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Thyroxine

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1. Liquid L-thyroxine versus tablet L-thyroxine in patients on L- thyroxine replacement or suppressive therapy: a meta-analysis.

Liquid L-thyroxine versus tablet L-thyroxine in patients on L- thyroxine replacement or suppressive therapy: a meta-analysis. To compare the effectiveness of liquid L-T4 (L-thyroxine) and tablet L-T4 in patients on L-T4 replacement or suppressive therapy.The Cochrane Library, PubMed, Embase, and Web of Science databases were searched to identify relevant articles. All prospective or randomized controlled studies (RCTs) comparing liquid L-T4 and tablet L-T4 in patients on L-T4 replacement

2018 Endocrine

2. Diagnostic Values of Free Triiodothyronine and Free Thyroxine and the Ratio of Free Triiodothyronine to Free Thyroxine in Thyrotoxicosis (PubMed)

Diagnostic Values of Free Triiodothyronine and Free Thyroxine and the Ratio of Free Triiodothyronine to Free Thyroxine in Thyrotoxicosis The results of previous studies on the usefulness of free triiodothyronine (FT3) to free thyroxine (FT4) are controversial. We investigated the usefulness of FT3, FT4, and FT3/FT4 ratio in differentiating Graves' disease (GD) from destructive thyroiditis.A total of 126 patients with untreated GD, 36 with painless thyroiditis, 18 with painful subacute

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2018 International journal of endocrinology

3. Recovery following Thyroxine Treatment Withdrawal, but Not Propylthiouracil, Averts In Vivo and Ex Vivo Thyroxine-Provoked Cardiac Complications in Adult FVB/N Mice (PubMed)

Recovery following Thyroxine Treatment Withdrawal, but Not Propylthiouracil, Averts In Vivo and Ex Vivo Thyroxine-Provoked Cardiac Complications in Adult FVB/N Mice Persistent cardiovascular pathology has been described in hyperthyroid patients even with effective antithyroid treatment. Here, we studied the effect of a well-known antithyroid drug, propylthiouracil (PTU; 20 mg/kg/day), on thyroxine (T4; 500 µg/kg/day)-induced increase in blood pressure (BP), cardiac hypertrophy, and altered

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2017 BioMed research international

4. Expected total thyroxine (TT4) concentrations and outlier values in 531,765 cats in the United States (2014-2015). (PubMed)

Expected total thyroxine (TT4) concentrations and outlier values in 531,765 cats in the United States (2014-2015). Levels exceeding the standard reference interval (RI) for total thyroxine (TT4) concentrations are diagnostic for hyperthyroidism, however some hyperthyroid cats have TT4 values within the RI. Determining outlier TT4 concentrations should aid practitioners in identification of hyperthyroidism. The objective of this study was to determine the expected distribution of TT4

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2019 PLoS ONE

5. Oral L‐thyroxine liquid versus tablet in patients submitted to total thyroidectomy for thyroid cancer (without malabsorption): A prospective study (PubMed)

Oral L‐thyroxine liquid versus tablet in patients submitted to total thyroidectomy for thyroid cancer (without malabsorption): A prospective study No consistent data are present in literature about the effectiveness of Levothyroxine (L-T4) liquid formulation in patients without malabsorption after thyroidectomy. The aim of this study is to compare the effectiveness of L-T4 liquid formulation, with L-T4 tablets, in thyroid cancer patients after thyroidectomy (without malabsorption or drug (...) interference).One hundred five patients were recruited; 52 patients were treated with liquid L-T4 formulation, while 53 with L-T4 tablets, at the same dosage (1.5 mcg/kg/day). Patients started to assume the drug the day after surgery, 30 min before breakfast. In both groups circulating levels of thyrotropic hormone (TSH), free thyroxine (FT4), and free triiodothyronine (FT3) were dosed at week 6 (first control), and then at week 12 (second control).We obtained significantly lower TSH values in the liquid L

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2018 Laryngoscope investigative otolaryngology

