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Thyroid Anatomy

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161. Oncologic imaging

Health. All Rights Reserved. 3 Pancreatic Cancer 72 Paraneoplastic Syndrome 74 Penile, Vaginal, and Vulvar Cancers 75 Prostate Cancer 77 Sarcoma of Bone and Soft Tissue 80 Thoracic Cancers – Pleura, Thymus, Heart and Mediastinum 83 Thyroid Cancer 85 Uterine Cancer 88 Codes 91 History 93 Oncologic Imaging Copyright © 2019. AIM Specialty Health. All Rights Reserved. 4 Description and Application of the Guidelines The AIM Clinical Appropriateness Guidelines (hereinafter “the AIM Clinical Appropriateness (...) Complications from prior fiberoptic colonoscopy o Diverticulitis with increased risk of perforation o Failed or incomplete fiberoptic colonoscopy of the entire colon, due to inability to pass the colonoscope proximally (may be secondary to obstructing neoplasm, spasm, redundant colon, altered anatomy or scarring from previous surgery, stricture, or extrinsic compression) o Increased sedation risk, such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease or previous adverse reaction to anesthesia o Known colonic

2019 AIM Specialty Health

163. Head and neck imaging

Tumor/Soft Tissue Mass 12 Cholesteatoma 12 Neck mass 12 Parathyroid adenoma 13 Thyroid nodule or thyromegaly (goiter) 13 Tumor – not otherwise specified 14 Nasal Indications 14 Anosmia 14 Cerebrospinal fluid leak 14 Foreign body 14 Mucocele of the paranasal sinus 14 Nasal airway obstruction refractory to medical therapy 14 Nasal or sinus polyposis 14 Recurrent epistaxis 14 Orbital Indications 14 Absence of red reflex (pediatric only) 15 Dysconjugate gaze 15 Exophthalmos or proptosis 15 Extraocular (...) muscle weakness 15 Nystagmus 15 Head and Neck Imaging Copyright © 2019. AIM Specialty Health. All Rights Reserved. 3 Optic neuritis 15 Orbital pseudotumor 15 Papilledema 15 Strabismus 15 Thyroid ophthalmopathy 15 Temporomandibular Joint Pathology 15 Arthropathy of the temporomandibular joints 15 Frozen jaw 15 Juvenile idiopathic arthritis (Pediatric only) 15 Temporomandibular disease 16 Temporomandibular joint dysfunction 16 Miscellaneous Conditions 16 Cochlear implant 16 Foreign body evaluation 17

2019 AIM Specialty Health

164. Appropriate Use Criteria: Imaging of the Abdomen and Pelvis

, radioactive iodine treatment for thyroid disease, or previous reactions to contrast agents. Noncontrast CT may often suffice in some situations, and is preferred when evaluating for intra-abdominal hemorrhage and/or calcification. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) requires a longer time for image acquisition and is more prone to motion artifact than CT. However, MRI does not expose patients to ionizing radiation and has better contrast resolution than CT. MRI may be a useful substitute in cases where

2019 AIM Specialty Health

165. Prenatal Care

is the effectiveness of integrated screening? 6. What is the effectiveness of quad screening? 7. What is the effectiveness of thyroid screening? 8. What is the effectiveness/performance of carrier screening for spinal muscular atrophy? 9. What is the best method for estimating due date? 10. What is the effectiveness of early second-trimester anatomy scan (13–16 weeks) in combination with cfDNA in women at high or average risk of aneuploidy? 11. What is the residual risk of structural anomaly of aneuploidy among (...) for a Pap test Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) testing 5 Women with diagnosed hypothyroidism only. Routine screening not recommended Drug misuse screening, DAST-10 Women in whom there is clinical suspicion of drug misuse 1 If HbA1c is negative but diabetes is suspected due to symptoms, BMI, or ultrasound findings, a two-step screening test for gestational diabetes is recommended. See the Gestational Diabetes Guideline. 2 See the Depression Guideline. 3 Any alcohol use is unhealthy in pregnancy. See

