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Tongue Carcinoma

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1801. Salivary duct carcinoma with comedonecrosis in the mobile portion of the tongue. (PubMed)

Salivary duct carcinoma with comedonecrosis in the mobile portion of the tongue. We present a patient suffering from salivary duct carcinoma in the mobile portion of the tongue, arising from a minor salivary gland; this condition is extremely rare. The patient was a 64-year-old woman who presented with a nonpainful, hard mass in her tongue. An aspiration smear showed cells with very scant cytoplasm and pale oval nuclei containing small, single nucleoli. Scattered clusters of small cells had (...) darkly stained nuclei. Neither necrosis nor cribriform areas were seen. The smears suggested a salivary gland neoplasm; however, definitive diagnosis of salivary duct carcinoma remained difficult. Partial glossectomy was performed with a wide margin. Macroscopic examination revealed an unencapsulated, submucosal tumour infiltrating underlying muscle. Microscopic examination revealed a salivary duct carcinoma with comedonecrosis and relatively few cribriform and papillary areas. This case suggests

2006 Journal of Laryngology & Otology

1802. Antivascular therapy of oral tongue squamous cell carcinoma with PTK787. (PubMed)

Antivascular therapy of oral tongue squamous cell carcinoma with PTK787. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is an important mediator in tumor vascularization, growth, and metastasis. We investigated whether blockade of the VEGF receptor (VEGF-R) signaling pathway by the tyrosine kinase inhibitor PTK787 combined with CPT-11, a semisynthetic camptothecin analogue, can inhibit the tumor growth and angiogenesis of squamous cell carcinoma of the oral tongue in an orthotopic nude mouse (...) model.JMAR human oral squamous cell carcinoma cells were injected into the tongues of nude mice. Seven days later, the mice were randomized to receive a placebo, daily oral PTK787, weekly CPT-11 injection, or PTK787 plus CPT-11. After 4 weeks of treatment, the mice underwent necropsy, and the tongue tumors, cervical lymph nodes, and lungs were removed for immunohistochemical analyses.CPT-11, PTK787, and PTK787 plus CPT-11 significantly decreased tumor volumes and prolonged survival. The combination

2005 Laryngoscope

1803. Treatment of contralateral N0 neck in early squamous cell carcinoma of the oral tongue: elective neck dissection versus observation. (PubMed)

Treatment of contralateral N0 neck in early squamous cell carcinoma of the oral tongue: elective neck dissection versus observation. Prophylactic treatment of contralateral N0 neck in early squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the oral tongue is a controversial issue. The aim of this study was to analyze the rates of occult metastases and their prognostic effects in stage I and stage II SCC of the oral tongue, and to compare the results of elective neck dissection to observation (...) of the contralateral N0 neck in the treatment of these patients.Retrospective review.We reviewed the medical records of 54 patients who were treated at Severance Hospital from 1992 to 2003 and had been diagnosed with stage I or stage II SCC of the oral tongue and had not received prior treatment. All patients underwent an ipsilateral elective neck dissection simultaneously with the primary lesion. The management of the contralateral N0 necks involved "watchful waiting" in 29 patients and elective neck dissection

2006 Laryngoscope

1804. Can Ki-67 predict recurrence of NO squamous cell carcinoma of the tongue? (PubMed)

Can Ki-67 predict recurrence of NO squamous cell carcinoma of the tongue? Ki-67 is a molecular marker of cellular proliferation that predicts prognosis of some head and neck tumors. Studies of Ki-67 in oropharyngeal cancer have yielded conflicting findings. This study was designed to test Ki-67 as a marker for poor prognosis in N0 tongue squamous cell carcinoma.We examined 29 cases in a retrospective cohort to test the hypothesis that a high rate of tumor cell proliferation (high levels of Ki (...) -67 staining) at the invasive edge of N0 squamous cell carcinoma of the tongue correlates with increased risk of recurrence.There were 14 cases of recurrence. The average age of the patients with recurrence was 58 years. The average time to recurrence was 13.1 months. A 0% to 33% uptake of Ki-67 at the tumor's leading edge was associated with a 6-times-greater risk of recurrence. The mean length of survival for the group with 0% to 33% uptake was 21 months; for the group with > 33% uptake