6. Thyroxine (T4) may promote re-epithelialisation and angiogenesis in wounded human skin ex vivo. (PubMed)

Thyroxine (T4) may promote re-epithelialisation and angiogenesis in wounded human skin ex vivo. There is a pressing need for improved preclinical model systems in which to study human skin wound healing. Here, we report the development and application of a serum-free full thickness human skin wound healing model. Not only can re-epithelialization (epidermal repair) and angiogenesis be studied in this simple and instructive model, but the model can also be used to identify clinically relevant (...) wound-healing promoting agents, and to dissect underlying candidate mechanisms of action in the target tissue. We present preliminary ex vivo data to suggest that Thyroxine (T4), which reportedly promotes skin wound healing in rodents in vivo, may promote key features of human skin wound healing. Namely, T4 stimulates re-epithelialisation and angiogenesis, and modulates both wound healing-associated epidermal keratin expression and energy metabolism in experimentally wound human skin. Functionally

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2019 PLoS ONE

7. Oral thyroxin supplementation in infants undergoing cardiac surgery: A double-blind placebo-controlled randomized clinical trial

Oral thyroxin supplementation in infants undergoing cardiac surgery: A double-blind placebo-controlled randomized clinical trial Decreases in serum total thyroxin and total triiodothyronine occurs after cardiopulmonary bypass, and is reflected as poor immediate outcome. We studied effects of oral thyroxin supplementation in infants who underwent open-heart surgery.In this prospective study, 100 patients were randomized into 2 groups: 50 in the thyroxin group (TH) and 50 in the placebo group (PL (...) ). Patients in the TH group received oral thyroxin (5 μg/kg) 12 hours before surgery and once daily for the remainder of their intensive care unit (ICU) stay. Data on intraoperative and postoperative variables were recorded. Cardiac index (CI) was measured. Perioperative serum thyroid hormone levels and serum interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor-α were measured. Secondary analysis was performed by dividing patients into simple and complex subcategories.Results of the primary analysis indicated a higher

2018 EvidenceUpdates

8. Thyroid function reference values in healthy iodine-sufficient pregnant women and influence of thyroid nodules on thyroid-stimulating hormone and free thyroxine values. (PubMed)

Thyroid function reference values in healthy iodine-sufficient pregnant women and influence of thyroid nodules on thyroid-stimulating hormone and free thyroxine values. Thyroid function assessment in pregnancy requires specific reference intervals stratified by gestational age and according to each laboratory method. Thyroid nodules may influence thyroid function in pregnant women. The aims of this study were to define the reference values of thyrotropin (TSH) and free thyroxine (fT4

2019 Thyroid

9. A randomized trial comparing triiodothyronine (T3) with thyroxine (T4) for hemodynamically unstable brain-dead organ donors. (PubMed)

A randomized trial comparing triiodothyronine (T3) with thyroxine (T4) for hemodynamically unstable brain-dead organ donors. Brain-dead (BD) organ donors frequently exhibit hemodynamic instability and/or reversible cardiac dysfunction. Retrospective studies have suggested that thyroid hormone may stabilize hemodynamics and enhance myocardial recovery. Intravenous levothyroxine (T4) is most frequently utilized but studies have suggested that triiodothyronine (T3) may be superior. We performed

2019 Clinical transplantation

10. Prenatal thyroxine treatment promotes anxiolysis in male Swiss mice offspring. (PubMed)

Prenatal thyroxine treatment promotes anxiolysis in male Swiss mice offspring. The proper functioning of the maternal thyroid plays a crucial role in fetal development. Thus, the aim of our study was to verify how maternal hyperthyroidism is able to change behavioral parameters in mice offspring during adulthood. For this purpose, pregnant Swiss mice (n = 24 and ~35 g) were randomly assigned into two groups: a control and a thyroxine (T4)-treatment group. The control was treated with 0.9

2019 Hormones and behavior

11. Comparison of Incident Cardiovascular Event Rates Between Generic and Brand l-Thyroxine for the Treatment of Hypothyroidism. (PubMed)

Comparison of Incident Cardiovascular Event Rates Between Generic and Brand l-Thyroxine for the Treatment of Hypothyroidism. To determine whether levothyroxine (L-T4) preparation (generic vs brand) affected hospitalization for cardiovascular events.We performed a retrospective analysis using a large administrative claims database, OptumLabs Data Warehouse, creating two 1-to-1 propensity score-matched cohorts initiating generic or brand L-T4. Patients were followed for a mean of 1.0±1.2 years

