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Thyroxine-Binding Globulin

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121. Thyroxine Turnover and Transport in Laennec's Cirrhosis of the Liver Full Text available with Trip Pro

Thyroxine Turnover and Transport in Laennec's Cirrhosis of the Liver Studies of the metabolism of thyroxine in 14 cases of cirrhosis revealed a variety of deviations from normal. In addition to radiothyroxine turnover studies, determinations were made of the free thyroxine fractions and free thyroxine iodine concentrations in serum (magnesium precipitation method) as well as the maximal binding capacities of thyroxine-binding alpha globulin (TBG) and thyroxine-binding prealbumin (TBPA

1967 Journal of Clinical Investigation

122. Total and Free Triiodothyronine in Human Serum Full Text available with Trip Pro

%, respectively. Calculated values for AFT3 were: 1.51 +/- 0.4 mmug per 100 ml, 5.00 +/- 0.6 mmug per 100 ml and 0.24 +/- 0.1 mmug per 100 ml, respectively. Dilution of serum before dialysis lowered estimated DFT3 values. Enrichment of serum with labeled T3 in the range examined did not affect DFT3. However, DFT3 was increased by addition of Merthiolate to serum in concentration 1: 10,000 due to displacement of T3 from thyroxine-binding globulin to albumin. The data suggest that triiodothyronine may play

1967 Journal of Clinical Investigation

123. Effect of thyroid-suppressive doses of triiodothyronine on thyroxine turnover and on the free thyroxine fraction Full Text available with Trip Pro

Effect of thyroid-suppressive doses of triiodothyronine on thyroxine turnover and on the free thyroxine fraction The relationship between free thyroxine concentration and thyroxine turnover was studied during thyroid suppression with triiodothyronine. Although there was some increase in the proportion of serum thyroxine bound to thyroxine-binding globulin, the ratio of ultrafilterable to protein-bound hormone was not significantly affected. The fractional disappearance rate of thyroxine

1968 Journal of Clinical Investigation

124. CHARACTERIZATION OF THE LONG-ACTING THYROID STIMULATOR OF GRAVES' DISEASE Full Text available with Trip Pro

-Globulins 9002-71-5 Thyrotropin 9034-48-4 Long-Acting Thyroid Stimulator OM Biological Assay Chromatography Electrophoresis Goiter Graves Disease Humans Long-Acting Thyroid Stimulator Peptides Thyrotropin Thyroxine-Binding Proteins gamma-Globulins BIOLOGICAL ASSAY CHROMATOGRAPHY ELECTROPHORESIS GAMMA GLOBULIN GOITER, EXOPHTHALMIC PEPTIDES THYROTROPIN THYROXINE-BINDING PROTEIN 1964 8 1 1964 8 1 0 1 1964 8 1 0 0 ppublish 14206601 PMC300282 J Exp Med. 1964 May 1;119:789-815 14157031 Arch Biochem Biophys (...) CHARACTERIZATION OF THE LONG-ACTING THYROID STIMULATOR OF GRAVES' DISEASE 14206601 1996 12 01 2018 12 01 0027-8424 52 1964 Aug Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. CHARACTERIZATION OF THE LONG-ACTING THYROID STIMULATOR OF GRAVES' DISEASE. 342-9 MEEK J C JC JONES A E AE LEWIS U J UJ VANDERLAAN W P WP eng Journal Article United States Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 7505876 0027-8424 0 Peptides 0 Thyroxine-Binding Proteins 0 gamma

1964 Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America

125. Euthyroid Sick Syndrome

reverse T 3 (rT 3 ) is increased. Patients are clinically euthyroid and do not have elevated thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) levels. Pathogenesis is unknown but may include decreased peripheral conversion of T 4 to T 3 , decreased clearance of rT 3 generated from T 4 , and decreased binding of thyroid hormones to thyroxine-binding globulin (TBG). Proinflammatory cytokines (eg, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, IL-1) may be responsible for some changes. Interpretation of abnormal thyroid function test