2018 Kaiser Permanente Clinical Guidelines

167. International Consolidated Wound Infection Guideline (ICWIG)

., 2012; Singh et al., 2005) High SOR = 0.88, CVI = 0.95 I.A.1.b. Document altered or abnormal anatomy of foot (e.g. hallux rigidus) or other body sites that may cause skin injury allowing microbial invasion. B (Lipsky et al., 2012; Weiner et al.,2011) High SOR = 0.88, CVI = 0.88 I.A.1.c. Document sites of dry, cracked or damaged skin of sufficient depth and severity to allow microorganisms to invade healthy tissue. Moisturize dry skin or protect cracked or damaged skin with a microbial barrier. C2 (...) or providing a microbial barrier over the wound. A (O'Meara et al., 2010) High SOR = 0.81, CVI = 0.80 IV.E.2.a. Use dressings containing cadexomer iodine as appropriate, after determining that the patient is not allergic to iodine or has no medical condition contraindicating iodine exposure, e.g. affecting the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis. Recognize that topical cadexomer iodine does not increase complete healing or % healing per week compared to hydrocolloid dressings A (Hermans, 1993; O'Meara et

2018 Association for the Advancement of Wound Care

168. SNMMI Procedure Standard for Bone Scintigraphy V4.0

, the CT portion is for anatomic local- ization/attenuation correction and is performed before the SPECT portion using a multi-slice spiral or ?at- panel/cone-beamCTscanner (currentlyupto64slices) with a low milliampere-seconds setting to decrease thepatientradiationdose.TherecommendedSPECT parameters are the same as above. The CT parame- ters typically include a 512 · 512 matrix, a tube voltage of 80–130 kV, an intensity–time product of 2.5–300 mAs (depending on the anatomy being im- aged (...) Nucl Med. 1993;34:2236–2240. 3. Brown ML, O’Connor MK, Hung JC, et al. Technical aspects of bone scintig- raphy. Radiol Clin North Am. 1993;31:721–730. 4. Chua S, Gnanasegaran G, Cook GJ. Miscellaneous cancers (lung, thyroid, renal cancer, myeloma, and neuroendocrine tumors): role of SPECT and PET in im- aging bone metastases. Semin Nucl Med. 2009;39:416–430. 5. Clinical practice guidelines in oncology: breast cancer (version 4.0). National ComprehensiveCancer Network. Availableat: https

2019 Society of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging

169. Clinical Practice Guideline for the Management of Infantile Hemangiomas

an even greater risk for morbidity and mortality. Infants who are affected typically present before 4 months of age with severe hepatomegaly, which can lead to potentially lethal abdominal compartment syndrome attributable to compromised ventilation, renal failure attributable to renal vein compression, or compromised inferior vena cava blood flow to the heart. , A consumptive form of hypothyroidism caused by the inactivation of thyroid hormones by type 3 iodothyronine deiodinase present in IH tissue (...) with a hemangioma specialist or other appropriate expert (eg, pediatric neurologist, neurosurgeon, or radiologist) can be helpful to determine if imaging is required and which studies should be performed. MRI is the optimal imaging modality to define underlying structural abnormalities, and contrast is needed to assess vascular components. MRA can illustrate the vascular anatomy. Thus, MRI and MRA, with and without contrast of the head and neck, are the best studies to detect PHACE syndrome. MRI does not use

2019 American Academy of Pediatrics

170. The Collaborative Assessment, OTCA12, on “C-reactive protein point-of-care testing (CRP POCT) to guide antibiotic prescribing in primary care settings for acute respiratory tract infections (RTIs)

