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Tongue Carcinoma

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4141. Significance of neo-angiogenesis and immuno-surveillance cells in squamous cell carcinoma of the tongue Full Text available with Trip Pro

Significance of neo-angiogenesis and immuno-surveillance cells in squamous cell carcinoma of the tongue Neo-angiogenesis is an essential process in physiological and pathological conditions. However, it is a complex process. Several studies demonstrated that intra-tumoural microvessel number is a significant predictor of metastasis and clinical outcome in many tumours, including oral malignancies. The immuno-surveillance cells, mast cells and eosinophils are implicated in the biological (...) behaviour of tumours. Nevertheless, their function in tissues is uncertain. Mast cells are involved in homeostatic regulation of blood vessels as well as host defence. In some malignancies, high mast cell density has been found to correlate with favourable prognosis. However, others reported unfavourable associations. Tumour associated tissue eosinophilia is a well-known phenomena. It has been associated with good and poor prognosis. However, the role of eosinophils in tumours remains controversial

2007 The Libyan journal of medicine

4142. Management of the node negative early carcinoma tongue Full Text available with Trip Pro

Management of the node negative early carcinoma tongue To determine the role of thickness of the primary lesion in early Squamous Cell Carcinoma (SCC) of the oral tongue for decision-making regarding the management of possible occult cervical node metastases.Tertiary referral centrePatients who were treated by the authors for early (T1, T2) primary lesions in the oral tongue in two malignancy treatment centres of the Armed Forces Medical Services were included in this prospective study. Where (...) the primary lesion was less than 04 mm in depth, the neck was not addressed electively. Those who developed nodal disease in the neck on follow up were subjected to comprehensive neck dissection. In those patients where the tumour thickness was more than 04 mm, the neck was addressed with at least a supra-omohyoid neck dissection. Postoperative radiotherapy was given as per standard indications. The patients were followed up as per standard protocol.Disease free survival rate achieved was 86

2007 Indian Journal of Otolaryngology and Head & Neck Surgery

4143. Expression of C-Myc mRNA in squamous cell carcinoma of the tongue. (Abstract)

Expression of C-Myc mRNA in squamous cell carcinoma of the tongue. The aim of this study was to evaluate clinical significance of C-myc mRNA in patients with tongue cancer.C-myc mRNA expression was studied by RT-PCR in peripheral blood of 25 tongue cancer patients and 24 controls. C-myc protein expression was studied by immunohistochemistry.In tongue cancer patients, pretherapeutic C-myc mRNA expression was significantly higher as compared to controls. In tumor tissues, a trend of low (...) was noted in 72% of the tumors and an inverse correlation was noted between C-myc protein expression and disease stage. In early stage disease, an inverse correlation was noted while in advanced stage disease, a positive correlation was noted.In tongue cancer, downregulation of C-myc mRNA associated with advancement of the disease and worse prognosis.

2007 Journal of Surgical Oncology

4144. Evaluation of caspase-3 and caspase-8 deregulation in tongue squamous cell carcinoma, based on immunohistochemistry and computerised image analysis. (Abstract)

Evaluation of caspase-3 and caspase-8 deregulation in tongue squamous cell carcinoma, based on immunohistochemistry and computerised image analysis. To investigate the potential role of caspase-3 and caspase-8 protein expression in the biological behaviour of tongue squamous cell carcinoma.We conducted immunohistochemical analyses of 87 specimens of primary tongue squamous cell carcinoma, using monoclonal anti-caspase-3 and anti-caspase-8 antibodies. A digital image analysis assay was also (...) deregulation of caspase-8 and -3 is a frequent event in tongue squamous cell carcinoma. Activation of caspase-3, which is predominantly down-regulated, may be a crucial process for induction of apoptosis and response to therapeutic strategies.

2008 Journal of Laryngology & Otology

4145. Mature miR-184 as Potential Oncogenic microRNA of Squamous Cell Carcinoma of Tongue. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Mature miR-184 as Potential Oncogenic microRNA of Squamous Cell Carcinoma of Tongue. The aim of this study was to evaluate the microRNA expression patterns in squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the tongue.Expression levels of 156 human mature microRNAs were examined using real-time quantitative PCR (Taq Man MicroRNA Assays; Human Panel) on laser microdissected cells of 4 tongue carcinomas and paired normal tissues. Expression of mature miR-184 was further validated in 20 paired tongue SCC (...) . Suppressing miR-184 could induce apoptosis in all three cell lines. Plasma miR-184 levels were significantly higher in tongue SCC patients in comparison with normal individuals, and the levels were significantly reduced after surgical removal of the primary tumors.Overexpression of miR-184 might play an oncogenic role in the antiapoptotic and proliferative processes of tongue SCC. In addition, plasma miR-184 levels were associated with the presence of primary tumor. Further studies on the aberrantly

