. 486-90 Waikakul S S Danputipong P P Soparat K K eng Clinical Trial Comparative Study Journal Article Randomized Controlled Trial Thailand J Med Assoc Thai

1996 Journal of the Medical Association of Thailand = Chotmaihet thangphaet

15891. Local and regional anesthetic and analgesic techniques in the dog and cat: Part I, Pharmacology of local anesthetics and topical anesthesia. (Full text)

Local and regional anesthetic and analgesic techniques in the dog and cat: Part I, Pharmacology of local anesthetics and topical anesthesia. 11126498 2001 08 16 2016 08 18 0008-5286 41 11 2000 Nov The Canadian veterinary journal = La revue veterinaire canadienne Can. Vet. J. Local and regional anesthetic and analgesic techniques in the dog and cat: Part I, Pharmacology of local anesthetics and topical anesthesia. 883-4 Duke T T Department of Small Animal Clinical Sciences, Western College

2000 The Canadian Veterinary Journal PubMed

15892. The safety of topical anaesthetic and analgesic agents in a gel when used to provide pain relief at split skin donor sites. (PubMed)

The safety of topical anaesthetic and analgesic agents in a gel when used to provide pain relief at split skin donor sites. Post operative pain from split skin donor sites is a recognised problem. This study was carried out to assess the safety of a 'depot' preparation of bupivacaine and ketoprofen when applied to denuded dermis of a split donor site. Two groups of six patients each received either bupivacaine gel (2.5 mg/ml) or ketoprofen gel (1.6 mg/ml). One patient from each group

1998 Burns : journal of the International Society for Burn Injuries

15893. Topical analgesics for knee arthrosis: a parallel study of ketoprofen gel and diclofenac emulgel. (PubMed)

Topical analgesics for knee arthrosis: a parallel study of ketoprofen gel and diclofenac emulgel. The clinical efficacy of the two topical analgesics, ketoprofen hydroalcoholic gel (Fastum gel) and diclofenac emulgel, for osteoarthritis of the knee was studied. There were 85 patients who underwent the trial. They were randomly allocated into 2 groups, the diclofenac group, 42 patients (4 males and 38 females) receiving the diclofenac emulgel at the painfull site four times a day for 4 weeks

1997 Journal of the Medical Association of Thailand = Chotmaihet thangphaet

15894. Analgesic onset time as a measure of topical anesthetic efficacy in spontaneous toothache pain: a pilot study. (PubMed)

Analgesic onset time as a measure of topical anesthetic efficacy in spontaneous toothache pain: a pilot study. The purpose of this pilot investigation was to determine the usefulness of analgesic onset time as a measure of topical anesthetic efficacy in patients with spontaneous toothache pain. Under blinded conditions, 20 patients with spontaneous toothache pain from an open tooth cavity were randomly assigned to receive either 20% benzocaine or placebo (80% polyethylene glycol (...) . The results of this study suggest that in the spontaneous toothache pain model, analgesic onset time is a valuable measure of topical anesthetic efficacy. In addition, polyethylene glycol at a concentration of 80% may not be a totally inactive vehicle.

1993 The Journal of clinical dentistry

15895. Analgesic effect of topical sodium diclofenac 0.1% drops during retinal laser photocoagulation. (Full text)

Analgesic effect of topical sodium diclofenac 0.1% drops during retinal laser photocoagulation. To evaluate the analgesic effect of topical sodium diclofenac 0.1% during retinal laser photocoagulation.87 patients, 45 with proliferative diabetic retinopathy treated with two sessions of panretinal photocoagulation (group A), and 42 patients with non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy who underwent grid treatment of the posterior pole (19 bilaterally) (group B). Sodium diclofenac 0.1% or sodium (...) chloride 0.9% drops were topically applied 30-135 minutes before laser treatment in a masked fashion. Patients who had two sessions were given the alternate drug in the second one. Pain level was evaluated immediately after laser treatment with the visual analogue scale (VAS). The results were statistically analysed.Patients in group A reported pain in 85/90 sessions (94%). The average pain level was 44.2% with sodium diclofenac 0.1% drops and 53.1% with sodium chloride 0.9% drops (p = 0.011 by paired

2000 British Journal of Ophthalmology PubMed

15896. The analgesic efficacy of topical capsaicin is enhanced by glyceryl trinitrate in painful osteoarthritis: a randomized, double blind, placebo controlled study. (PubMed)

