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Thyroid Anatomy

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81. Topographical anatomy of the anterior cervical approach for c2-3 level. (PubMed)

Topographical anatomy of the anterior cervical approach for c2-3 level. To develop a clinically relevant anterior cervical approach (ACA) to the C2-3 level.Frequently encountered nerves [hypoglossal (HyN), internal (ISLN) and external superior laryngeal nerves (ESLN)] and vessels [lingual (LiA), superior laryngeal (SLA) and superior thyroid arteries (STA)] in the field of high ACA and the anatomic spatial markers [submandibular gland (SMG); sling for digastrics muscle (SDG); hyoid bone (HyB (...) ), and thyroid cartilage (ThC)] were evaluated using 18 fresh cadavers. The vertical distance of each structure at the carotid sheath and larynx and each disc for cervical level were measured from the suprasternal notch.The cervical levels of SDG, SMG and HyB were mostly C3 and that of ThC was C5. The vertical locations of HyN and LiA were not significantly different and the levels corresponded to C2. The levels for ISLN and ESLN were C3 at carotid and C4 and C5 at larynx sides, respectively. The vertical

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2013 European Spine Journal

82. Thyroid, Papillary Carcinoma, Early

cancer that is clinically node-negative, thyroidectomy without central neck dissection may be appropriate. [ ] Lateral neck compartmental lymph node dissection is indicated when there is biopsy-proven metastatic lateral cervical lymphadenopathy. [ ] Previous Next: Relevant Anatomy Knowledge of the anatomy of the infrahyoid neck and thyroid region aids in the identification and preservation of structures (eg, recurrent laryngeal nerve, superior laryngeal nerve, superior thyroid artery, inferior (...) Thyroid, Papillary Carcinoma, Early Thyroid, Papillary Carcinoma, Early: Background, History Of The Procedure, Problem Edition: No Results No Results Please confirm that you would like to log out of Medscape. If you log out, you will be required to enter your username and password the next time you visit. https://profreg.medscape.com/px/getpracticeprofile.do?method=getProfessionalProfile&urlCache=aHR0cHM6Ly9lbWVkaWNpbmUubWVkc2NhcGUuY29tL2FydGljbGUvODQ5MDAwLW92ZXJ2aWV3 processing > Thyroid

2014 eMedicine Surgery

83. Thyroid, Substernal Goiter

Thyroid, Substernal Goiter Substernal Thyroid Goiter: Background, Problem, Epidemiology Edition: No Results No Results Please confirm that you would like to log out of Medscape. If you log out, you will be required to enter your username and password the next time you visit. https://profreg.medscape.com/px/getpracticeprofile.do?method=getProfessionalProfile&urlCache=aHR0cHM6Ly9lbWVkaWNpbmUubWVkc2NhcGUuY29tL2FydGljbGUvODQ5MTU5LW92ZXJ2aWV3 processing > Substernal Thyroid Goiter Updated: Dec 11 (...) , 2015 Author: Steven K Dankle, MD; Chief Editor: Arlen D Meyers, MD, MBA Share Email Print Feedback Close Sections Sections Substernal Thyroid Goiter Overview Background The frequency with which large goiters are encountered in the United States has progressively declined over the past several decades. This decrease is largely due to an increase in dietary iodine, particularly iodized salt. Despite the declining frequency of goiter diagnoses in the United States, substernal goiter remains

2014 eMedicine Surgery

84. Riedel Thyroiditis (Treatment)

or pale gray. It has a similar feel to cartilage when incised. More extensive thyroid surgery is generally discouraged because extrathyroid fibrosclerosis alters the anatomy and obliterates surgical planes. The trachea, esophagus, carotids, recurrent laryngeal nerves, or parathyroid glands may be encased by fibrotic tissue and are at increased risk for iatrogenic surgical damage. [ ] Previous References Riedel BM. Die chronische, zur Bildung eisenharter Tumoren fuhrende Entzundung der Schilddruse (...) Riedel Thyroiditis (Treatment) Riedel Thyroiditis Treatment & Management: Approach Considerations, Inpatient Care, Consultations Edition: No Results No Results Please confirm that you would like to log out of Medscape. If you log out, you will be required to enter your username and password the next time you visit. https://profreg.medscape.com/px/getpracticeprofile.do?method=getProfessionalProfile&urlCache=aHR0cHM6Ly9lbWVkaWNpbmUubWVkc2NhcGUuY29tL2FydGljbGUvMTI1MjQzLXRyZWF0bWVudA== processing

