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Thyroid Anatomy

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41. Berry's ligament and the inferior thyroid artery as reliable anatomical landmarks for the recurrent laryngeal nerve. a fresh-cadaveric study of the cervical spine. the recurrent laryngeal nerve (RLN) relevant to spine. (PubMed)

exposure in fresh cadavers, with the intention of investigating the Inferior Thyroid Artery (ITA) and Berry's ligament as reliable landmarks for the identification of the RLN in anterior cervical spine surgery.Eight fresh cadavers had layer by layer dissections by two surgeons (one with extensive experience as anatomy dissector) from C2 to T2-T3, with particular attention to illustrating the surgical anatomy of the RLN pertinent to spine.We exposed, traced, and referenced the position of RLNs along (...) Berry's ligament and the inferior thyroid artery as reliable anatomical landmarks for the recurrent laryngeal nerve. a fresh-cadaveric study of the cervical spine. the recurrent laryngeal nerve (RLN) relevant to spine. Although most cadaveric studies of the Recurrent Laryngeal Nerve (RLN) have focused on course variations, they have usually been done on preserved (fixed and embalmed) cadavers, which renders the RLN immobile and of less surgical landmark value.Our aim was to perform a thorough

2017 The Spine Journal

42. Relationship of the Recurrent Laryngeal Nerve to the Inferior Thyroid Artery: A Comparison of Findings from Two Systematic Reviews. (PubMed)

Relationship of the Recurrent Laryngeal Nerve to the Inferior Thyroid Artery: A Comparison of Findings from Two Systematic Reviews. Systematic reviews (SRs) of anatomical studies may include a meta-analysis (MA) that provides weighted averages as pooled estimates of prevalence. The relationship of the recurrent laryngeal nerve (RLN) to the inferior thyroid artery (ITA) or its branches has been assessed in two published SRs, one without MA of 32 studies (SR1) and the other with MA of 79 studies (...) % on the left) and close to the findings published in SR2. These consistent findings should be relevant to surgeons in attempting to avoid iatrogenic injury to RLNs. Comparison of methods and results from two or more SRs on the same anatomical relationships may be useful in evidence-based anatomy. Clin. Anat. 30:318-321, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.© 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

2017 Clinical anatomy (New York, N.Y.)

43. Orbital Decompression for Thyroid Eye Disease. (PubMed)

Orbital Decompression for Thyroid Eye Disease. The literature regarding orbital decompression for thyroid eye disease is vast, spanning multiple specialty areas including neurosurgery, head and neck, maxillofacial, and ophthalmic plastic surgery. Although techniques have advanced considerably over the more than 100 years during which this procedure has been performed, the 4 major approaches remain: transorbital, transcranial, transantral, and transnasal. The explosion in literature related (...) to orbital decompression has mostly involved minor technical variations on broader surgical themes. The purpose of this review is to organize the major approaches in terms of bony anatomy and to contextualize variation in transdisciplinary techniques within a common conceptualization.Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

2017 Survey of Ophthalmology

44. Ultrasound Measurements of Thyroid Gland Volume at 36 Weeks’ Corrected Gestational Age in Extremely Preterm Infants Born before 28 Weeks’ Gestation (PubMed)

Ultrasound Measurements of Thyroid Gland Volume at 36 Weeks’ Corrected Gestational Age in Extremely Preterm Infants Born before 28 Weeks’ Gestation Thyroid ultrasound is a non-invasive imaging tool and provides good evaluation of thyroid anatomy, location, vascularisation, and echogenicity. The aim of this study was to assess thyroid function and thyroid volume in extremely preterm infants born before 28 weeks' gestation evaluated at 36 weeks' corrected gestational age (CGA) compared (...) to term infants' normative data in the literature.In this largest prospective UK study of extremely premature infants born at less than 28 weeks' gestation, thyroid volume measurement was assessed at 36 weeks' CGA. Fifty-five extremely preterm infants (28 males) who were born before 28 weeks' gestation were recruited to the study. All infants had ultrasound assessment of the thyroid gland at 36 weeks' CGA. We also prospectively measured thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) and free thyroxine (FT4) in all

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2017 European thyroid journal

45. Life threatening presentation of thoracic duct injury post thyroid surgery; a case report (PubMed)

. Immediate surgical exploration is necessary when patients present with neck swelling and respiratory distress. In our case, a high output chyle leak in a confined space was life threatening.Timely re-exploration following thyroid surgery and thorough knowledge of the anatomy of neck structures is crucial in sparing patients potential morbidity and/or mortality.Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved. (...) Life threatening presentation of thoracic duct injury post thyroid surgery; a case report Injury to thoracic duct is a rare potential complication of time-honored conventional thyroidectomy. Nevertheless, it can be a cause of significant morbidity, and sometimes life-threatening.A 78-year-old female patient with a previous surgical history of thyroid lobectomy for nodular disease presented with primary hyperparathyroidism, and a nodule in the remaining thyroid lobe. The patient underwent