2008 Clinical Cancer Research

4146. Diagnostic value of integrin alpha3, beta4, and beta5 gene expression levels for the clinical outcome of tongue squamous cell carcinoma. (Abstract)

Diagnostic value of integrin alpha3, beta4, and beta5 gene expression levels for the clinical outcome of tongue squamous cell carcinoma. The objective of the current study was to identify biomarkers that reflect the clinical course of squamous cell carcinoma of the tongue (TSCC).TSCC tissue samples from 66 patients were subjected to gene expression analysis by real-time polymerase chain reaction. Eleven integrin family genes and 14 genes used for normalization, including housekeeping genes (...) model. The group with high ITGB4/JUP levels exhibited a significantly high death rate on a Kaplan-Meier curve (P<.0001; Wilcoxon and log-rank tests).The expression levels of ITGA3, ITGB4, and ITGB5 with functional normalization by desmosomal or cytoskeletal molecule genes were selected as candidate biomarkers for cervical LN metastasis or for the outcome of death in TSCC.Copyright (c) 2008 American Cancer Society.

2008 Cancer

4147. Poor prognosis in patients with stage I and II oral tongue squamous cell carcinoma. (Abstract)

Poor prognosis in patients with stage I and II oral tongue squamous cell carcinoma. The objective of this study was to compare survival in patients with squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the oral tongue with that in patients with SCC in other oral cavity subsites.Patients with stage I and II (T1-T2N0M0) SCC of the oral cavity diagnosed between 1988 and 2004 were queried by using the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database. The log-rank test was used to compare the overall (...) survival (OS) and cause-specific survival (CSS) of patients who had oral tongue SCC with those of patients who had SCC of other oral cavity subsites. A Cox proportional hazards multivariate analysis was performed to evaluate the influence of covariates on the risk of CSS and OS.Between 1988 and 2004, 6791 patients with stage I and II SCC of the oral cavity were identified. Among them, 40% had oral tongue SCC, and 60% had SCC of other oral cavity subsites. The median patient age was 64 years. The 5-year

2007 Cancer

4148. Predictive markers for late cervical metastasis in stage I and II invasive squamous cell carcinoma of the oral tongue. (Abstract)

cell carcinoma of the oral tongue.We investigated clinicopathologic factors and immunohistochemical biomarkers predicting late cervical metastasis in surgical specimens from 56 patients with T(1-2)N(0)M(0) invasive squamous cell carcinoma of the oral tongue who did not undergo elective neck dissection. Histopathologic factors including tumor thickness, mode of invasion, Broders grade, total score of three different malignancy grading systems, eight other clinicopathologic parameters (...) -cadherin expression (P = 0.003) were correlated with late cervical metastasis. Multivariate analysis on late cervical metastasis revealed that tumor thickness >4 mm, mode of invasion grade 3 or 4, and E-cadherin expression were independent factors. Late cervical metastasis was the only prognostic factor for overall survival (P = 0.002).Our results indicate that patients with stage I and II invasive squamous cell carcinoma of the oral tongue with tumor thickness >4 mm, mode of invasion grade 3 or 4

2004 Clinical Cancer Research

4149. Simultaneous expression of furin and vascular endothelial growth factor in human oral tongue squamous cell carcinoma progression. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Simultaneous expression of furin and vascular endothelial growth factor in human oral tongue squamous cell carcinoma progression. Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the tongue is a common malignancy of the oral cavity. Furin convertase activates several precursor matrix metalloproteinases involved in the degradation of the extracellular matrix. The pattern of expression of furin and vascular endothelial growth factor-C (VEGF-C), two key molecules in neoplasm development, was examined during (...) the least furin expression, did not. SCC15, of intermediate aggressiveness and furin expression, showed intermediate pro-VEGF-C processing.These findings suggest that furin is a useful marker of tumor progression and is responsible for VEGF-C processing. This in turn would enhance angiogenesis, leading to increased MVD associated with preinvasive and invasive neoplasia.

2004 Clinical Cancer Research

4150. p14ARF protein expression is a predictor of both relapse and survival in squamous cell carcinoma of the anterior tongue. Full Text available with Trip Pro

in >/=30% of tumor cells) was an independent predictor of improved disease-free survival (DFS; P = 0.002) and overall survival (OS; P = 0.002). This was further enhanced when p14(ARF) positivity was cosegregated with positive (>/=1%) p16(INK4A) staining (DFS, P < 0.001; OS, P < 0.001). Patients whose cancers were p14(ARF) negative and p53 positive (>50%) had the poorest outcome (DFS, P < 0.001; OS, P < 0.001) of any patient subgroup analyzed.These data show that in patients with SCC of the tongue (...) p14ARF protein expression is a predictor of both relapse and survival in squamous cell carcinoma of the anterior tongue. The INK4A-ARF locus at chromosome 9p21 is frequently altered in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and encodes two distinct tumor suppressors, p16(INK4A) and p14(ARF). This study addressed the role of p14(ARF) as a potential prognostic marker in this disease.p14(ARF) protein expression was assessed by immunohistochemistry in a cohort of 140 patients with SCC

