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Tongue Carcinoma

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4161. Intratumoural expression of thymidylate synthase is an independent predictor of prognosis in patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the tongue: results from a retrospective study. (Abstract)

Intratumoural expression of thymidylate synthase is an independent predictor of prognosis in patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the tongue: results from a retrospective study. The aim of this study was to assess the importance of immunohistochemical thymidylate synthase (TS) expression level as a prognostic marker in tongue cancer patients. In 140 patients with primary squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the tongue, intratumoural TS expression was evaluated by immunohistochemistry. The level (...) of TS expression was determined by a semiquantitative scoring system, ranging from 1+ to 3+ according to the ratio of TS-positive cells. Of 140 patients, 64 (45.7%), 49 (35.0%) and 27 (19.3%) were assessed as 1+, 2+ and 3+, respectively. Univariate analyses demonstrated that both disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) were significantly lower in patients with a TS 3+ tumour than in those with a TS 1+/2+ tumour (DFS: P = 0.0082, OS: P = 0.0100). In a multivariate analysis using the Cox

2006 International Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery

4162. A comparison of tongue and soft palate squamous cell carcinoma treated by primary surgery in terms of survival and quality of life outcomes. (Abstract)

A comparison of tongue and soft palate squamous cell carcinoma treated by primary surgery in terms of survival and quality of life outcomes. In the surgical management of oral cancer the resection and reconstruction of the mobile tongue and soft palate are most important if function is to be maintained. The present trend towards primary laryngeal surgery for early disease has emphasized the importance of primary surgery if good functional outcomes can be achieved. This study compares (...) the functional and health-related quality of life outcomes for primary surgery and reconstruction of the anterior tongue and soft palate. From a cohort of 566 patients treated from 1992 to 2002, 118 fitted the criteria for anterior tongue and 44 for soft palate resection. University of Washington Quality of Life scores were available in around three quarters of patients. In terms of speech and swallowing a 3/4 or total anterior glossectomy had a worse outcome than a 1/4 or 1/2. In patients having a 3/4

2006 International Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery

4163. Application of fuzzy inference to European patients to predict cervical lymph node metastasis in carcinoma of the tongue. (Abstract)

Application of fuzzy inference to European patients to predict cervical lymph node metastasis in carcinoma of the tongue. In head and neck cancers, the presence of cervical lymph node metastasis is an important determinant of outcome. Many attempts have been made to predict cervical lymph node metastasis, but the accuracy of currently available techniques remains inadequate. We used fuzzy inference to predict cervical lymph node metastasis retrospectively in 75 patients with squamous cell (...) carcinoma of the tongue and prospectively in 23 patients. Our model was based on three variables: tumor size, keratinization, and mode of invasion. The accuracy of fuzzy inference for the prediction of cervical lymph node metastasis in the 75 patients studied retrospectively was 86.7%, the sensitivity was 70.8%, and the specificity was 94.1%. In the 23 patients studied prospectively, the accuracy was 91.3%, the sensitivity was 50.0%, and the specificity was 95.2%. The accuracy obtained in this European

2005 International Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery

4164. A new method to induce multi-drug resistance to carboplatin in a mouse model of human tongue squamous cell carcinoma. (Abstract)

A new method to induce multi-drug resistance to carboplatin in a mouse model of human tongue squamous cell carcinoma. Multi-drug resistance (MDR) in human head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) constitutes a major obstacle to the effectiveness of chemotherapy. In previous studies, MDR was mainly induced in vitro. The authors report a novel in vivo method of inducing MDR in nude mice with xenotransplanted Tca8113 cells. Carboplatin, a chemotherapeutic agent used to treat HNSCC (...) , was injected around the tumors for 10 weeks. A subsequent cell survival assay of dissociated tumor cells suggested that MDR had been induced successfully. Immunocytochemistry, reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and Western blot analysis showed that the expression levels of MDR-related proteins, including topoisomerase II, MRP and glutathione transferase, were elevated in the induction group. The authors conclude that in vivo induction of MDR provides a useful method for establishing animal