2014 eMedicine.com

85. Thyroid Ophthalmopathy (Treatment)

Thyroid Ophthalmopathy (Treatment) Thyroid-Associated Orbitopathy: Overview, Pathophysiology, Etiology Edition: No Results No Results Please confirm that you would like to log out of Medscape. If you log out, you will be required to enter your username and password the next time you visit. https://profreg.medscape.com/px/getpracticeprofile.do?method=getProfessionalProfile&urlCache=aHR0cHM6Ly9lbWVkaWNpbmUubWVkc2NhcGUuY29tL2FydGljbGUvMTIxODQ0NC1vdmVydmlldw== processing > Thyroid-Associated (...) Orbitopathy Updated: Mar 07, 2019 Author: Edsel Ing, MD, MPH, FRCSC; Chief Editor: Hampton Roy, Sr, MD Share Email Print Feedback Close Sections Sections Thyroid-Associated Orbitopathy Overview Overview Thyroid-associated orbitopathy (TAO), frequently termed Graves ophthalmopathy, is part of an autoimmune process that can affect the orbital and periorbital tissue, the thyroid gland, and, rarely, the pretibial skin or digits (thyroid acropachy). [ , , ] This condition is the most common autoimmune disease

2014 eMedicine.com

86. Thyroid, Papillary Carcinoma (Treatment)

may suggest the necessity and extent of prophylactic unilateral or bilateral central lymph node dissection. [ ] A study by Popadich et al found that the addition of routine central lymph node dissection in patients with cN0 papillary thyroid carcinoma reduced the need for reoperation in the central compartment and was associated with lower postoperative thyroglobulin levels. [ ] Complications Surgical treatment of thyroid cancer may cause complications, partly because of the variable anatomy (...) Thyroid, Papillary Carcinoma (Treatment) Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma Treatment & Management: Approach Considerations, Surgical Care, Radioiodine Therapy Edition: No Results No Results Please confirm that you would like to log out of Medscape. If you log out, you will be required to enter your username and password the next time you visit. https://profreg.medscape.com/px/getpracticeprofile.do?method=getProfessionalProfile&urlCache

2014 eMedicine.com

87. Thyroid Ophthalmopathy (Overview)

Thyroid Ophthalmopathy (Overview) Thyroid-Associated Orbitopathy: Overview, Pathophysiology, Etiology Edition: No Results No Results Please confirm that you would like to log out of Medscape. If you log out, you will be required to enter your username and password the next time you visit. https://profreg.medscape.com/px/getpracticeprofile.do?method=getProfessionalProfile&urlCache=aHR0cHM6Ly9lbWVkaWNpbmUubWVkc2NhcGUuY29tL2FydGljbGUvMTIxODQ0NC1vdmVydmlldw== processing > Thyroid-Associated (...) Orbitopathy Updated: Mar 07, 2019 Author: Edsel Ing, MD, MPH, FRCSC; Chief Editor: Hampton Roy, Sr, MD Share Email Print Feedback Close Sections Sections Thyroid-Associated Orbitopathy Overview Overview Thyroid-associated orbitopathy (TAO), frequently termed Graves ophthalmopathy, is part of an autoimmune process that can affect the orbital and periorbital tissue, the thyroid gland, and, rarely, the pretibial skin or digits (thyroid acropachy). [ , , ] This condition is the most common autoimmune disease

2014 eMedicine.com

88. Riedel Thyroiditis (Follow-up)

or pale gray. It has a similar feel to cartilage when incised. More extensive thyroid surgery is generally discouraged because extrathyroid fibrosclerosis alters the anatomy and obliterates surgical planes. The trachea, esophagus, carotids, recurrent laryngeal nerves, or parathyroid glands may be encased by fibrotic tissue and are at increased risk for iatrogenic surgical damage. [ ] Previous References Riedel BM. Die chronische, zur Bildung eisenharter Tumoren fuhrende Entzundung der Schilddruse (...) Riedel Thyroiditis (Follow-up) Riedel Thyroiditis Treatment & Management: Approach Considerations, Inpatient Care, Consultations Edition: No Results No Results Please confirm that you would like to log out of Medscape. If you log out, you will be required to enter your username and password the next time you visit. https://profreg.medscape.com/px/getpracticeprofile.do?method=getProfessionalProfile&urlCache=aHR0cHM6Ly9lbWVkaWNpbmUubWVkc2NhcGUuY29tL2FydGljbGUvMTI1MjQzLXRyZWF0bWVudA== processing