2019 Mayo Clinic Proceedings

12. EMPATHY: A new tool for identifying the most suitable thyroxine formulation in hypothyroid patients. (PubMed)

EMPATHY: A new tool for identifying the most suitable thyroxine formulation in hypothyroid patients. Therapy of hypothyroidism is based on the administration of appropriate doses of L-thyroxine (L-T4). A failure to achieve the TSH target may be due to poor compliance with the L-T4 therapy in about 60% of cases or to malabsorption in about 40% of cases. No tools are available for detecting malabsorption disorders before the choice of the most appropriate therapy. The aim of this study (...) , Group 2). The choice of thyroxine formulation and dose for each group was made on the basis of the questionnaire answers or of the history. Thyroid hormones and TSH were evaluated at enrollment and every two months for six months; the number of the dose adjustments in the six months for each patient was recorded.Twenty-one of 150 (14%) patients in Group 1 and 42 of 150 in Group 2 (28%, p = 0.005) needed more than two dose adjustments within six months. After six months of replacement therapy, 6

2019 Thyroid

13. A genome-wide association study of thyroid stimulating hormone and free thyroxine in Danish children and adolescents. (PubMed)

A genome-wide association study of thyroid stimulating hormone and free thyroxine in Danish children and adolescents. Hypothyroidism is associated with obesity, and thyroid hormones are involved in the regulation of body composition, including fat mass. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) in adults have identified 19 and 6 loci associated with plasma concentrations of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) and free thyroxine (fT4), respectively.This study aimed to identify and characterize

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2017 PLoS ONE

14. The effect of L-thyroxine substitution on oxidative stress in early-stage diabetic nephropathy patients with subclinical hypothyroidism: a randomized double-blind and placebo-controlled study. (PubMed)

The effect of L-thyroxine substitution on oxidative stress in early-stage diabetic nephropathy patients with subclinical hypothyroidism: a randomized double-blind and placebo-controlled study. To study oxidative stress status of early type 2 diabetic nephropathy (DN) patients with subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH) and to assess effect of L-thyroxine therapy on the oxidative stress in these patients.It is a randomized double-blind and placebo-controlled trial. A total of 48 patients with early (...) type 2 DN were included as Euthyroid group, and 92 early type 2 DN with SCH were selected and randomly assigned to L-thyroxine treatment group (LT4 group) and placebo group (SCH group). Changes in urinary albumin excretion rate (UAER), serum malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, urine 8-hydroxyl deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), serum creatinine, estimated glomerular filtration rate, and lipid profile before and after 24 weeks of follow-up were examined and compared.The levels of UAER

2018 International urology and nephrology

15. Tablet and oral liquid L-thyroxine formulation in the treatment of naïve hypothyroid patients with Helicobacter pylori infection. (PubMed)

Tablet and oral liquid L-thyroxine formulation in the treatment of naïve hypothyroid patients with Helicobacter pylori infection. To compare the clinical efficacy of tablet and oral liquid L-thyroxine (LT4) formulation in naïve hypothyroid subjects with Helicobacter pylori infection. Forty-seven adult naïve hypothyroid subjects with dyspeptic symptoms were investigated with upper endoscopy and divided into: 28 patients with Helicobacter pylori infection (Group A); 15 patients without gastric

2018 Endocrine

16. Gender disparities in screening for congenital hypothyroidism using thyroxine as a primary screen. (PubMed)

Gender disparities in screening for congenital hypothyroidism using thyroxine as a primary screen. Newborn screening for congenital hypothyroidism (CH) is based on testing for the markers thyroxine (T4) and/or thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH). Diagnosis of CH is complicated because many factors affect the levels of these hormones including infant birth weight, prematurity and age at specimen collection. We investigated whether the sex of the newborn affected the levels of T4 and TSH (...) fluoroimmunoassays.From 2008 to 2016, of the 2.4 million specimens tested for thyroxine, 51.5% were from male and 48.5% were from female infants. Male infants constituted 60% of specimens triaged for TSH testing, 64.9% of repeat requests and 59.6% of referrals, but only 49% of confirmed CH cases. The mean and median T4 values were lower (a difference of approximately 0.8-1.1 μg/dL each year) and the median TSH values were higher in male compared to female infants.Natural differences in thyroid hormone levels in male