The analgesic efficacy of topical capsaicin is enhanced by glyceryl trinitrate in painful osteoarthritis: a randomized, double blind, placebo controlled study. The aim of this study was to assess if the pain of osteoarthritis is reduced by topical capsaicin and to determine whether addition of glyceryl trinitrate has an effect on analgesic efficacy and tolerability of capsaicin. A randomized, double blind, placebo controlled study was carried out on 200 adult patients attending a Pain Clinic (...) with osteoarthritis pain. Patients applied one of four creams topically over the affected joint over a 6 week period. Creams contained either placebo (vehicle), 0.025% capsaicin, 1.33% glyceryl trinitrate or 0.025% capsaicin + 1.33% glyceryl trinitrate. Analgesic efficacy, tolerability of cream and analgesic consumption were assessed. One hundred and sixty-seven of 200 patients completed the study. Baseline visual analogue scores (0-10 scale) for pain were 6.40. There was a significant reduction in pain scores

2000 European Journal of Pain

15897. A topically applied quaternary ammonium compound exhibits analgesic effects for orthopedic pain. (PubMed)

A topically applied quaternary ammonium compound exhibits analgesic effects for orthopedic pain. To investigate the effectiveness of a topically applied emulsion of an analgesic ammonium solution for the temporary treatment of pain associated with arthritis, tendinitis and bursitis.100 subjects in a single center, presenting with chronic pain associated with arthritis, tendinitis, or bursitis trialed against placebo in a double-blind cross-over protocol.Measures of treatment success include (...) minimal.A topical emulsion of a strong ammonium solution utilizing quaternary ammonium, enhanced with certain penetration enhancers, is effective for temporary relief of pain associated with arthritis, tendinitis, and bursitis.

1998 Alternative medicine review : a journal of clinical therapeutic

15898. Analgesic efficacy and pharmacokinetics of topical nimesulide gel in healthy human volunteers: double-blind comparison with piroxicam, diclofenac and placebo. (PubMed)

Analgesic efficacy and pharmacokinetics of topical nimesulide gel in healthy human volunteers: double-blind comparison with piroxicam, diclofenac and placebo. The present study was conducted to compare the analgesic efficacy of a new topical gel formulation of nimesulide (10 mg of pure drug) with that of placebo, diclofenac and piroxicam gels (10 mg of pure drug) in three parallel groups in a double-blinded, randomized fashion with vehicle placebo. The analgesic activity of nimesulide (...) both drugs exhibited peak analgesic effect at 60 min post-treatment. In the modified Hollander method, a good correlation was found between the ten point category scale and the VAS, indicating that it may serve as a sensitive and reliable method for the screening of analgesic drugs.The superior analgesic activity of nimesulide (as gel formulation), correlating with its pharmacokinetic profile, indicates that the topical route of administration may be a safe and effective alternative

1998 European journal of clinical pharmacology

15899. A randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, comparative study of topical skin analgesics and the anxiety and discomfort associated with venous cannulation. (Full text)

A randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, comparative study of topical skin analgesics and the anxiety and discomfort associated with venous cannulation. To compare the effect of topical skin anaesthetic agents on the discomfort and anxiety associated with venous cannulation.Randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, within subject, volunteer trial.20 healthy volunteers underwent venous cannulation on three separate occasions having received topical skin application of either 4 (...) with the control (VAS = 38mm). There was a positive correlation (R2 = 72%, p<0.001) between discomfort and the predicted anxiety if cannulation was to be repeated with the same cream. With the placebo a positive correlation (R2 = 19.8%, p = 0.05) was found between the level of anxiety before cannulation and the level of discomfort recorded.Ametop and EMLA topical anaesthetic agents produce effective skin analgesia for venous cannulation. The use of topical analgesia can reduce perceived anxiety about future

2001 British Dental Journal PubMed

15900. Analgesic profile of peroral and topical ketoprofen upon low pH-induced muscle pain. (PubMed)

Analgesic profile of peroral and topical ketoprofen upon low pH-induced muscle pain. Topical analgesics are widely marketed for treatment of muscle and joint pain. We have recently developed a model of muscle pain and have used this model to evaluate the efficacy of commercially available topical and peroral ketoprofen in order to evaluate the time- and dose-dependence of analgesia. In the present study, we examined the dose- (0, 50, and 100 mg) and time-dependence (hourly to 8 h (...) ) of commercially available peroral and topical ketoprofen. In order to achieve infusion times of 8 h (and thus study the time course of analgesic action), we adapted the model of low pH-induced muscle pain in humans to these requirements by applying the infusions continuously for 10 min every hour for 8 h. We found that the 10 min infusion produced reliable and consistent pain levels that were reproducible over the 8 h of the study. The study was performed double-blind, randomized, and with a 1-week interval

2001 Pain

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