2014 eMedicine.com

89. Thyroid Ophthalmopathy (Follow-up)

Thyroid Ophthalmopathy (Follow-up) Thyroid-Associated Orbitopathy: Overview, Pathophysiology, Etiology Edition: No Results No Results Please confirm that you would like to log out of Medscape. If you log out, you will be required to enter your username and password the next time you visit. https://profreg.medscape.com/px/getpracticeprofile.do?method=getProfessionalProfile&urlCache=aHR0cHM6Ly9lbWVkaWNpbmUubWVkc2NhcGUuY29tL2FydGljbGUvMTIxODQ0NC1vdmVydmlldw== processing > Thyroid-Associated (...) Orbitopathy Updated: Mar 07, 2019 Author: Edsel Ing, MD, MPH, FRCSC; Chief Editor: Hampton Roy, Sr, MD Share Email Print Feedback Close Sections Sections Thyroid-Associated Orbitopathy Overview Overview Thyroid-associated orbitopathy (TAO), frequently termed Graves ophthalmopathy, is part of an autoimmune process that can affect the orbital and periorbital tissue, the thyroid gland, and, rarely, the pretibial skin or digits (thyroid acropachy). [ , , ] This condition is the most common autoimmune disease

2014 eMedicine.com

90. Thyroid, Follicular Carcinoma (Follow-up)

Thyroid, Follicular Carcinoma (Follow-up) Follicular Thyroid Carcinoma Follow-up: Further Outpatient Care, Further Inpatient Care, Complications Edition: No Results No Results Please confirm that you would like to log out of Medscape. If you log out, you will be required to enter your username and password the next time you visit. https://profreg.medscape.com/px/getpracticeprofile.do?method=getProfessionalProfile&urlCache=aHR0cHM6Ly9lbWVkaWNpbmUubWVkc2NhcGUuY29tL2FydGljbGUvMjc4NDg4LWZvbGxvd3Vw (...) processing > Follicular Thyroid Carcinoma Follow-up Updated: Jul 05, 2018 Author: Luigi Santacroce, MD; Chief Editor: Neetu Radhakrishnan, MD Share Email Print Feedback Close Sections Sections Follicular Thyroid Carcinoma Follow-up Further Outpatient Care Perform postoperative scintiscan of the neck after 4-6 weeks without thyroid hormone replacement. At this time, a scan of the neck demonstrates whether thyroid tissue is still present. If thyroid tissue is present, a dose of radioactive iodine

2014 eMedicine.com

91. Thyroid, Papillary Carcinoma (Follow-up)

may suggest the necessity and extent of prophylactic unilateral or bilateral central lymph node dissection. [ ] A study by Popadich et al found that the addition of routine central lymph node dissection in patients with cN0 papillary thyroid carcinoma reduced the need for reoperation in the central compartment and was associated with lower postoperative thyroglobulin levels. [ ] Complications Surgical treatment of thyroid cancer may cause complications, partly because of the variable anatomy (...) Thyroid, Papillary Carcinoma (Follow-up) Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma Treatment & Management: Approach Considerations, Surgical Care, Radioiodine Therapy Edition: No Results No Results Please confirm that you would like to log out of Medscape. If you log out, you will be required to enter your username and password the next time you visit. https://profreg.medscape.com/px/getpracticeprofile.do?method=getProfessionalProfile&urlCache

2014 eMedicine.com

92. Revision and Reoperative Thyroid Surgery

). Recurrence of thyroid cancer may require reexploration of the thyroid bed or cervical lymph node dissection, including the central compartment (level VI). Additionally, occurrence of cancer in the thyroid remnant after operation for benign or symptomatic disease in a partially removed nodular or multinodular goiter may also require reoperation. [ ] Previous Next: Relevant Anatomy Normal anatomy The thyroid is a highly vascular gland in the neck that overlies the proximal trachea and thyroid cartilage (...) adjacent to the upper and lower poles of the thyroid gland (see the second image below). Distribution of thyroid arteries with associated laryngeal nerve, anterior view. Axial CT scan of a patient with a thyroid lesion prior to thyroidectomy. Anatomical changes following thyroidectomy Changes in cervical anatomy may take place following thyroidectomy. The carotid sheath is an important landmark in thyroid surgery. It provides the lateral boundary of dissection and is an important landmark when