2008 International Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery

4165. Growth inhibition of a tongue squamous cell carcinoma cell line (Tca8113) in vitro and in vivo via siRNA-mediated down-regulation of skp2. (Abstract)

Growth inhibition of a tongue squamous cell carcinoma cell line (Tca8113) in vitro and in vivo via siRNA-mediated down-regulation of skp2. Human S-phase kinase-associated protein (skp) 2, the specific ubiquitin ligase subunit that targets the negative regulator p27(Kip1) of the cell cycle and brings about its degradation, is overexpressed in various cancers, including human oral squamous cell carcinomas; its expression levels are inversely related to those of p27(Kip1) in these cells. Recently (...) , a technique known as RNA interference (RNAi) has successfully been applied to mammalian cells. In order to evaluate the applications of the RNAi strategy for cancer gene therapy, the authors treated Tca8113 cells expressing high levels of Skp2 with a small interfering RNA (siRNA) expression plasmid vector targeting skp2 in vitro and in vivo. They demonstrated that the Skp2 protein levels decreased, while the p27(Kip1) protein levels increased in Tca8113 cells transfected with skp2siRNA. Further, skp2siRNA

2008 International Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery

4166. Expression of cIAP-1 correlates with nodal metastasis in squamous cell carcinoma of the tongue. (Abstract)

Expression of cIAP-1 correlates with nodal metastasis in squamous cell carcinoma of the tongue. Cellular inhibitor-of-apoptosis protein 1 (cIAP-1) is a member of the inhibitor-of- apoptosis protein family, which predominantly regulates apoptosis. It has been suggested that expression of cIAP-1 correlates with certain clinicopathological features. The possible significance of cIAP-1 expression in cervical lymph node metastasis of tongue squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is investigated. Seventy-five (...) tongue SCCs were analyzed by immunohistochemistry. cIAP-1 immunoreactivity patterns were nuclear in 38 (51%), cytoplasmic in 47 (63%), and concurrent in 37 (49%) cases. Nuclear, cytoplasmic and concurrent cIAP-1 immunoreactions were significantly correlated with lymph node metastasis in tongue SCCs (P=0.0011, 0.0012, and 0.0006, respectively). The cleaved caspase-3, which is a marker of tumor apoptosis, and Ki-67 index, which is a marker of tumor proliferation, were immunohistochemically examined

2008 International Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery

4167. Squamous cell carcinoma of the oral tongue: a 25-year, single institution experience. (Abstract)

treatment (p = 0.001) and advanced disease stage (p = 0.05) were found to have a negative influence on survival.Our limited data suggest that, in Iran, squamous cell carcinoma of the oral tongue tends to present at a locally advanced stage, with a high frequency of locoregional failure and a poor outcome. Combined modality therapy should be considered for the majority of patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the tongue. (...) Squamous cell carcinoma of the oral tongue: a 25-year, single institution experience. To report the characteristics, prognostic factors and treatment outcomes of 102 patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the oral tongue treated and followed up at a single institution over a 25-year period.This retrospective study was carried out by auditing the medical records of 102 patients diagnosed with squamous cell carcinoma of the oral tongue and treated at our institution between 1982 and 2007

2008 Journal of Laryngology & Otology

4168. Exclusive low-dose-rate brachytherapy in 279 patients with T2N0 mobile tongue carcinoma. (Abstract)

Exclusive low-dose-rate brachytherapy in 279 patients with T2N0 mobile tongue carcinoma. To evaluate the therapeutic results obtained with (192)Ir low-dose-rate interstitial brachytherapy in T2N0 mobile tongue carcinoma.Between December 1979 and January 1998, 279 patients with T2N0 mobile tongue carcinoma were treated by exclusive low-dose-rate brachytherapy, with or without neck dissection. (192)Ir brachytherapy was performed according to the "Paris system" with a median total dose of 60 Gy (...) (median dose rate, 0.5 Gy/h).Overall survival was 74.3% and 46.6% at 2 and 5 years. Local control was 79.1% at 2 years and regional control, respectively, 75.9% and 69.5% at 2 and 5 years (Kaplan-Meier method). Systematic dissection revealed 44.6% occult node metastases, and histologic lymph node involvement was identified as the main significant factor for survival. Complication rate was 16.5% (Grade 3, 2.9%). Half of the patients presented previous and/or successive malignant tumor (ear-nose-throat