2005 Clinical Cancer Research

4151. Hyalinizing clear cell carcinoma of the base of tongue. (Abstract)

Hyalinizing clear cell carcinoma of the base of tongue. Hyalinizing clear cell carcinoma is a rare, low-grade neoplasm of the minor salivary glands. It is composed exclusively of epithelial cells with optically clear cytoplasm. There are only a few isolated cases reported in the literature involving the base of tongue. The treatment of choice is wide excision and selective neck dissection, with or without radiotherapy. The prognosis of these tumours is good. A 57-year-old male patient presented (...) with a lesion in the base of tongue, which was well enhanced on contrast computerized tomography scan. Once confirmed by biopsy, the hyalinizing clear cell carcinoma was resected via a transcervical approach. The patient underwent postoperative radiotherapy. There was no evidence of locoregional recurrence or distant metastasis at 18 months of follow up.

2007 International Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery

4152. Epithelial-myoepithelial carcinoma in the base of the tongue: a case report. (Abstract)

Epithelial-myoepithelial carcinoma in the base of the tongue: a case report. To report a rare case of epithelial-myoepithelial carcinoma (EMC) of a minor salivary gland originating in the base of the tongue, which is a highly unusual location.This is a case report and a review of literature.A 76-year-old man was referred to our outpatient clinic with a 6-month history of a sensation of a foreign body in the pharynx. Endoscopic examination revealed a tumorous lesion 40 x 20 mm in the base (...) of the tongue on the left side. A biopsy was performed, and the lesion was histologically identified as squamous cell carcinoma.The patient underwent subtotal glossectomy, bilateral neck dissection, and reconstruction with a microvascularized rectus abdominis myocutaneous flap. The final diagnosis based on the histological and immunohistochemical findings was EMC. Because neither histological evidence of residual tumor in the surgical margin nor neck metastases were found, radiotherapy was not performed

2006 American Journal of Otolaryngology

4153. Tongue base metastasis from neuroendocrine endometrial small cell carcinoma. (Abstract)

Tongue base metastasis from neuroendocrine endometrial small cell carcinoma. The endometrial small cell carcinoma (ESCC) is a rare and aggressive malignancy with an estimated prevalence of less than 1% of endometrial carcinomas. Endometrial small cell carcinoma is frequently diagnosed at an advanced stage and has a poor prognosis. Although the most common presenting sign of ESCC is definitely a peri- or postmenopausal vaginal bleeding, we report for the first time the occurrence of tongue base (...) bleeding as first manifestation of disseminated neuroendocrine ESCC. From a clinical viewpoint, tongue metastasis from primary endometrial carcinoma is a manifestation of widespread disease. Albeit, our patient underwent complete hysterectomy and postoperative chemotherapy, she died of disseminated disease 3 months after ESCC diagnosis.

2007 American Journal of Otolaryngology

4154. Can Ki-67 predict recurrence of NO squamous cell carcinoma of the tongue? (Abstract)

Can Ki-67 predict recurrence of NO squamous cell carcinoma of the tongue? Ki-67 is a molecular marker of cellular proliferation that predicts prognosis of some head and neck tumors. Studies of Ki-67 in oropharyngeal cancer have yielded conflicting findings. This study was designed to test Ki-67 as a marker for poor prognosis in N0 tongue squamous cell carcinoma.We examined 29 cases in a retrospective cohort to test the hypothesis that a high rate of tumor cell proliferation (high levels of Ki (...) -67 staining) at the invasive edge of N0 squamous cell carcinoma of the tongue correlates with increased risk of recurrence.There were 14 cases of recurrence. The average age of the patients with recurrence was 58 years. The average time to recurrence was 13.1 months. A 0% to 33% uptake of Ki-67 at the tumor's leading edge was associated with a 6-times-greater risk of recurrence. The mean length of survival for the group with 0% to 33% uptake was 21 months; for the group with > 33% uptake

2006 Rhinology and Laryngology

4155. Treatment of squamous cell carcinoma of the tongue base: irradiation, surgery, or palliation? (Abstract)

with those who were untreated (T3-4; p = .0081; odds ratio, 2.2). In addition, those with early (T1-2) disease had a better survival rate than those with advanced cancers (p = .0139; odds ratio, 2.09). There was, however, no difference in survival rate at 5 years. Those with early disease compared with those with advanced disease were twice as likely to be alive at 2 years; however, all survival advantages had disappeared by 5 years.In terms of observed survival, treating tongue base squamous cell (...) Treatment of squamous cell carcinoma of the tongue base: irradiation, surgery, or palliation? Squamous cell carcinoma of the tongue base has a poor prognosis, and treatment is accompanied by a number of major problems. In view of this, it is important to recognize which patients will benefit from treatment with curative intent and which treatment method to use.One hundred sixty-five patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the tongue base were identified on our database. Eighty-two patients