2014 eMedicine Surgery

93. Thyroid Ophthalmopathy (Diagnosis)

Thyroid Ophthalmopathy (Diagnosis) Thyroid-Associated Orbitopathy: Overview, Pathophysiology, Etiology Edition: No Results No Results Please confirm that you would like to log out of Medscape. If you log out, you will be required to enter your username and password the next time you visit. https://profreg.medscape.com/px/getpracticeprofile.do?method=getProfessionalProfile&urlCache=aHR0cHM6Ly9lbWVkaWNpbmUubWVkc2NhcGUuY29tL2FydGljbGUvMTIxODQ0NC1vdmVydmlldw== processing > Thyroid-Associated (...) Orbitopathy Updated: Mar 07, 2019 Author: Edsel Ing, MD, MPH, FRCSC; Chief Editor: Hampton Roy, Sr, MD Share Email Print Feedback Close Sections Sections Thyroid-Associated Orbitopathy Overview Overview Thyroid-associated orbitopathy (TAO), frequently termed Graves ophthalmopathy, is part of an autoimmune process that can affect the orbital and periorbital tissue, the thyroid gland, and, rarely, the pretibial skin or digits (thyroid acropachy). [ , , ] This condition is the most common autoimmune disease

2014 eMedicine.com

94. Complications of Thyroid Surgery

of thyroid anatomy and of the ways to prevent each complication, the surgeon can minimize each patient's risk. Potential major complications of thyroid surgery include bleeding, injury to the recurrent laryngeal nerve (see the first image below), hypoparathyroidism, hypothyroidism, thyrotoxic storm, injury to the superior laryngeal nerve (see the second image below), and infection. Anatomy of the recurrent laryngeal nerve (RLN). Superior laryngeal nerve (SLN). Minor complications Postoperative surgical (...) be avoided if the surgeon has good knowledge of the anatomy and sound operative technique. Major complications The following sections discuss major complications that may be encountered in the setting of thyroid surgery. An image depicting the regional anatomy can be seen below. Anatomy of the recurrent laryngeal nerve (RLN). Previous Next: Bleeding Intraoperative bleeding stains the tissues and obscures important structures. Moreover, intraoperative bleeding increases the risk of other anatomic

2014 eMedicine Surgery

95. Embryology of the Thyroid and Parathyroids

the anatomy of the normal thyroid gland. Thyroid scintigraphy or high-resolution ultrasonography can be implemented for excluding ectopic thyroid tissue and identifying the normal thyroid gland. An aberrant or ectopic thyroid gland may occur anywhere along the path of initial descent of the thyroid, although it is most common at the base of the tongue, just posterior to the foramen cecum. In this location, an aberrant or ectopic thyroid gland is known as a lingual thyroid and represents a failure (...) stages and concurrent embryonic anatomy. Curr Top Dev Biol . 2013. 106:123-70. . Mohebati A, Shaha AR. Anatomy of thyroid and parathyroid glands and neurovascular relations. Clin Anat . 2012 Jan. 25(1):19-31. . Henry JF. Applied embryology of the thyroid and parathyroid glands. Randolph GW, ed. Surgery of the Thyroid and Parathyroid Glands . Philadelphia: Saunders; 2003. 12-20. Akerström G, Malmaeus J, Bergström R. Surgical anatomy of human parathyroid glands. Surgery . 1984 Jan. 95(1):14-21

2014 eMedicine Surgery

96. Minimally Invasive Surgery of the Thyroid

criteria: A thyroid nodule size less than or equal to 30 mm in diameter Stage T1 or small T2 PCT (see Staging) Total thyroid volume less than 30 mL No history of thyroiditis or neck radiation Recent studies have demonstrated that MIVAT can be safely used with patients who have histories of prior thyroiditis, prior MIVAT, and a thyroid volume up to 50 mL (see Controversies). [ , ] Previous Next: Relevant Anatomy The thyroid is a bilobed gland in the midline neck that overlies the proximal trachea (...) Minimally Invasive Surgery of the Thyroid Minimally Invasive Surgery of the Thyroid: Background, History of the Procedure, Problem Edition: No Results No Results Please confirm that you would like to log out of Medscape. If you log out, you will be required to enter your username and password the next time you visit. https://profreg.medscape.com/px/getpracticeprofile.do?method=getProfessionalProfile&urlCache=aHR0cHM6Ly9lbWVkaWNpbmUubWVkc2NhcGUuY29tL2FydGljbGUvMTI5ODgxNi1vdmVydmlldw== processing

