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Thyroid Anatomy

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1141. Low-dose radioisotope scanning and quantitative analysis in the diagnosis of congenital hypothyroidism. (PubMed)

Low-dose radioisotope scanning and quantitative analysis in the diagnosis of congenital hypothyroidism. Quantitative thyroid scanning using low doses of 99mTc sodium pertechnetate (1.85-3.7 MBq) was performed in 38 cases of congenital hypothyroidism. Of these 38 cases, 29 were scanned at 14 +/- 6 days old, and 9 at 1 year old. The scans show the full range of gland anatomy from athyreotic to normal. All morphologically normal scans had grossly increased uptakes of 99mTc. The incidence (...) of the various thyroid anatomies was different in each age group. The average radiation dose to the thyroid was 2.29 mGy, with at least 70% of patients receiving a dose of 3.0 mGy or less. Such low doses of 99mTc should allow further scanning in later life. Neonatal thyroid scanning reveals the aetiology of congenital hypothyroidism and enables the clinician to assess the short- and long-term needs of the child.

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1982 Archives of Disease in Childhood

1142. Bone Loss in Premenopausal Women With Depression

antidepressant treatment, unless it is medically indicated for reasons such as the medication is ineffective, not well tolerated, or the patient no longer needs such treatment. This decision will be based upon their physician's evaluation. Patients starting a new antidepressant medication(s) should be on this treatment for 4-6 weeks prior to enrollment. Carbamazepine, valproic acid or thyroid hormones used as adjunctive therapy for treatment of depression are allowed. Women with a current or recent (within (...) the past 3 years) history of alcohol or drug abuse are eligible if, in the opinion of the principal investigator, this condition is not likely to impair patient compliance or if the participation in the study does not pose additional risks to the subject. INCLUSION CRITERIA RELATED TO THE BONE STATUS: The patient has spinal anatomy suitable for dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) densitometry of the lumbar spine, with no evidence of vertebral fractures in at least three vertebrae. Significant

2000 Clinical Trials

1143. [3-dimensional computer animation--a new medium for supporting patient education before surgery. Acceptance and assessment of patients based on a prospective randomized study--picture versus text]. (PubMed)

; I analysed the merits of computerized animation to illustrate a difficult treatment process, i.e., the progressive steps of a thyroid operation, in comparison to the use of conventional flyers.3D animation software was employed to illustrate the basic anatomy of the thyroid and the larnyx; the principle of thyroidectomy was explained by visualizing the surgical procedure step by step. Finally, the possible complications that may result from the intraoperative manipulations were also visually

2002 Der Chirurg; Zeitschrift fur alle Gebiete der operativen Medizen

1144. Thyroid abnormalities by ultrasonography in neonates with congenital hypothyroidism. (PubMed)

observations in these patients.Ultrasonography may reveal additional findings with regard to those obtained by scintigraphy such as information regarding the anatomy of the thyroid gland, presence of cysts, and presence of additional thymic tissue within the empty thyroid area. (...) Thyroid abnormalities by ultrasonography in neonates with congenital hypothyroidism. To investigate the usefulness of thyroid ultrasonography for neonates with congenital hypothyroidism. Study design Patients (n=66) were evaluated by ultrasonography at age 15.2+/-12 days.Thyroid scanning was more sensitive for the identification of ectopic tissue as ultrasonography showed ectopic thyroid tissue in only 9 of 42 cases. In cases for which no iodine uptake was demonstrated by thyroid scanning (n=12

2003 Journal of Pediatrics

1145. The missing thyroid. (PubMed)

, the thyroid was deemed unresectable because of scar tissue. In two patients, an inadequate "near-total" thyroidectomy was performed. In five patients with long necks, the neck incision was too far below the cricoid cartilage.Failure to identify the thyroid gland at the normal anatomic position was associated with low cervical incisions and a history of earlier neck operations. These findings emphasize the need for improved understanding of thyroid anatomy, embryology, localization procedures, and surgical (...) The missing thyroid. Several patients have been referred to our practice after having undergone attempted thyroidectomy, during which the thyroid gland was not found. These patients were reviewed to identify factors associated with failure to identify or adequately resect the thyroid.Patients referred for a "missed thyroid" between October 1, 1990 and December 31, 2002, were reviewed retrospectively. Seven patients who underwent neck exploration for thyroid cancer (n=6) or Graves' disease (n=1