2013 Merck Manual (19th Edition)

126. Hypothyroidism

. Anemia is rarely severe (Hb usually > 9 g/dL). As the hypometabolic state is corrected, anemia subsides, sometimes requiring 6 to 9 mo. Serum cholesterol is usually high in primary hypothyroidism but less so in secondary hypothyroidism. In addition to primary and secondary hypothyroidism, other conditions may cause decreased levels of total T 4 , such as , , serum thyroxine-binding globulin (TBG) deficiency, and some drugs (see ). Screening is warranted in select populations (eg, the elderly

2013 Merck Manual (19th Edition)

127. Overview of Thyroid Function

+ diiodotyrosine → T 4 ; diiodotyrosine + monoiodotyrosine → T 3 ). Synthesis of thyroid hormones. T 3 and T 4 remain incorporated in thyroglobulin within the follicle until the follicular cells take up thyroglobulin as colloid droplets. Once inside the thyroid follicular cells, T 3 and T 4 are cleaved from thyroglobulin. Free T 3 and T 4 are then released into the bloodstream, where they are bound to serum proteins for transport. The primary transport protein is thyroxine-binding globulin (TBG), which has (...) by the same direct and indirect methods (free T 3 index) described for T 4 and are used mainly for evaluating thyrotoxicosis. Thyroxine-binding globulin TBG can be measured. It is increased in pregnancy, by estrogen therapy or oral contraceptive use, and in the acute phase of infectious hepatitis. TBG may also be increased by an X-linked abnormality. It is most commonly decreased by illnesses that reduce hepatic protein synthesis, use of anabolic steroids, and excessive corticosteroid use. Large doses

2013 Merck Manual (19th Edition)

128. Hypothyroidism in Infants and Children

the trial poses no danger to the developing CNS. If the TSH rises once therapy is stopped (typically allowing about 6 wk off treatment) and the free T4 or T4 is low, permanent congenital hypothyroidism is confirmed and treatment should be restarted. Thyroxine-binding globulin deficiency, detected by screening that relies primarily on total serum T4 measurement, does not require treatment because affected infants have normal free T4 and TSH levels and are thus euthyroid. Older children who have only (...) ). These tests are also done in older children and adolescents in whom hypothyroidism is suspected. Free T4 is a better measure of thyroid function than total T4 in these patients because the levels of thyroid-binding proteins (thyroid-binding globulin, transthyretin, and albumin) affect total T4 levels. Measurement of triiodothyronine (T3) levels is rarely helpful in the diagnosis of hypothyroidism because it is the last test to show abnormal results and should not be done in most patients. Reverse T3

2013 Merck Manual (19th Edition)

129. Oral Contraceptives

doses are used. The estrogen in OCs increases triglyceride levels and can exacerbate preexisting hypertriglyceridemia. Most alterations in serum levels of other metabolites are not clinically significant. Thyroxine-binding globulin capacity may increase in OC users; however, free thyroxine levels, thyroid-stimulating hormone levels, and thyroid function are not affected. Levels of pyridoxine, folate, B complex vitamins, ascorbic acid, calcium, manganese, and zinc decrease in OC users; vitamin

2013 Merck Manual (19th Edition)

130. Effects of a monophasic combined oral contraceptive containing nomegestrol acetate and 17β-oestradiol in comparison to one containing levonorgestrel and ethinylestradiol on markers of endocrine function. Full Text available with Trip Pro