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2017 International journal of surgery case reports

46. Atypical Pharyngeal Pouch Arising Bilaterally between the Hyoid Bone and Thyroid Cartilage (PubMed)

a unique case of pharyngoesophageal diverticulum that has not been previously described. Case Presentation. A 65-year-old male presented with a 12-month history of dysphagia and odynophagia for solids. Barium swallow revealed bilateral moderately sized diverticuli that altered in size during the different phases of swallow. CT scan of the neck with oral contrast further identified the anatomy of the diverticuli, arising between the hyoid bone and thyroid cartilage. Discussion. An external transcervical (...) Atypical Pharyngeal Pouch Arising Bilaterally between the Hyoid Bone and Thyroid Cartilage Introduction. Pharyngoesophageal diverticuli are a common cause of dysphagia; they are associated with various morbidities and a decreased quality of life. There are several different types of the diverticuli, and they are divided based on the anatomical location of origin relative to the cricopharyngeal muscle; these include Zenker's, Killian-Jamieson's, and Laimer's diverticula. The authors present

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2017 Case reports in otolaryngology

47. Patterns of Thyroid Cancers in Southeastern Nigeria: A 15 Year Histopathologic Review (2000-2014) (PubMed)

retrospective review of all thyroidectomy specimens received at the Depart-ment of Morbid Anatomy, University of Nigeria, Enugu Campus, Enugu, Nigeria. The age, sex and histologic subtypes of diagnosed TCs were analysed using Predictive Analytics Software (PASW) Statistics for Windows, Version 18 (Chicago: SPSS Inc.) and the results were expressed in descriptive statistics.Sixty one cases of TCs were identified in this study constituting 10.8% of thyroid biopsies received at our centre during the period (...) Patterns of Thyroid Cancers in Southeastern Nigeria: A 15 Year Histopathologic Review (2000-2014) Thyroid Cancer (TC) continues to be the most common endocrine cancer with a worldwide increase in incidence over the last three decades. This trend has been reported in all continents except Africa, where detection is adjudged to be insufficient, making it imperative for us to re-evaluate the patterns in our environment.To determine the patterns of TCs in Southeastern Nigeria.This was a 15-year

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2017 Journal of clinical and diagnostic research : JCDR

48. Blunt injury to the thyroid gland: A case of delayed surgical emergency (PubMed)

Blunt injury to the thyroid gland: A case of delayed surgical emergency 28680522 2018 11 13 1920-8642 8 3 2017 World journal of emergency medicine World J Emerg Med Blunt injury to the thyroid gland: A case of delayed surgical emergency. 231-232 10.5847/wjem.j.1920-8642.2017.03.012 Galvaing Geraud G Department of Thoracic and Endocrine Surgery, Jean Perrin Comprehensive Cancer Center, Clermont-Ferrand, France. Department of Anatomy, Clermont-Ferrand School of Medicine, Université d'Auvergne

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2017 World journal of emergency medicine

49. Thyroid Carcinoma

majority of patients with WDTC will do well with appropriate treatment. The high long-term survivorship and relative rarity of the disease have frustrated efforts to execute randomized trials, so management recommendations are not guided by conventional modern standards in oncology. Anatomy and Physiology of the Thyroid Gland The thyroid gland is a bilobed organ joined at the isthmus, which is located just inferior to the cricoid cartilage and surrounds the anterior portion of the trachea (...) Thyroid Carcinoma Date of origin: 2013 ACR Appropriateness Criteria ® 1 Thyroid Carcinoma American College of Radiology ACR Appropriateness Criteria ® THYROID CARCINOMA Expert Panel on Radiation Oncology–Head & Neck Cancer: Joseph K. Salama, MD 1 ; Daniel W. Golden, MD 2 ; Jonathan J. Beitler, MD, MBA 3 ; Sue S. Yom, MD, PhD 4 ; Madhur Kumar Garg, MD 5 ; Joshua Lawson, MD 6 ; Mark W. McDonald, MD 7 ; Harry Quon, MD, MS 8 ; John A. Ridge, MD, PhD 9 ; Nabil Saba, MD 10 ; Richard V. Smith, MD 11