2005 Journal of the American College of Surgeons

1146. Spread of goiters outside the thyroid bed: a review of 190 cases and an analysis of the incidence of the various extensions. (PubMed)

Spread of goiters outside the thyroid bed: a review of 190 cases and an analysis of the incidence of the various extensions. To analyze the distribution of thyroid goiters into the mediastinum and/or behind or along the sides of the pharynx, and to review the anatomy of the spaces in the neck that explains these extensions.We used a 28-month period, to retrospectively identify 190 cases of neck goiters that underwent computed tomographic imaging. The maximal size of a normal thyroid gland (...) (7.4%) extended behind or along the sides of the pharynx. All 70 cases that extended into the mediastinum involved the anterior mediastinum, and 5 (7.1%) of these extended into the posterior mediastinum.Goiterous extension outside of the thyroid bed occurred in 84 (44.2%) of cases. Although extension cranially behind the pharynx is uncommon, the physician should be aware of this diagnosis and the fascial anatomy that explains its occurrence. All of the goiters that were in the posterior mediastinum

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2003 Archives of Otolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery

1147. Thyroid morphology and function in adults with untreated isolated growth hormone deficiency. (PubMed)

Thyroid morphology and function in adults with untreated isolated growth hormone deficiency. GH influences thyroid function and anatomy. Although goiter is frequent in acromegalic patients, the effects of GH deficiency (GHD) are difficult to assess, because hypopituitaric subjects who lack GH often also have a partial or complete deficit of TSH.We studied thyroid morphology and serum levels of thyroid hormones in adult members of a large Brazilian kindred with untreated isolated GHD due (...) to a homozygous mutation in the GHRH receptor gene (GHRHR; nine men and 15 women; GHD group) and compared them to subjects heterozygous for the same mutation (eight men and 10 women; HET group) and subjects homozygous for the wild-type allele [seven men and 11 women; control (CO) group].GHD subjects had a smaller thyroid volume (TV) than HET and CO. The TV of the HET group was intermediate between those of the GHD and CO groups. When TV was corrected by body surface area, it remained smaller in the GHD

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2006 Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism

1148. A meta-analysis of inferior thyroid artery variations in different human ethnic groups and their clinical implications. (PubMed)

A meta-analysis of inferior thyroid artery variations in different human ethnic groups and their clinical implications. We have recently found ethnic differences in superior thyroid artery (STA) variational anatomy. Therefore, we now focus on the inferior thyroid artery (ITA). In particular, we analyze whether presence, numerical variations and site of origin of ITA are influenced by ethnic group and gender, whether and which neck side has the largest arterial caliber, whether differences occur (...) between the presence of ITA and STA, to which extent a non-selective thyroid angiography is effective in visualizing ITA, also in comparison to STA, and which clinical value this information may have in selected pathologies of the thyroid, parathyroid and larynx. A meta-analysis has been performed, including 33 library- and Medline-selected publications on Caucasoids (European and non-European) and East Asians, and a set of original data on European Caucasoids. A total of 6285 Caucasoid and 847 East

2005 Annals of anatomy = Anatomischer Anzeiger : official organ of the Anatomische Gesellschaft

1149. Value of the cervical compartments in the surgical treatment of papillary thyroid carcinoma. (PubMed)

Value of the cervical compartments in the surgical treatment of papillary thyroid carcinoma. In the treatment of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC), supplementary lymph node dissection (LND) is not well standardized. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the significance of the cervical compartments in the lymphatic spread of PTC and the impact of modified radical neck dissection (MRND) as an additional surgical procedure to thyroid resection. From 1999 to 2002, LND of the central (...) patients (51,2%) and of A, B, and C in 13 patients (33.3%). From the 25 patients with metastases in compartment A, 80% (20 patients) already had metastases in compartment B and 52% (13 patients) had metastases in all three compartments. All patients free of metastasis (M0) in compartment A were also metastasis free in both lateral compartments. Postoperative whole-body scanning I(131) in M0 patients showed no uptake at all. Mapping of the cervical anatomy in compartments seems to be a useful taxonomy