2005 Biology and Physics

4169. Perivascular-submandibular lymph node metastasis in squamous cell carcinoma of the tongue and floor of mouth. (Abstract)

Perivascular-submandibular lymph node metastasis in squamous cell carcinoma of the tongue and floor of mouth. The goal of this study was to investigate the incidence of occult metastasis in perivascular lymph node and nodal recurrence in these nodal pads in squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the tongue and floor of mouth.We performed a prospective analysis of the incidence of an occult metastasis in the perivascular lymph nodes in 55 patients (41 with an oral tongue carcinoma and 14 with a mouth (...) floor carcinoma) who underwent an elective supraomohyoid neck dissection (SOHND) for SCC of the tongue and floor of mouth, from 1997 to 2002. 99 SOHND procedures were performed as follows: 72 in tongue carcinomas and 27 in the mouth floor carcinomas.Clinically occult, but pathologically positive perivascular lymph nodes occurred in four of 72 of the tongue carcinomas and two of 27 of the mouth floor carcinomas. The incidence of the regional recurrence at level I was three of 45.This preliminary

2004 European Journal of Surgical Oncology

4170. Interstitial brachytherapy and neck dissection for Stage III squamous cell carcinoma of the mobile tongue. (Abstract)

Interstitial brachytherapy and neck dissection for Stage III squamous cell carcinoma of the mobile tongue. The purpose of this study is to describe the cause-specific survival rate, local control rate, salvage rate of neck metastasis, and post-treatment eating and speaking conditions for stage III mobile tongue squamous cell carcinomas and its subgroups. Between 1968 and 1999, 117 previously untreated patients with stage III mobile tongue carcinomas underwent mainly brachytherapy with external (...) ). Our treatment method for patients with stage III mobile tongue squamous cell carcinoma was effective and acceptable.

2005 Acta Oncologica

4171. Combined-modality treatment for advanced oral tongue squamous cell carcinoma. (Abstract)

Combined-modality treatment for advanced oral tongue squamous cell carcinoma. The aim of this study was to investigate prognostic factors in advanced-stage oral tongue cancer treated with postoperative adjuvant therapy and to identify indications for adjuvant concomitant chemoradiotherapy (CCRT).We retrospectively reviewed the records of 201 patients with advanced squamous cell carcinoma of the oral tongue managed between January 1995 and November 2002. All had undergone wide excision and neck (...) dissection plus adjuvant radiotherapy or CCRT. Based on postoperative staging, 123 (61.2%) patients had Stage IV and 78 (38.8%) had Stage III disease. All patients were followed for at least 18 months after completion of radiotherapy or until death. The median follow-up was 40.4 months for surviving patients. The median dose of radiotherapy was 64.8 Gy (range, 58.8-72.8 Gy). Cisplatin-based regimens were used for chemotherapy.The 3-year overall survival (OS) and recurrence-free survival (RFS) rates were

2007 Biology and Physics

4172. Tongue and tonsil carcinoma: increasing trends in the U.S. population ages 20-44 years. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Tongue and tonsil carcinoma: increasing trends in the U.S. population ages 20-44 years. An increasing incidence of oral carcinoma among young adults has been reported in the U.S. and Europe. Although the association between human papillomavirus infection and tonsillar carcinoma is now well established, to the authors' knowledge little is known about incidence trends in tonsillar carcinoma among younger adults. The objective of the current study was to explore the trends in both oral cavity (...) and pharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) in younger U.S. populations, in particular tongue and tonsillar SCC.Using the 1973-2001 Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) database, we computed age, race, and site-specific trends of oral and pharyngeal (excluding nasopharynx) carcinoma incidence rates. The percent change (PC) and annual percent change (APC) were computed to explore trends in incidence rates over time.There were 2262 SCC of the oral cavity and 1251 SCC of the pharynx reported