2013 American College of Radiology

50. Improving Voice Outcomes After Thyroid Surgery

heavily on voice production. , , Individuals suffering from dysphonia may require more days off to recover or may need to change their job to accommodate a permanent dysphonia. Surgical Anatomy The thyroid gland sits in the lower anterior portion of the neck, deep to the cervical strap muscles and anterior to the trachea and esophagus, and inferior to the thyroid cartilage ( ). Nerves of concern during thyroid surgery are the RLN and SLN, which are the main focus of the current discussion. Figure 1 (...) Improving Voice Outcomes After Thyroid Surgery Clinical Practice Guideline: Improving Voice Outcomes after Thyroid Surgery - Sujana S. Chandrasekhar, Gregory W. Randolph, Michael D. Seidman, Richard M. Rosenfeld, Peter Angelos, Julie Barkmeier-Kraemer, Michael S. Benninger, Joel H. Blumin, Gregory Dennis, John Hanks, Megan R. Haymart, Richard T. Kloos, Brenda Seals, Jerry M. Schreibstein, Mack A. Thomas, Carolyn Waddington, Barbara Warren, Peter J. Robertson, 2013 MENU IN THIS JOURNAL Sign

2013 American Academy of Otolaryngology - Head and Neck Surgery

51. Management of Thyroid Cancer

Management of Thyroid Cancer CLINICAL ENDOCRINOLOGY VOLUME 81 SUPPLEMENT 1 JULY 2014 THE CLINICAL JOURNAL OF THE SOCIETY FOR ENDOCRINOLOGY AND THE ENDOCRINE SOCIETY OF AUSTRALIA British Thyroid Association Guidelines for the Management of Thyroid CancerGuidelines for the management of thyroid cancer Third edition British Thyroid Association July 2014 Perros P, Colley S, Boelaert K, Evans C, Evans RM, Gerrard GE, Gilbert JA, Harrison B, Johnson SJ, Giles TE, Moss L, Lewington V , Newbold KL (...) , Taylor J, Thakker RV , Watkinson J, Williams GR cen_frontmatter.indd i cen_frontmatter.indd i 6/27/2014 3:52:19 PM 6/27/2014 3:52:19 PMii Acknowledgements Grateful thanks are expressed to the many reviewers of these guidelines. These included leading international experts in thyroid cancer, hospital specialists, and general practitioners. They devoted much time and care to considering the document and their recommendations and suggestions for improvements were most valuable. Special thanks to Dr

2014 British Association of Endocrine and Thyroid Surgeons

52. Management of Thyroid Dysfunction during Pregnancy and Postpartum

after 131 I exposure. USPSTF recommendation level: I; evidence, poor (2|⊕○○○). 2.2.3. In women with TRAb or thyroid-stimulating Ig elevated at least 2- to 3-fold the normal level and in women treated with ATD, maternal free T 4 and fetal thyroid dysfunction should be screened for during the fetal anatomy ultrasound done in the 18th-22nd week and repeated every 4–6 wk or as clinically indicated. Evidence of fetal thyroid dysfunction could include thyroid enlargement, growth restriction, hydrops (...) level, and in women treated with ATD, maternal free T 4 and fetal thyroid dysfunction should be screened for during the fetal anatomy ultrasound (18th-22nd wk) and repeated every 4–6 wk or as clinically indicated. Evidence of fetal thyroid dysfunction could include thyroid enlargement, growth restriction, hydrops, presence of goiter, advanced bone age, tachycardia, or cardiac failure. If fetal hyperthyroidism is diagnosed and thought to endanger the pregnancy, treatment using MMI or PTU should

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2012 The Endocrine Society

53. The Anatomy of Secretion in the Follicular Cells of the Thyroid Gland : I. The Fine Structure of the Gland in the Normal Rat (PubMed)

The Anatomy of Secretion in the Follicular Cells of the Thyroid Gland : I. The Fine Structure of the Gland in the Normal Rat The paper contains a description of the fine structure of the thyroid gland of the normal rat. The follicular colloid, a homogeneous substance of faintly granular texture, is bounded by cuboidal or low columnar epithelial cells. Numerous pleomorphic microvilli, often permeated by small vesicles extend from the apices of the epithelial cells into the colloid. Many small

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1960 The Journal of biophysical and biochemical cytology

54. THE ANATOMY OF SECRETION IN THE FOLLICULAR CELLS OF THE THYROID GLAND : II. The Effect of Acute Thyrotrophic Hormone Stimulation on the Secretory Apparatus (PubMed)

THE ANATOMY OF SECRETION IN THE FOLLICULAR CELLS OF THE THYROID GLAND : II. The Effect of Acute Thyrotrophic Hormone Stimulation on the Secretory Apparatus This paper reports a study by phase contrast and electron microscopy of changes observed in the thyroid gland of the rat at 1, 2, 12, and 24 hours following an injection of thyrotrophic hormone. Examination by phase contrast microscopy reveals that follicular cells contain numerous colloid droplets 1 and 2 hours after injection. By 12 and 24

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1963 The Journal of cell biology

55. CONCERNING THE SURGICAL ANATOMY OF THE THYROID WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO THE PARATHYROID GLANDS (PubMed)