2004 World Journal of Surgery

1150. Modified radical neck dissection for differentiated thyroid cancer: operative technique. (PubMed)

Modified radical neck dissection for differentiated thyroid cancer: operative technique. Our standard surgical approach to patients with papillary thyroid cancer is subtotal thyroidectomy with modified radical neck dissection (MRND) on the affected side. MRND preserves the jugular vein, the sternocleidomastoid muscle, and the accessory nerve, effectively conserving function and cosmesis. Knowledge of the anatomy of the neck, precise staging, prognostic evaluation, and experience are needed (...) for a surgeon to perform MRND. Radical neck dissection should not be performed unless the tumor invades the jugular vein and sternocleidomastoid muscle. Berry picking is not indicated for patients with thyroid cancer. The skin incision used is an extended collar incision. If lymph node metastasis is present at the upper bifurcation of the carotid artery, a modified MacFee incision is used. Taping of the carotid artery or sternocleidomastoid muscle is avoided unless the tumor invades these tissues. MRND

2004 World Journal of Surgery

1151. Outdated and incomplete: a review of thyroid cancer on the World Wide Web. (PubMed)

demographics using the Student t test, chi-square, and ANOVA analyses.Interrater reliability was excellent (kappa = 0.81). Most websites were not specific to thyroid cancer alone (72%), contained advertisements (72%), lacked references (66%), and were privately sponsored (50%). Only 38% had been updated within 2 years. "Government" and "Non-Profit" websites were the most consumer friendly. Mean quality score of medical content was 38%, with websites receiving the highest score in "Anatomy/Physiology" (55 (...) Outdated and incomplete: a review of thyroid cancer on the World Wide Web. To evaluate the most frequently searched thyroid cancer websites for completeness, accuracy, and consumer friendliness.The 50 most popular thyroid cancer websites were evaluated using a novel instrument developed by a Delphi panel of endocrine experts and based on practice guidelines. Each website received independent scores for disease-specific information and a final quality score. Quality was related to website

2007 Thyroid

1152. Surgical anatomy of the internal branch of the superior laryngeal nerve. (PubMed)

Surgical anatomy of the internal branch of the superior laryngeal nerve. The internal branch of the superior laryngeal nerve (ibSLN) may be injured during anterior approaches to the cervical spine, resulting in loss of laryngeal cough reflex, and, in turn, the risk of aspiration pneumonia. Such a risk dictates the knowledge regarding anatomical details of this nerve. In this study, 24 ibSLN of 12 formaldehyde fixed adult male cadavers were used. Linear and angular parameters were measured using (...) and midline was 24.2+/-3.3 mm, 20.2+/-3.6 mm, and 15.9+/-4.3 mm at the level of C2-3, C3-4, and at the C4-5 intervertebral disc level, respectively. The angles of ibSLN were mean 19.6+/-2.6 degrees medially with sagittal plane, and 23.6+/-2.6 degrees anteriorly with coronal plane. At the area between the thyroid cartilage and the hyoid bone the ibSLN is the only nerve which traverses lateral to medial. It is accompanied by the superior laryngeal artery, a branch of the superior thyroid artery. The ibSLN