2005 Cancer

4173. Increased incidence of carcinoma of the tongue in patients with systemic sclerosis. (Abstract)

Increased incidence of carcinoma of the tongue in patients with systemic sclerosis. To describe the incidence of carcinoma of the tongue in a large cohort of patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc).In total, 769 patients with SSc were prospectively followed over 16 years for the development of cancer. Patients with a diagnosis of carcinoma of the tongue were identified to determine the incidence of this cancer in SSc. The results were compared to the incidence of tongue cancer in the SEER cancer (...) registries.A total of 3775 patient-years of followup of 769 patients with SSc (392 diffuse cutaneous, 377 limited cutaneous) prospectively evaluated for the occurrence of cancer disclosed 9 patients who were diagnosed with oral cavity and pharyngeal carcinomas. Six of these patients had squamous cell carcinoma of the tongue. One of these had both pharyngeal and tongue squamous cell carcinomas within a 4-year period, and another had 3 separate squamous cell carcinomas of the tongue. The standardized

2005 Journal of Rheumatology

4174. Myokymia (fasciculation) of the tongue as a unique presentation of mucoepidermoid carcinoma. (Abstract)

Myokymia (fasciculation) of the tongue as a unique presentation of mucoepidermoid carcinoma. Neural invasion is a relatively common feature of squamous cell carcinomas of the head and neck and malignant salivary gland tumours. The symptoms depend on the location and the particular nerves involved, and include pain, anaesthesia, paraesthesia and cranial nerve palsy. The present case appears to be unique. A mucoepidermoid carcinoma showed evidence of neural involvement and presented with nerve (...) stimulation inducing myokymia, rather than nerve destruction, which is the usual consequence of tumoral nerve invasion.

2007 International Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery

4175. Contralateral lymph neck node metastasis of primary squamous cell carcinoma of the tongue: a retrospective analytic study of 203 patients. (Abstract)

Contralateral lymph neck node metastasis of primary squamous cell carcinoma of the tongue: a retrospective analytic study of 203 patients. In primary squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the oral cavity, many clinical and histopathological factors have been described as predictive for cervical lymph-node metastasis, but there are no data available on this association for surgical resection of lateral tongue primary SCC. The aim of this study was to analyse factors related to contralateral neck (...) relapse in a series of 203 consecutive patients with SCC of the lateral aspect of the tongue treated by surgery with or without adjuvant radiotherapy. Several clinical features were analyzed. Histological study included pTNM classification, tumour size, surgical margins, extracapsular spread of lymph-node metastasis, perineural infiltration, peritumoral inflammation and bone involvement. The mean duration of follow up for surviving patients was 70.9+/-49.6 months; 47 patients eventually died

2007 International Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery

4176. Unilateral, clinically T2N0, squamous cell carcinoma of the tongue: surgical outcome analysis. (Abstract)

Unilateral, clinically T2N0, squamous cell carcinoma of the tongue: surgical outcome analysis. To determine the survival rate and analyse the predicting factors of recurrence in patients with unilateral, clinically T2N0 squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the tongue which does not cross the midline, a retrospective analysis of 32 such consecutive, previously untreated, cases was performed. All patients were initially treated by surgery between January 1992 and May 2004. All patients had neck (...) dissections: 12 continuous, 20 discontinuous, 24 bilateral and 8 unilateral. Fourteen patients (44%) received adjunctive postoperative radiotherapy. Occult metastatic rates were 34% and 4% in ipsilateral and contralateral neck, respectively. Patients with pN0 cancer had a better 5-year disease-specific survival rate than those with pN+ cancer (85% versus 41%, P=0.005). Twelve patients (38%) had recurrences after the initial treatment. The recurrence rate was significantly higher in patients

2007 International Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery

4177. Guidelines in head and neck oncology compliance and consequences of deviations from the standard protocol for tongue and floor of mouth squamous carcinoma. (Abstract)