2006 Rhinology and Laryngology

1805. Treatment of squamous cell carcinoma of the tongue base: irradiation, surgery, or palliation? (PubMed)

Treatment of squamous cell carcinoma of the tongue base: irradiation, surgery, or palliation? Squamous cell carcinoma of the tongue base has a poor prognosis, and treatment is accompanied by a number of major problems. In view of this, it is important to recognize which patients will benefit from treatment with curative intent and which treatment method to use.One hundred sixty-five patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the tongue base were identified on our database. Eighty-two patients (...) with those who were untreated (T3-4; p = .0081; odds ratio, 2.2). In addition, those with early (T1-2) disease had a better survival rate than those with advanced cancers (p = .0139; odds ratio, 2.09). There was, however, no difference in survival rate at 5 years. Those with early disease compared with those with advanced disease were twice as likely to be alive at 2 years; however, all survival advantages had disappeared by 5 years.In terms of observed survival, treating tongue base squamous cell

2007 Rhinology and Laryngology

1806. Selective vs modified radical neck dissection and postoperative radiotherapy vs observation in the treatment of squamous cell carcinoma of the oral tongue. (PubMed)

Selective vs modified radical neck dissection and postoperative radiotherapy vs observation in the treatment of squamous cell carcinoma of the oral tongue. To assess the role of selective neck dissection in patients with squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the oral tongue with advanced nodal disease, and to assess the role of postoperative radiotherapy in patients with SCC of the oral tongue with pathologically N1 necks.Retrospective study of the medical records of all patients who underwent neck (...) dissection for SCC of the oral tongue from January 1, 1980, to December 31, 1995. Median follow-up was 5.7 years.The University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, a tertiary care cancer hospital.A total of 220 patients with SCC of the oral tongue who received surgical treatment of both the primary tumor and the neck and who had an identifiable type of neck dissection, no synchronous or metachronous lesions, and no evidence of local recurrence.All patients underwent resection of the primary

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2005 Archives of Otolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery

1807. Bag-1 expression as a prognostic factor in tongue squamous cell carcinomas. (PubMed)

Bag-1 expression as a prognostic factor in tongue squamous cell carcinomas. To investigate the prognostic significance of the antiapoptotic protein Bag-1. In addition, the relationship between Bag-1 expression, other apoptosis-related and proliferative parameters.Eighty-five randomly selected patients with T1 to T4 oral tongue squamous cell carcinomas (SCC) were studied.Sections from diagnostic, formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded specimens were stained immunohistochemically to detect Bag-1 (...) expression or AI, respectively, revealed an enhanced prognostic potential (P <.0001) when compared with single parameters.Correlation between Bag-1 expression and other biologic variables revealed that Bag-1 might be involved in several biologic processes including apoptosis and cell proliferation. The expression of Bag-1 protein, particularly in combination with Bax expression or AI, respectively, has prognostic value in oral tongue SCC.

2004 Laryngoscope

1808. Squamous cell carcinoma of the oral tongue in young patients. (PubMed)

Squamous cell carcinoma of the oral tongue in young patients. Cancer of the tongue is reported with increasing frequency in young people. The objective of this work was to study the biologic and clinical course of the disease in this group. The clinical course of the disease in this patient group remains controversial.A retrospective 30-year review was made from data from a tertiary academic medical center.A chart review was performed for 48 patients with oral tongue cancer. The following (...) variables were compared: age, sex, tobacco and alcohol use, treatment, and outcome.Stage (T1,2-N0) and treatment modality were similar in the two age groups, as was disease-specific outcome. However, in the younger group, the clinical course followed two distinct patterns: extremely aggressive appearance with a 40% mortality rate within 2 years compared with 10.7% in the older group (P <.05) or indolent with freedom from disease for over 15 years.Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the oral tongue may