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2006 European Spine Journal

1153. Anatomy of the cricothyroid articulation: differences between men and women. (PubMed)

Anatomy of the cricothyroid articulation: differences between men and women. A greater difficulty in exposing the arytenoid cartilage during rotation surgeries has been observed for men. The objective of the present study was to describe the position of the cricothyroid articulation and the distance between the right and left articulations, and to compare these findings between genders. The following measurements were obtained for 16 cadavers (9 men and 7 women): angulation of the cricothyroid (...) articulation in the cricoid ring, dimensions of the thyroid articular surface of the cricoid cartilage, and distance between the cricothyroid and cricoarytenoid articulations. The cricothyroid articulation angle was narrower in men than in women (p = .04). The major diameter of the articular facet of the thyroid cartilage was wider in men (p = .001). The longer lamina of the thyroid cartilage, as well as the more posterior position of the cricothyroid articulation, in men might explain the greater

2005 Rhinology and Laryngology

1154. Retraction of the eyelids secondary to thyroid ophthalmopathy--its surgical correction with sclera and the fate of the graft. (PubMed)

Retraction of the eyelids secondary to thyroid ophthalmopathy--its surgical correction with sclera and the fate of the graft. 6894815 1981 09 25 2018 11 13 0065-9533 78 1980 Transactions of the American Ophthalmological Society Trans Am Ophthalmol Soc Retraction of the eyelids secondary to thyroid ophthalmopathy--its surgical correction with sclera and the fate of the graft. 657-85 Flanagan J C JC eng Journal Article United States Trans Am Ophthalmol Soc 7506106 0065-9533 0 Antibodies 0 (...) Antigens IM Animals Antibodies immunology Antigens immunology Eyelid Diseases etiology surgery Eyelids anatomy & histology Graves Disease complications Guinea Pigs Humans Muscles anatomy & histology Rabbits Sclera immunology pathology transplantation Transplantation, Homologous 1980 1 1 1980 1 1 0 1 1980 1 1 0 0 ppublish 6894815 PMC1312156 Bibl Ophthalmol. 1966;70:117-21 5916759 Arch Ophthalmol. 1967 Feb;77(2):230-1 6019018 Arch Ophthalmol. 1967 Mar;77(3):341-4 6019554 J Histochem Cytochem. 1966 Apr;14

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1980 Transactions of the American Ophthalmological Society

1155. Thyrothymic thyroid rests: incidence and relationship to the thyroid gland. (PubMed)

Thyrothymic thyroid rests: incidence and relationship to the thyroid gland. Rests of thyroid tissue within the thyrothymic area are relatively common and might be of clinical importance. The purpose of this study is to define the incidence and anatomy of thyroid tissue located in the line of the thyrothymic ligament, referred to here as "rests."Prospective descriptive intraoperative evaluation of 100 consecutive thyroid or parathyroid procedures was undertaken to identify the incidence (...) and anatomical location of thyrothymic thyroid rests. Photographs and histologic confirmation of the thyroid remnants were obtained.One hundred eighty sides of the thyroid gland are examined in 100 consecutive patients. Thyroid rests in the thyrothymic area were found in 53 patients, or on 83 separate sides of the thyroid (46%). In patients who had rests identified, 30 (57%) had bilateral rests, with 16 (30%) only on the right, and 7 (13%) only on the left. Eighty percent of identified rests were still

2002 Journal of the American College of Surgeons

1156. Anthropological variations in the anatomy of the human thyroid arteries. (PubMed)

Anthropological variations in the anatomy of the human thyroid arteries. Knowledge of anatomic variability of the superior (STA), inferior (ITA), and lowest accessory (IMA) thyroid arteries may be helpful in certain clinical conditions. However, details of this variability have not been thoroughly described. Specifically, whether the presence and site of origin of STA, ITA, and IMA are influenced by the anthropological group, to what extent their origin is symmetric or asymmetric, and the role (...) played by this variability in visualizing each thyroid artery by nonselective thyroid angiography is not known. To clarify this we conducted a meta-analytical study on Caucasian and Asian subjects, the latter including only Japanese and Koreans. In Caucasians and Asians the presence of superior vessels compared to inferior vessels was more frequent and the probability of symmetric or asymmetric arterial origin for STA were equivalent. However, better recognition of inferior rather than superior

2003 Thyroid

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