trial involving 121 healthy women, aged 18-50 years old. Participants received NOMAC/E2 (2.5 mg/1.5 mg) in a 24/4-day regimen (n=60) or LNG/EE (150 μg/30 μg) in a 21/7-day regimen (n=61) for six cycles. The primary outcome was the change from baseline to cycle 6 in markers of adrenal and thyroid function, androgens, and SHBG.Total cortisol, corticosteroid-binding globulin (CBG), and thyroxine-binding globulin (TBG) increased from baseline in both groups, with significantly greater increases (...) Effects of a monophasic combined oral contraceptive containing nomegestrol acetate and 17β-oestradiol in comparison to one containing levonorgestrel and ethinylestradiol on markers of endocrine function. To compare the effects of two monophasic combined oral contraceptives, containing either nomegestrol acetate/17β-oestradiol (NOMAC/E2) or levonorgestrel/ ethinylestradiol (LNG/EE) on endocrine function, androgens, and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG).Randomised, open-label, multi-centre

2011 The European journal of contraception & reproductive health care : the official journal of the European Society of Contraception Controlled trial quality: uncertain

131. Histone variant macroH2A1 deletion in mice causes female-specific steatosis Full Text available with Trip Pro

specifically in homozygous mutant females. The metabolic disorder constantly affected half of the number of homozygote females. Given the mixed genetic background of the mutants, an unreported genetic modifier is likely to influence the penetrance of the phenotype. In addition, the X-linked thyroxine-binding globulin (Tbg) gene was specifically upregulated in steatotic livers. Chromatin immunoprecitation indicated that macroH2A1 is enriched at the Tbg promoter in wild-type female animals, indicating

2010 Epigenetics & chromatin

132. Parameters of Thyroid Function Throughout and After Pregnancy in an Iodine-Deficient Population. Full Text available with Trip Pro

function throughout pregnancy, and until 1 year after delivery, in a population of pregnant women whom we have previously reported to be iodine deficient (median urinary iodine levels below 75 microg/L).One hundred eighteen pregnant women were studied. Clinical data were recorded and serum was collected. Serum total and free thyroxine (T(4)) and triiodothyronine (T(3)), thyroid-stimulating hormone, thyroxine-binding globulin, and thyroglobulin were measured.Mean total T(4) ranged from 159 at the start (...) of gestation to 127 nmol/L at 1 year after delivery, free T(4) from 14.2 to 17.8 pmol/L, total T(3) from 2.4 to 2.1 nmol/L, free T(3) from 6.7 pmol/L to 6.4 pmol/L, thyroid-stimulating hormone from 1.2 to 1.4 mIU/L, T(4)-binding globulin from 62.0 to 26.9 mg/L, and thyroglobulin from 11 to 10 microg/L.The pregnant women in this study had an absence of the usual free T(4) spike and a smaller than expected increment in total T(4), described during pregnancy in iodine-sufficient populations. A greater number

2010 Thyroid

133. Inverse Log-Linear Relationship between Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone and Free Thyroxine Measured by Direct Analog Immunoassay and Tandem Mass Spectrometry. Full Text available with Trip Pro

between TSH and FT(4) was significantly better (P < 0.0001) for MS-FT(4) (0.84, 95% CI, 0.77-0.88) than for IA-FT(4) (0.45, 95% CI, 0.29-0.59). IA-FT(4) showed a significant correlation with albumin (Spearman correlation coefficient 0.45, 95% CI, 0.29-0.5, P < 0.0001) and thyroxine-binding globulin (TBG) (Spearman correlation coefficient 0.23, 95% CI, 0.05-0.41, P = 0.02). In contrast, FT(4) measurement by LC-MS/MS did not show a significant correlation with albumin or TBG.The inverse log-linear

2010 Clinical Chemistry

134. Safety and Tolerability Study to Evaluate Lower Dose of GSK2248761 in Antiretroviral Treatment-Naive HIV-1 Infected Adults.

available scheduled assessment prior to time of the first dose unless it is specified otherwise. Change From Baseline in Clinical Chemistry Paramaters- Thyroxine Total, Thyroxine Binding Globulin, Total T3. [ Time Frame: Baseline (pre-dose at Day -1 or Day 1) and Day 2, 4 , 7 , Day 8 and Follow-up (Day 14) ] The data for clinical chemistry parameters Thyroxine total, thyroxine binding globulin, Total T3 the change from baseline was reported. The change from baseline was calculated by subtracting

