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Thyroid Anatomy

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21. Anatomy of the external branch of the superior laryngeal nerve in Asian population (PubMed)

Anatomy of the external branch of the superior laryngeal nerve in Asian population Injury to the external branch of the superior laryngeal nerve (eSLN) can cause a hoarse or weak voice with dysergia of the cricothyroid. The present study provided the topographic information of the eSLN in the Asian and verified anatomical validity of the landmarks previously recruited to localize the eSLN. Thirty specimens were dissected from 16 human embalmed cadavers (12 men and four women; mean age: 80.5 (...) years). The vertical distance between the eSLN and the apical pole of the thyroid gland (AP) was 8.2 ± 4.2 mm. It descended over the AP with <1 cm distance in 51.7%, >1 cm distance in 27.6% and under the AP in 20.7%. The piercing point (PP) of the eSLN to the muscles located 26.0 ± 5.5 mm posterior and 14.7 ± 5.0 mm inferior to the laryngeal prominence. Generally, the PP located superoposterior to the midpoint of the joint between the joint of inferior constrictor and cricothyroid (ICJ

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2017 Scientific reports

22. Anatomical considerations of the superior thyroid artery: its origins, variations, and position relative to the hyoid bone and thyroid cartilage (PubMed)

Anatomical considerations of the superior thyroid artery: its origins, variations, and position relative to the hyoid bone and thyroid cartilage The aim of this study was to provide accurate anatomical descriptions of the overall anatomy of the superior thyroid artery (STA), its relationship to other structures, and its driving patterns. Detailed dissection was performed on thirty specimens of adult's cadaveric neck specimens and each dissected specimen was carefully measured the following (...) patterns and distances using digital and ruler. The superior thyroid, lingual, and facial arteries arise independently from the external carotid artery (ECA), but can also arise together, as the thyrolingual or linguofacial trunk. We observed that 83.3% of STAs arose independently from the major artery, while 16.7% of the cases arose from thyrolingual or linguofacial trunk. We also measured the distance of STA from its major artery. The origin of the STA from the ECA was 0.9±0.4 mm below the hyoid bone

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2016 Anatomy & cell biology

23. American Thyroid Association Consensus Review and Statement Regarding the Anatomy, Terminology, and Rationale for Lateral Neck Dissection in Differentiated Thyroid Cancer. (PubMed)

American Thyroid Association Consensus Review and Statement Regarding the Anatomy, Terminology, and Rationale for Lateral Neck Dissection in Differentiated Thyroid Cancer. Cervical lymph node metastases from differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) are common. Thirty to eighty percent of patients with papillary thyroid cancer harbor lymph node metastases, with the central neck being the most common compartment involved. The goals of this study were to: (1) identify appropriate methods (...) for determining metastatic DTC in the lateral neck and (2) address the extent of lymph node dissection for the lateral neck necessary to control nodal disease balanced against known risks of surgery.A literature review followed by formulation of a consensus statement was performed.Four proposals regarding management of the lateral neck are made for consideration by organizations developing management guidelines for patients with thyroid nodules and DTC including the next iteration of management guidelines

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2012 Thyroid

24. American Thyroid Association Consensus Review of the Anatomy, Terminology and Rationale for Lateral Neck Dissection in Differentiated Thyroid Cancer. (PubMed)

American Thyroid Association Consensus Review of the Anatomy, Terminology and Rationale for Lateral Neck Dissection in Differentiated Thyroid Cancer.

2012 Thyroid

25. Management of Thyroid Cancer

Management of Thyroid Cancer CLINICAL ENDOCRINOLOGY VOLUME 81 SUPPLEMENT 1 JULY 2014 THE CLINICAL JOURNAL OF THE SOCIETY FOR ENDOCRINOLOGY AND THE ENDOCRINE SOCIETY OF AUSTRALIA British Thyroid Association Guidelines for the Management of Thyroid CancerGuidelines for the management of thyroid cancer Third edition British Thyroid Association July 2014 Perros P, Colley S, Boelaert K, Evans C, Evans RM, Gerrard GE, Gilbert JA, Harrison B, Johnson SJ, Giles TE, Moss L, Lewington V , Newbold KL (...) , Taylor J, Thakker RV , Watkinson J, Williams GR cen_frontmatter.indd i cen_frontmatter.indd i 6/27/2014 3:52:19 PM 6/27/2014 3:52:19 PMii Acknowledgements Grateful thanks are expressed to the many reviewers of these guidelines. These included leading international experts in thyroid cancer, hospital specialists, and general practitioners. They devoted much time and care to considering the document and their recommendations and suggestions for improvements were most valuable. Special thanks to Dr