) RECOMMENDATIONS IN EUROPEAN COUNTRIES FOR CRP POCT 248 Figures FIGURE 1: ANATOMY OF THE RESPIRATORY TRACT 67 FIGURE 2: ANTIMICROBIAL RESISTANCE (COMBINED NON-SUSCEPTIBILITY FOR PENICILLINS AND MACROLIDES) VERSUS STREPTOCOCCUS PNEUMONIAE IN EU/EEA COUNTRIES, 2017 68 FIGURE 3: CONSUMPTION OF ANTIBIOTICS FOR SYSTEMIC USE IN THE COMMUNITY, EU/EEA COUNTRIES, 2016 (EXPRESSED AS DDD PER 1 000 INHABITANTS PER DAY) 69 FIGURE 4: FLOW CHART SYSTEMATIC REVIEW 1 (EFFECTIVENESS AND SAFETY) 83 C-reactive protein point

2019 EUnetHTA

171. ACR–ASNR–ASSR–SPR Practice Parameter for the Performance of Computed Tomography (CT) of the Spine

injury in young children most commonly occurs from the occiput through C3 and typically involves the ligaments to a greater extent than osseous structures. Although CT with multiplanar reconstruction improves the detection of fractures, CT is insensitive to ligamentous, capsular, and soft-tissue injury, and the potential risk from the radiation to the thyroid should be considered. Spinal cord injury may occur without radiographic abnormalities, and a normal CT may result in a false-negative diagnosis (...) HA, Fredrickson BE, Lubicky JP. The value of computed tomography in thoracolumbar fractures. An analysis of one hundred consecutive cases and a new classification. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 1983;65(4):461-473. 9. Obenauer S, Alamo L, Herold T, Funke M, Kopka L, Grabbe E. Imaging skeletal anatomy of injured cervical spine specimens: comparison of single-slice vs multi-slice helical CT. Eur Radiol. 2002;12(8):2107-2111. 10. Rivas LA, Fishman JE, Munera F, Bajayo DE. Multislice CT in thoracic trauma

2019 American Society of Neuroradiology

172. ACR–ASNR–SCBT-MR Practice Parameter for the Performance of Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) of the Adult Spine

, and combined CT-myelography. Compared with these other modalities, MRI does not use ionizing radiation. This is particularly advantageous in the lumbar area, where gonadal exposure may occur, and in the cervical spine to avoid radiation to the thyroid. Myelography requires an invasive procedure to introduce intrathecal contrast agents. Both the puncture and the contrast agent can produce side effects and rarely significant adverse reactions. MRI allows direct visualization of the spinal cord, nerve roots (...) , and the ACR Guidance Document on MR Safe Practices [1-3]. Peer-reviewed literature pertaining to MR safety should be reviewed on a regular basis. IV. QUALIFICATIONS AND RESPONSIBILITIES OF PERSONNEL See the ACR Practice Parameter for Performing and Interpreting Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) [1]. V. APPLICATIONS OF MRI A. Neoplasms MRI is an excellent way of defining tumors of and around the spine. It defines anatomy and, because of its ability to differentiate tissue types, can be used to characterize

2019 American Society of Neuroradiology

173. ACR–ASNR–SPR Practice Parameter for the Performance of Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) of the Head and Neck

den Brekel MW, Mukherji SK. Imaging of laryngeal cancer. Semin Ultrasound CT MR. 1998;19(6):492-504. 70. Hudgins PA, Siegel J, Jacobs I, Abramowsky CR. The normal pediatric larynx on CT and MR. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 1997;18(2):239-245. 71. Nakahara H, Noguchi S, Murakami N, et al. Gadolinium-enhanced MR imaging of thyroid and parathyroid masses. Radiology. 1997;202(3):765-772. 72. Harnsberg HR. Visceral space anatomy-imaging issues. In: Harnsberg HR, Hudgins P, Wiggins R, et al, eds. Diagnostic (...) a clear understanding and knowledge of the patient’s clinical history, as well as the anatomy and pathophysiology relevant to the MRI examination [6]. The supervising physician must be familiar with the wide spectrum of MRI pulse sequences that can be used in head and neck imaging and their effects on the appearance of the images, including image artifacts. Standard imaging protocols should be established and may be optimized on a case-by-case basis as necessary. These protocols should be reviewed