2018 European Journal of Endocrinology

17. Comprehensive Metabolic Profiling Reveals a Lipid-rich Fingerprint of Free Thyroxine Far Beyond Classical Parameters. (PubMed)

Comprehensive Metabolic Profiling Reveals a Lipid-rich Fingerprint of Free Thyroxine Far Beyond Classical Parameters. Thyroid hormones are ubiquitously involved in human metabolism. However, the precise molecular patterns associated with alterations in thyroid hormones levels remain to be explored in detail. A number of recent studies took great advantage of metabolomics profiling to outline the metabolic actions of thyroid hormones in humans.Among 952 participants in the Study of Health (...) in Pomerania, data on serum free thyroxine (FT4) and thyrotropin and comprehensive nontargeted metabolomics data from plasma and urine samples were available. Linear regression analyses were performed to assess the association between FT4 or thyrotropin and metabolite levels.After accounting for major confounders, 106 of 613 plasma metabolites were significantly associated with FT4. The associations in urine were minor (12 of 587). Most of the plasma metabolites consisted of lipid species, and subsequent

2018 Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism

18. Degree of peripheral thyroxin deiodination, frailty and long-term survival in hospitalized older patients. (PubMed)

Degree of peripheral thyroxin deiodination, frailty and long-term survival in hospitalized older patients. Although the association between low free triiodothyronine (FT3) and poor outcome has been extensively reported in literature, the degree of peripheral thyroxin deiodination and its relationship with frailty and survival in hospitalized older patients has not yet been fully established. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the possible correlation between FT3/free thyroxine (FT4 (...) ) ratio reduction, an indirect marker of thyroxin deiodination impairment, and frailty status and survival in hospitalized older patients.We consecutively enrolled older patients, hospitalized in the geriatrics ward of the University of Pisa. At admission, Multidimensional Geriatric Assessment (MGA) and Multi Prognostic Index (MPI), an indirect measure of frailty, were obtained from all the patients. Causes of hospitalization and prevalence of delirium were recorded. Blood samples for FT3, FT4

2018 Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism

19. Mean high dose L-thyroxine treatment is efficient and safe to achieve a normal IQ in young adult patients with congenital hypothyroidism. (PubMed)

Mean high dose L-thyroxine treatment is efficient and safe to achieve a normal IQ in young adult patients with congenital hypothyroidism. The optimal levothyroxine (LT4) dose to treat congenital hypothyroidism (CH) remains unclear, with debate over whether higher starting doses (>10 µg/kg) are necessary and safe for a normal intelligence quotient (IQ).To examine psychomotor, metabolic, and quality of life (QoL) outcomes in patients with CH treated with a mean high initial LT4 dose.A cross (...) of episodes of elevated thyroxine (T4) and tri-jod-thyronin (T3) and suppressed thyrotropin (TSH) before age 2 years were analyzed. A meta-analysis of CH treatment studies was performed.There were no significant differences in IQ, QoL, or other outcome measures in patients with CH compared with controls. Most T4 levels were high before age 2 years and during subsequent testing, but mean T3 and TSH levels remained normal. The meta-analysis showed a significant IQ difference in severe vs mild CH cases only

2018 Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism

20. Thyroxine inhibits resveratrol-caused apoptosis by PD-L1 in ovarian cancer cells. (PubMed)

Thyroxine inhibits resveratrol-caused apoptosis by PD-L1 in ovarian cancer cells. Thyroid hormone, l-thyroxine (T4), has been shown to promote ovarian cancer cell proliferation via a receptor on plasma membrane integrin αvβ3 and to induce the activation of ERK1/2 and expression of programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) in cancer cells. In contrast, resveratrol binds to integrin αvβ3 at a discrete site and induces p53-dependent antiproliferation in malignant neoplastic cells. The mechanism

2018 Endocrine-Related Cancer

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