Department of Maxillofacial and Oral Surgery and the Department of Otorhinolaryngology and Head and Neck Surgery of the University Medical Centre Utrecht.A total of 217 patients treated between 1991 and 2001 for a stage II and stage III carcinoma of the tongue/floor of mouth.Protocol violation, tumour recurrence.The overall adherence to the guideline was 55%. In the non-adherence group of patients, 21% were overtreated, 71% were undertreated, and 8% were both overtreated and undertreated (...) Guidelines in head and neck oncology compliance and consequences of deviations from the standard protocol for tongue and floor of mouth squamous carcinoma. To investigate the extent of violation of a regional guideline for the treatment of patients with carcinoma of the tongue/floor of mouth (ICD0 C02, C04). Different aspects of protocol violation (i.e. undertreatment or overtreatment) and consequences for treatment outcome were evaluated.Retrospective analysis of data from medical records.The

2005 Clinical Otolaryngology

4178. Salivary duct carcinoma with comedonecrosis in the mobile portion of the tongue. (Abstract)

darkly stained nuclei. Neither necrosis nor cribriform areas were seen. The smears suggested a salivary gland neoplasm; however, definitive diagnosis of salivary duct carcinoma remained difficult. Partial glossectomy was performed with a wide margin. Macroscopic examination revealed an unencapsulated, submucosal tumour infiltrating underlying muscle. Microscopic examination revealed a salivary duct carcinoma with comedonecrosis and relatively few cribriform and papillary areas. This case suggests (...) Salivary duct carcinoma with comedonecrosis in the mobile portion of the tongue. We present a patient suffering from salivary duct carcinoma in the mobile portion of the tongue, arising from a minor salivary gland; this condition is extremely rare. The patient was a 64-year-old woman who presented with a nonpainful, hard mass in her tongue. An aspiration smear showed cells with very scant cytoplasm and pale oval nuclei containing small, single nucleoli. Scattered clusters of small cells had

2006 Journal of Laryngology & Otology

4179. A comparative analysis of anterior versus posterior squamous cell carcinoma of the tongue: a 10-year review. (Abstract)

A comparative analysis of anterior versus posterior squamous cell carcinoma of the tongue: a 10-year review. The study sought to compare and contrast squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the anterior mobile tongue with SCC of the tongue base, with emphasis on clinical presentation, management and outcome.This was a retrospective, comparative analysis of patients treated for SCC of the tongue over a 10-year period. Cox's regression model was used to assess the effect of tumour site on survival.The (...) study included 142 patients, of whom 86 were treated for SCC of the anterior tongue and 56 for tongue base lesions. Patients with carcinoma of the anterior tongue tended to present with a visible lump or ulceration of the tongue, whereas the majority of patients with tongue base SCC presented with pain. Sixty per cent of anterior tongue lesions were early stage (I or II) at initial presentation as compared with 21 per cent of tongue base lesions.Patients with anterior tongue lesions had a better

2006 Journal of Laryngology & Otology

4180. Bag-1 expression as a prognostic factor in tongue squamous cell carcinomas. (Abstract)

Bag-1 expression as a prognostic factor in tongue squamous cell carcinomas. To investigate the prognostic significance of the antiapoptotic protein Bag-1. In addition, the relationship between Bag-1 expression, other apoptosis-related and proliferative parameters.Eighty-five randomly selected patients with T1 to T4 oral tongue squamous cell carcinomas (SCC) were studied.Sections from diagnostic, formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded specimens were stained immunohistochemically to detect Bag-1 (...) with the carbohydrate epitopes H-antigen and Le (P =.0004 and P =.0011, respectively). No correlation was found between Bag-1 expression and p53 accumulation, Bax expression, or apoptotic index (AI). However, a combined score of Bcl-2 and Bag-1 expression was inversely associated with AI (P =.046). Patients with tumors expressing high Bag-1 values had a shortened disease-specific survival time when compared with those with low Bag-1 values (P =.0017). A two-parameter combination between Bag-1 expression and Bax

2004 Laryngoscope

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