2019 American Society of Neuroradiology

174. Male Sexual Dysfunction

of recommendations. Bmj, 2008. 336: 924. 23. Phillips, B. Oxford Centre for Evidence-based Medicine Levels of Evidence. Updated by Jeremy Howick March 2009. 1998. 24. Guyatt, G.H., et al. Going from evidence to recommendations. Bmj, 2008. 336: 1049. 25. Van den Broeck T, et al. What are the benefits and harms of testosterone treatment for male sexual dysfunction? PROSPERO: International prospective register of systematic reviews, 2015. 26. Gratzke, C., et al. Anatomy, physiology, and pathophysiology of erectile (...) . part 1: screening, diagnosis, and local treatment with curative intent-update 2013. Eur Urol, 2014. 65: 124. 98. Maggi, M., et al. Hormonal causes of male sexual dysfunctions and their management (hyperprolactinemia, thyroid disorders, GH disorders, and DHEA). J Sex Med, 2013. 10: 661. 99. Laumann, E.O., et al. The epidemiology of erectile dysfunction: results from the National Health and Social Life Survey. Int J Impot Res, 1999. 11 Suppl 1: S60. 100. Miner, M., et al. Cardiometabolic risk

2019 European Association of Urology

176. American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition Clinical Guidelines: The Validity of Body Composition Assessment in Clinical Populations

+ and men without HIV+ (all P ‐values < 0.0001) There were significant correlations between trunk, leg, arm, and TF (DXA) vs trunk, leg, arm, and TF (MRI) for women with HIV+ and women without HIV+ (all P ‐values < 0.0001). Smith et al, 2001 To describe the radiographic anatomy of the abdominal SAT as it relates to gender and adiposity To relate these anatomically discrete compartments to metabolic risk factors in both men and women N = 103 men Age: 40.8 ± 13.7 y N = 96 women Age: 41.5 ± 11.7 y

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2019 American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition

178. Suspected Upper-Extremity Deep Vein Thrombosis.

spin echo) sequences to assess the anatomy surrounding the vessels. Studies so far specifically comparing MRV to venography have been mixed, with some work showing MRV to be as effective as venography [47,54] but other work showing its limitations [37,44,46]. A recent meta-analysis found MRV to have both a high sensitivity and a high specificity [61], although the study did not focus on the upper extremities. Computed Tomography CT can be used to determine the presence of centrally located thrombi (...) by anaplastic carcinoma of the thyroid. J Clin Ultrasound. 2003;31(2):111-115. 63. Stam J. Thrombosis of the cerebral veins and sinuses. N Engl J Med. 2005;352(17):1791-1798. 64. Kim HC, Chung JW, Yoon CJ, et al. Collateral pathways in thoracic central venous obstruction: three- dimensional display using direct spiral computed tomography venography. J Comput Assist Tomogr. 2004;28(1):24-33. 65. Sabharwal R, Boshell D, Vladica P. Multidetector spiral CT venography in the diagnosis of upper extremity deep

2019 American College of Radiology

180. Diagnosis & Assessment of Hypertension - Endocrine Hypertension

. Even so, use of AVS might be limited because of technical challenges and reportedly high procedural failure rates, because of difficulties in localizing the adrenal veins (especially on the right side) because of small vessel size and variations in anatomy . In a retrospective study of 5 centres using the German Conn’s registry, successful bilateral catheterization was only achieved in 30.5% of cases . Performance appeared to be related to technical proficiency. Accordingly, when strictly performed (...) wine hemangiomas (von Hippel-Lindau disease), thyroid tumour, and mucosal neuromas, cafe au lait spots or the presence of several axillary freckles. It is important to note that persons with pheochromocytomas/PPGLs may also be normotensive and asymptomatic, particularly those with familial forms (about 10% of cases) . About 10% of Pheochromocytomas/PPGLs are extra-adrenal, bilateral, familial, malignant, recurrent, in children, and present with stroke (Rule of 10’s). The differential diagnosis

2018 Hypertension Canada

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