2009 Clinical Trials

135. Niacin and Niacinamide (Vitamin B3)

. . O'Brien T, Silverberg JD, Nguyen TT. Nicotinic acid-induced toxicity associated with cytopenia and decreased levels of thyroxine-binding globulin. Mayo Clin Proc. 1992;67:465-8. . Dearing BD, Lavie CJ, Lohmann TP, Genton E. Niacin-induced clotting factor synthesis deficiency with coagulopathy. Arch Intern Med. 1992;152:861-3. . Sampathkumar K, Selvam M, Sooraj YS, Gowthaman S, Ajeshkumar RN. Extended release nicotinic acid - a novel oral agent for phosphate control. Int Urol Nephrol. 2006;38:171-4

2009 National Centre for Complementary and Alternative Medicine

136. thyroid hormone function

. The thyroid gland produces predominantly T4 with a small amount of T3. About 85% of circulating T3 is the result of monodeiodination of T4 in the tissues, especially the liver, muscle and kidney. T3 is about five times more active than T4. The majority of T3 and T4 is carried in the plasma bound to thyroxine binding globulin, TBG, thyroxine binding pre-albumin, TBPA, and albumin. However, unbound T3 and T4 are the active forms and gain entry into the cell by an ATP dependent process. Production of T3

2010 GP Notebook

137. If I wished to test a patient's Thyroid Function tests (TSH/T4) would the results be significantly affected by any inter-current acute illness? Should the test be postponed until the patient is fully

thyroxine-binding globulin (TBG) concentration was significantly increased (p less than 0.001) during acute illness and accounted for the reversible of serum and the increased serum T4 concentrations. The rise in serum TBG correlated with the rise in AsAT during the acute illness (p less than 0.04) suggesting nonspecific release of these proteins from injured hepatocytes. The mean free triiodothyronine (T3) index was decreased during acute hepatitis (p less than 0.001) and returned to normal after

2007 TRIP Answers

138. What affects do pregnancy hormones have on TSH and are these still likely to be marked at the 6 week postnatal check?

Medicine [4] reports (in the discussion): “Pregnancy affects almost all aspects of thyroid hormone metabolism. Oestrogen stimulated increase in serum thyroxine binding globulin leads to a twofold rise in serum total thyroxine and triiodothyronine levels. Chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG) stimulates thyroxine and triiodothyronine production from the thyroid gland leading to a slight rise in free thyroxine and free triiodothyronine levels with a reciprocal decrease in serum TSH concentration. These values

2006 TRIP Answers

139. Fasting Study of Levothyroxine Sodium Tablets 300 μg to Synthroid® Tablets 300 μg

, 1983 (See Part II Administrative Aspects of Bioequivalence Protocols). All subjects should be judged normal (euthyroid) and healthy during a prestudy medical evaluation (physical examination, laboratory evaluation, blood chemistry, serum T4 (free and total), serum T3 (total only), serum thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), serum thyroxine-binding globulin (TBG), hepatitis B and hepatitis C tests, HIV test, 12-lead ECG, and urine drug screen including amphetamine, barbiturates, benzodiazepine

2008 Clinical Trials

140. Fasting Study of Levothyroxine Sodium Tablets 200 mg to Synthroid Tablets 200 mg

, 1983 (See Part II Administrative Aspects of Bioequivalence Protocols). All subjects should be judged normal (euthyroid) and healthy during a prestudy medical evaluation (physical examination, laboratory evaluation, blood chemistry, serum T4 (free and total), serum T3 (total only), serum thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), serum thyroxine-binding globulin (TBG), hepatitis B and hepatitis C tests, HIV test, 12-lead ECG, and urine drug screen including amphetamine, barbiturates, benzodiazepine

2008 Clinical Trials

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