2004 Laryngoscope

1809. Carcinoma of the tongue base treated by transoral laser microsurgery, part one: Untreated tumors, a prospective analysis of oncologic and functional outcomes. (PubMed)

Carcinoma of the tongue base treated by transoral laser microsurgery, part one: Untreated tumors, a prospective analysis of oncologic and functional outcomes. To report the oncologic and functional outcomes of transoral laser microsurgery (TLM) in the management of untreated primary carcinoma of the tongue base.A two center prospective case series analysis.Fifty-nine patients with pathologically confirmed squamous cell carcinoma of the tongue base were treated with TLM between 1997 and 2005 (...) -operative hemorrhage. The median pre-operative FOSS stage was 0 (normal function.) The median post-operative FOSS stage was stage 1 (Normal function with episodic or daily symptoms of dysphagia.) There were no clinically significant changes in communication function after treatment.Transoral laser surgery is a safe and effective treatment for select early and advanced previously untreated squamous cell cancer of the tongue base. In addition, the low morbidity and mortality and shortened duration

2006 Laryngoscope

1810. Carcinoma of the tongue base treated by transoral laser microsurgery, part two: Persistent, recurrent and second primary tumors. (PubMed)

Carcinoma of the tongue base treated by transoral laser microsurgery, part two: Persistent, recurrent and second primary tumors. To report the oncologic and functional outcomes of transoral laser microsurgery (TLM) in the treatment of persistent, recurrent, and second primary squamous cell carcinoma of the tongue base.A two-center prospective case series analysis.Twenty-five patients with persistent, recurrent, or second primary squamous cell carcinoma of the tongue base were treated with TLM (...) of hospitalization was 3.6 days. The median pretreatment and posttreatment FOSS stage was stage 2 and stage 3, respectively.Transoral laser surgery is a rational and effective treatment in appropriately selected patients with persistent, recurrent, or second primary tongue base cancer. The low morbidity and mortality and shortened duration of hospitalization associated with TLM make it an attractive therapeutic alternative.

2006 Laryngoscope

1811. Management of cervical metastases in advanced squamous cell carcinoma of the base of tongue. (PubMed)

Management of cervical metastases in advanced squamous cell carcinoma of the base of tongue. To clarify the role of neck dissection following primary radiotherapy for treatment of squamous cell carcinoma of the base of tongue.Case series.Academic, tertiary care medical center.A consecutive series of 45 patients with biopsy-proven squamous cell carcinoma of the base of tongue and cervical metastases treated with primary radiotherapy at The University of California, San Francisco, was examined

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2003 Archives of Otolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery

1812. Transoral laser microsurgery for squamous cell carcinoma of the base of the tongue. (PubMed)

Transoral laser microsurgery for squamous cell carcinoma of the base of the tongue. To determine the role of transoral laser microsurgery for base of tongue squamous cell carcinoma.Retrospective unicenter study of the oncologic and functional results of laser microsurgery of tongue base carcinoma performed between 1986 and 1997.University hospital department.We reviewed 48 previously untreated patients with base of tongue squamous cell carcinoma, who were treated with transoral laser (...) for selected patients with base of tongue cancer seems to be justified considering the achieved oncological and functional results. Final proof of the effectiveness of the new therapeutic concept presented herein requires well-designed prospective studies.