2014 eMedicine Surgery

97. Ophthalmopathy, Thyroid

Ophthalmopathy, Thyroid Imaging in Thyroid Ophthalmopathy: Overview, Radiography, Computed Tomography Edition: No Results No Results Please confirm that you would like to log out of Medscape. If you log out, you will be required to enter your username and password the next time you visit. https://profreg.medscape.com/px/getpracticeprofile.do?method=getProfessionalProfile&urlCache=aHR0cHM6Ly9lbWVkaWNpbmUubWVkc2NhcGUuY29tL2FydGljbGUvMzgzNDEyLW92ZXJ2aWV3 processing > Imaging in Thyroid (...) Ophthalmopathy Updated: Jan 13, 2016 Author: Michael T Yen, MD; Chief Editor: Eugene C Lin, MD Share Email Print Feedback Close Sections Sections Imaging in Thyroid Ophthalmopathy Overview Overview is currently is recognized as the most common cause of proptosis (protrusion of the globe) in adults (see the first image below). Other clinical features include upper and/or lower eyelid retraction (see the second image below), restrictive myopathy causing (double vision), , and exposure . Although most patients

2014 eMedicine Radiology

98. Pituitary Anatomy

Pituitary Anatomy Pituitary Anatomy Toggle navigation Brain Head & Neck Chest Endocrine Abdomen Musculoskeletal Skin Infectious Disease Hematology & Oncology Cohorts Diagnostics Emergency Findings Procedures Prevention & Management Pharmacy Resuscitation Trauma Emergency Procedures Ultrasound Cardiovascular Emergencies Lung Emergencies Infectious Disease Pediatrics Neurologic Emergencies Skin Exposure Miscellaneous Abuse Cancer Administration 4 Pituitary Anatomy Pituitary Anatomy Aka: Pituitary (...) Anatomy , Pituitary Gland , Lactotroph , Gonadotroph , Somatotroph , Corticotroph , Thyrotroph II. Anatomy: Images Lewis (1918) Gray's Anatomy 20th ed (in at or ) Lewis (1918) Gray's Anatomy 20th ed (in at or ) Lewis (1918) Gray's Anatomy 20th ed (in at or ) III. Physiology: Cell types of Pituitary Gland Lactotrophs secreting cells Gonadotrophs (LH) secreting cells (FSH) secreting cells Somatotroph secreting cells (GH) Corticotroph Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) secreting cells Thyrotroph

2015 FP Notebook

99. Larynx Anatomy

Larynx Anatomy Larynx Anatomy Toggle navigation Brain Head & Neck Chest Endocrine Abdomen Musculoskeletal Skin Infectious Disease Hematology & Oncology Cohorts Diagnostics Emergency Findings Procedures Prevention & Management Pharmacy Resuscitation Trauma Emergency Procedures Ultrasound Cardiovascular Emergencies Lung Emergencies Infectious Disease Pediatrics Neurologic Emergencies Skin Exposure Miscellaneous Abuse Cancer Administration 4 Larynx Anatomy Larynx Anatomy Aka: Larynx Anatomy (...) , Laryngeal Anatomy , Larynx , Vocal Cords II. Physiology Sounds are generated by Larynx when air us forced through Vocal Cords that are partially closed Sound is further modified by lip, and III. Anatomy: Three levels of Larynx (from base of Tongue, down to trachea) Supraglottis ( base to above true Vocal Cords) Protected by , cartilage Contains epiglottis, false Vocal Cords, arytenoids Glottis (true Vocal Cords to 1 cm below) Protected by cartilage Contains true Vocal Cords Subglottis (below true Vocal

2015 FP Notebook

100. Parathyroid Anatomy

Parathyroid Anatomy Parathyroid Anatomy Toggle navigation Brain Head & Neck Chest Endocrine Abdomen Musculoskeletal Skin Infectious Disease Hematology & Oncology Cohorts Diagnostics Emergency Findings Procedures Prevention & Management Pharmacy Resuscitation Trauma Emergency Procedures Ultrasound Cardiovascular Emergencies Lung Emergencies Infectious Disease Pediatrics Neurologic Emergencies Skin Exposure Miscellaneous Abuse Cancer Administration 4 Parathyroid Anatomy Parathyroid Anatomy Aka (...) : Parathyroid Anatomy , Parathyroid Gland , Parathyroid II. Anatomy Images Lewis (1918) Gray's Anatomy 20th ed (in at or ) Four Parathyroid Glands in neck One gland positioned behind each of poles III. Physiology Parathyroid Gland regulates extracellular calcium Parathyroid synthesizes (PTH) Parathyroid increases PTH release when calcium falls See for PTH physiology PTH rises when calcium falls, and increases calcium PTH falls when calcium rises, and decreases calcium IV. Pathophysiology See See Images

2015 FP Notebook

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