2007 Rhinology and Laryngology

4156. Selective vs modified radical neck dissection and postoperative radiotherapy vs observation in the treatment of squamous cell carcinoma of the oral tongue. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Selective vs modified radical neck dissection and postoperative radiotherapy vs observation in the treatment of squamous cell carcinoma of the oral tongue. To assess the role of selective neck dissection in patients with squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the oral tongue with advanced nodal disease, and to assess the role of postoperative radiotherapy in patients with SCC of the oral tongue with pathologically N1 necks.Retrospective study of the medical records of all patients who underwent neck (...) dissection for SCC of the oral tongue from January 1, 1980, to December 31, 1995. Median follow-up was 5.7 years.The University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, a tertiary care cancer hospital.A total of 220 patients with SCC of the oral tongue who received surgical treatment of both the primary tumor and the neck and who had an identifiable type of neck dissection, no synchronous or metachronous lesions, and no evidence of local recurrence.All patients underwent resection of the primary

2005 Archives of Otolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery

4157. The status of the deep surgical margins in tongue and floor of mouth squamous cell carcinoma and risk of local recurrence; an analysis of 68 patients. (Abstract)

The status of the deep surgical margins in tongue and floor of mouth squamous cell carcinoma and risk of local recurrence; an analysis of 68 patients. The objective of this study is to retrospectively assess the clinical relevance, i.c. the event of a local recurrence, in patients surgically treated for tongue and floor of mouth squamous cell carcinoma when tumour cell are observed histopathologically at a distance of less than 0.5 cm. Furthermore, the pattern of invasion and the presence (...) or absence of perineural spread were recorded. A total of 68 patients, surgically treated because of a tongue or floor of mouth squamous cell carcinoma, were examined. Patients in whom any degree of epithelial dysplasia was observed in the mucosal surgical margins had been excluded beforehand. Local recurrence occurred in 2 out of 30 patients with a free surgical margins >0.5 cm and in 3 out of 38 patients with a free surgical margin <0.5 cm, the difference being not statistically significant. Apparently

2004 International Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery

4158. A patient with untreated tongue carcinoma surviving for 15 years. (Abstract)

A patient with untreated tongue carcinoma surviving for 15 years. A rare case of untreated tongue carcinoma survived for 15 years is presented. A 43-year-old Japanese woman was referred to our department with a 1.8 cm x 1.0 cm white and red non-indurated lesion of the left border of the tongue. The histological examination showed a diagnosis of well-differentiated squamous cell carcinoma. We informed the patient and her family that she had a Stage I tongue carcinoma and needed to receive

2005 International Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery

4159. A comparison of brachytherapy and surgery for the treatment of stage I-II squamous cell carcinoma of the tongue. (Abstract)

A comparison of brachytherapy and surgery for the treatment of stage I-II squamous cell carcinoma of the tongue. The treatment method for early stage tongue cancer is still controversial in Japan. The aim of this study is to compare the prognosis for patients with early tongue cancer treated with brachytherapy and surgery. A retrospective study was conducted to compare the efficacy of low-dose-rate brachytherapy (LDR), high-dose-rate brachytherapy (HDR), and surgery for early tongue cancer (...) . A total of 180 patients with stage I-II tongue cancer were divided into three treatment groups: LDR (78), HDR (26), and surgery (71). Local recurrence was seen in thirteen patients (17%) of the LDR, nine (35%) of the HDR, and four (6%) of the surgery group. After salvage therapy, final local cure was obtained for 71 patients (91%) of the LDR, 22 (85%) of the HDR, and 71 (100%) of the surgery group. Neck failure was recorded for eight patients in the LDR, six in the HDR, and three in the surgery group

2005 International Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery

4160. Correlation between reduction of syndecan-1 expression and clinico-pathological parameters in squamous cell carcinoma of tongue. (Abstract)

Correlation between reduction of syndecan-1 expression and clinico-pathological parameters in squamous cell carcinoma of tongue. We examined expression of syndecan-1 in squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of tongue using immunohistochemistry. Forty-three cases of SCC arising in lateral border of tongue were investigated. From the immunohistochemical staining pattern, the cases were divided into two groups based on expression of syndecan-1 at the supra-peripheral cells of the tumor nest: Group (...) correlates to histological grade, tumor size and mode of invasion in tongue SCC.

2006 International Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery

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