2003 Archives of Otolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery

1813. A comparative analysis of anterior versus posterior squamous cell carcinoma of the tongue: a 10-year review. (PubMed)

A comparative analysis of anterior versus posterior squamous cell carcinoma of the tongue: a 10-year review. The study sought to compare and contrast squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the anterior mobile tongue with SCC of the tongue base, with emphasis on clinical presentation, management and outcome.This was a retrospective, comparative analysis of patients treated for SCC of the tongue over a 10-year period. Cox's regression model was used to assess the effect of tumour site on survival.The (...) study included 142 patients, of whom 86 were treated for SCC of the anterior tongue and 56 for tongue base lesions. Patients with carcinoma of the anterior tongue tended to present with a visible lump or ulceration of the tongue, whereas the majority of patients with tongue base SCC presented with pain. Sixty per cent of anterior tongue lesions were early stage (I or II) at initial presentation as compared with 21 per cent of tongue base lesions.Patients with anterior tongue lesions had a better

2006 Journal of Laryngology & Otology

1814. Guidelines in head and neck oncology compliance and consequences of deviations from the standard protocol for tongue and floor of mouth squamous carcinoma. (PubMed)

Guidelines in head and neck oncology compliance and consequences of deviations from the standard protocol for tongue and floor of mouth squamous carcinoma. To investigate the extent of violation of a regional guideline for the treatment of patients with carcinoma of the tongue/floor of mouth (ICD0 C02, C04). Different aspects of protocol violation (i.e. undertreatment or overtreatment) and consequences for treatment outcome were evaluated.Retrospective analysis of data from medical records.The (...) Department of Maxillofacial and Oral Surgery and the Department of Otorhinolaryngology and Head and Neck Surgery of the University Medical Centre Utrecht.A total of 217 patients treated between 1991 and 2001 for a stage II and stage III carcinoma of the tongue/floor of mouth.Protocol violation, tumour recurrence.The overall adherence to the guideline was 55%. In the non-adherence group of patients, 21% were overtreated, 71% were undertreated, and 8% were both overtreated and undertreated

2005 Clinical Otolaryngology

1815. Hyalinizing clear cell carcinoma of the base of tongue. (PubMed)

Hyalinizing clear cell carcinoma of the base of tongue. Hyalinizing clear cell carcinoma is a rare, low-grade neoplasm of the minor salivary glands. It is composed exclusively of epithelial cells with optically clear cytoplasm. There are only a few isolated cases reported in the literature involving the base of tongue. The treatment of choice is wide excision and selective neck dissection, with or without radiotherapy. The prognosis of these tumours is good. A 57-year-old male patient presented (...) with a lesion in the base of tongue, which was well enhanced on contrast computerized tomography scan. Once confirmed by biopsy, the hyalinizing clear cell carcinoma was resected via a transcervical approach. The patient underwent postoperative radiotherapy. There was no evidence of locoregional recurrence or distant metastasis at 18 months of follow up.

2007 International Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery

1816. Simultaneous expression of furin and vascular endothelial growth factor in human oral tongue squamous cell carcinoma progression. (PubMed)

Simultaneous expression of furin and vascular endothelial growth factor in human oral tongue squamous cell carcinoma progression. Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the tongue is a common malignancy of the oral cavity. Furin convertase activates several precursor matrix metalloproteinases involved in the degradation of the extracellular matrix. The pattern of expression of furin and vascular endothelial growth factor-C (VEGF-C), two key molecules in neoplasm development, was examined during (...) the progression from normal epithelium to invasive SCC.We evaluated furin and VEGF-C expression and microvessel density (MVD) by immunohistochemistry in human tongue sections harboring normal epithelium, dysplastic epithelium, and/or SCC. Sections from 46 glossectomy specimens were assessed for furin expression. A selected group of 15 cases, each containing normal epithelium, precursor lesions, and invasive SCC, were further studied for furin and VEGF-C expression and MVD quantification. We also evaluated

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2004 Clinical Cancer Research

1817. Predictive markers for late cervical metastasis in stage I and II invasive squamous cell carcinoma of the oral tongue. (PubMed)