CONCERNING THE SURGICAL ANATOMY OF THE THYROID WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO THE PARATHYROID GLANDS 17863480 2007 09 17 2008 11 20 0003-4932 63 1 1916 Jan Annals of surgery Ann. Surg. CONCERNING THE SURGICAL ANATOMY OF THE THYROID WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO THE PARATHYROID GLANDS. 71-7 Pool E H EH Falk H C HC eng Journal Article United States Ann Surg 0372354 0003-4932 1916 1 1 0 0 1916 1 1 0 1 1916 1 1 0 0 ppublish 17863480 PMC1406765

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1916 Annals of Surgery

56. The Comparative Anatomy, Gross and Minute, of the Thyroid and Parathyroid Glands in Mammals and Birds: Part II (PubMed)

The Comparative Anatomy, Gross and Minute, of the Thyroid and Parathyroid Glands in Mammals and Birds: Part II 17232773 2007 02 07 2008 11 20 42 Pt 3 1908 Apr Journal of anatomy and physiology J Anat Physiol The Comparative Anatomy, Gross and Minute, of the Thyroid and Parathyroid Glands in Mammals and Birds: Part II. 302-19 Forsyth D D Charing Cross Hospital. eng Journal Article England J Anat Physiol 7900125 1908 4 1 0 0 1908 4 1 0 1 1908 4 1 0 0 ppublish 17232773 PMC1289166

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1908 Journal of Anatomy and Physiology

57. THE SURGICAL ANATOMY OF THE UPPER AND LOWER POLES OF THE THYROID GLAND WITH REFERENCE TO THYROIDECTOMY (PubMed)

THE SURGICAL ANATOMY OF THE UPPER AND LOWER POLES OF THE THYROID GLAND WITH REFERENCE TO THYROIDECTOMY 17863323 2007 09 17 2008 11 20 0003-4932 61 3 1915 Mar Annals of surgery Ann. Surg. THE SURGICAL ANATOMY OF THE UPPER AND LOWER POLES OF THE THYROID GLAND WITH REFERENCE TO THYROIDECTOMY. 268-72 Ginsburg N N eng Journal Article United States Ann Surg 0372354 0003-4932 1915 3 1 0 0 1915 3 1 0 1 1915 3 1 0 0 ppublish 17863323 PMC1406549

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1915 Annals of Surgery

58. The Comparative Anatomy, Gross and Minute, of the Thyroid and Parathyroid Glands in Mammals and Birds: Part I (PubMed)

The Comparative Anatomy, Gross and Minute, of the Thyroid and Parathyroid Glands in Mammals and Birds: Part I 17232761 2007 02 07 2008 11 20 42 Pt 2 1908 Jan Journal of anatomy and physiology J Anat Physiol The Comparative Anatomy, Gross and Minute, of the Thyroid and Parathyroid Glands in Mammals and Birds: Part I. 141-69 Forsyth D D Charing Cross Hospital. eng Journal Article England J Anat Physiol 7900125 1908 1 1 0 0 1908 1 1 0 1 1908 1 1 0 0 ppublish 17232761 PMC1289173

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1908 Journal of Anatomy and Physiology

59. SURGICAL ANATOMY OF THE RECURRENT LARYNGEAL NERVE WITH ESPECIAL REFERENCE TO THYROID SURGERY (PubMed)

SURGICAL ANATOMY OF THE RECURRENT LARYNGEAL NERVE WITH ESPECIAL REFERENCE TO THYROID SURGERY 17865682 2007 09 17 2008 11 20 0003-4932 85 6 1927 Jun Annals of surgery Ann. Surg. SURGICAL ANATOMY OF THE RECURRENT LARYNGEAL NERVE WITH ESPECIAL REFERENCE TO THYROID SURGERY. 827-38 Higgins C C CC eng Journal Article United States Ann Surg 0372354 0003-4932 1927 6 1 0 0 1927 6 1 0 1 1927 6 1 0 0 ppublish 17865682 PMC1399405

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1927 Annals of Surgery

60. Incidence, Risk Factors, and Clinical Outcomes of Incidental Parathyroidectomy During Thyroid Surgery. (PubMed)

. Patients with IP were more likely to have postoperative biochemical and symptomatic hypocalcemia than controls, showing that there is a physiologic consequence to IP. Additionally, intraoperative surgeon identification of parathyroid glands results in a lower incidence of IP, highlighting the importance of awareness of parathyroid anatomy during thyroid surgery. (...) Incidence, Risk Factors, and Clinical Outcomes of Incidental Parathyroidectomy During Thyroid Surgery. The reported rate of incidental parathyroidectomy (IP) during thyroid surgery is between 5.2 and 21.6 %. Current literature reports wide discrepancy in incidence, risk factors, and outcomes. Thus study was designed to address definitively the topic of IP and identify associated risk factors and clinical outcomes with this multi-institutional study.This retrospective cohort study included 1767

2016 Annals of Surgical Oncology

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