Predictive markers for late cervical metastasis in stage I and II invasive squamous cell carcinoma of the oral tongue. Patients with oral tongue carcinoma treated by intraoral excision only should be followed up carefully for cervical lymph node metastasis and salvaged immediately if found, because some patients have a more aggressive clinical course. The purpose of this study was to find useful markers for predicting late cervical metastasis in patients with stage I and II invasive squamous (...) cell carcinoma of the oral tongue.We investigated clinicopathologic factors and immunohistochemical biomarkers predicting late cervical metastasis in surgical specimens from 56 patients with T(1-2)N(0)M(0) invasive squamous cell carcinoma of the oral tongue who did not undergo elective neck dissection. Histopathologic factors including tumor thickness, mode of invasion, Broders grade, total score of three different malignancy grading systems, eight other clinicopathologic parameters

2004 Clinical Cancer Research

1818. p14ARF protein expression is a predictor of both relapse and survival in squamous cell carcinoma of the anterior tongue. (PubMed)

p14ARF protein expression is a predictor of both relapse and survival in squamous cell carcinoma of the anterior tongue. The INK4A-ARF locus at chromosome 9p21 is frequently altered in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and encodes two distinct tumor suppressors, p16(INK4A) and p14(ARF). This study addressed the role of p14(ARF) as a potential prognostic marker in this disease.p14(ARF) protein expression was assessed by immunohistochemistry in a cohort of 140 patients with SCC (...) of the anterior tongue. Using univariate and multivariate Cox's proportional hazards models, the outcomes examined were time to disease recurrence or death, with or without clinicopathologic covariates, including nodal status, disease stage, treatment status, Ki-67 staining, and molecular markers with known functional or genetic relationships with p14(ARF) (p16(INK4A), p53, pRb, p21(WAF1/CIP1), E2F-1).On multivariate analysis, p14(ARF) positivity (nucleolar p14(ARF) staining and/or nuclear p14(ARF) staining

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2005 Clinical Cancer Research

1819. Overexpression of E2F-1 is associated with increased disease-free survival in squamous cell carcinoma of the anterior tongue. (PubMed)

Overexpression of E2F-1 is associated with increased disease-free survival in squamous cell carcinoma of the anterior tongue. Overexpression of E2F-1 is associated with increased invasiveness in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma cell lines in vitro, but its significance in vivo is unknown. This study sought to determine the relationship between E2F-1 and retinoblastoma protein (pRb) expression and disease outcome in squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the anterior tongue.pRb and E2F-1 protein (...) expression was assessed by immunohistochemistry in a cohort of 145 patients with SCC of the anterior tongue. The outcomes examined were time to disease recurrence or death. The relationships between E2F-1 or pRb expression and outcome were assessed by univariate and multivariate Cox's proportional hazards model, with or without clinicopathological covariates, including nodal status, disease stage, treatment status, and molecular markers (cyclin D1, p16(INK4A), and Ki-67) previously measured

2003 Clinical Cancer Research

1820. Perivascular-submandibular lymph node metastasis in squamous cell carcinoma of the tongue and floor of mouth. (PubMed)

Perivascular-submandibular lymph node metastasis in squamous cell carcinoma of the tongue and floor of mouth. The goal of this study was to investigate the incidence of occult metastasis in perivascular lymph node and nodal recurrence in these nodal pads in squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the tongue and floor of mouth.We performed a prospective analysis of the incidence of an occult metastasis in the perivascular lymph nodes in 55 patients (41 with an oral tongue carcinoma and 14 with a mouth (...) floor carcinoma) who underwent an elective supraomohyoid neck dissection (SOHND) for SCC of the tongue and floor of mouth, from 1997 to 2002. 99 SOHND procedures were performed as follows: 72 in tongue carcinomas and 27 in the mouth floor carcinomas.Clinically occult, but pathologically positive perivascular lymph nodes occurred in four of 72 of the tongue carcinomas and two of 27 of the mouth floor carcinomas. The incidence of the regional recurrence at level I was three of 45.This preliminary

2004 European Journal of Surgical Oncology

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