2014 British Thyroid Association

26. Morphology and Functional Anatomy of the Recurrent Laryngeal Nerve with Extralaryngeal Terminal Bifurcation (PubMed)

Morphology and Functional Anatomy of the Recurrent Laryngeal Nerve with Extralaryngeal Terminal Bifurcation Anatomical variations of the recurrent laryngeal nerve (RLN), such as an extralaryngeal terminal bifurcation (ETB), threaten the safety of thyroid surgery. Besides the morphology of the nerve branches, intraoperative evaluation of their functional anatomy may be useful to preserve motor activity. We exposed 67 RLNs in 36 patients. The main trunk, bifurcation point, and terminal branches (...) of bifid nerves were macroscopically determined and exposed during thyroid surgery. The functional anatomy of the nerve branches was evaluated by intraoperative nerve monitoring (IONM). Forty-six RLNs with an ETB were intraoperatively exposed. The bifurcation point was located along the prearterial, arterial, and postarterial segments in 11%, 39%, and 50% of bifid RLNs, respectively. Motor activity was determined in all anterior branches. The functional anatomy of terminal branches detected motor

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2016 Anatomy research international

27. Parathyroid Anatomy

Parathyroid Anatomy Parathyroid Anatomy Toggle navigation Brain Head & Neck Chest Endocrine Abdomen Musculoskeletal Skin Infectious Disease Hematology & Oncology Cohorts Diagnostics Emergency Findings Procedures Prevention & Management Pharmacy Resuscitation Trauma Emergency Procedures Ultrasound Cardiovascular Emergencies Lung Emergencies Infectious Disease Pediatrics Neurologic Emergencies Skin Exposure Miscellaneous Abuse Cancer Administration 4 Parathyroid Anatomy Parathyroid Anatomy Aka (...) : Parathyroid Anatomy , Parathyroid Gland , Parathyroid II. Anatomy Images Lewis (1918) Gray's Anatomy 20th ed (in at or ) Four Parathyroid Glands in neck One gland positioned behind each of poles III. Physiology Parathyroid Gland regulates extracellular calcium Parathyroid synthesizes (PTH) Parathyroid increases PTH release when calcium falls See for PTH physiology PTH rises when calcium falls, and increases calcium PTH falls when calcium rises, and decreases calcium IV. Pathophysiology See See Images

2018 FP Notebook

28. Uterine Anatomy

Uterine Anatomy Uterine Anatomy Toggle navigation Brain Head & Neck Chest Endocrine Abdomen Musculoskeletal Skin Infectious Disease Hematology & Oncology Cohorts Diagnostics Emergency Findings Procedures Prevention & Management Pharmacy Resuscitation Trauma Emergency Procedures Ultrasound Cardiovascular Emergencies Lung Emergencies Infectious Disease Pediatrics Neurologic Emergencies Skin Exposure Miscellaneous Abuse Cancer Administration 4 Uterine Anatomy Uterine Anatomy Aka: Uterine Anatomy (...) , Uterus Anatomy , Uterus II. Anatomy Lewis (1918) Gray's Anatomy 20th ed (in at or ) Images: Related links to external sites (from Bing) These images are a random sampling from a Bing search on the term "Uterine Anatomy." Click on the image (or right click) to open the source website in a new browser window. Related Studies (from Trip Database) Ontology: Uterine Diseases (C0042131) Definition (MEDLINEPLUS) The uterus, or womb, is the place where a baby grows when a woman is pregnant. The first sign

2018 FP Notebook

29. Head and Neck Anatomy

Head and Neck Anatomy Head and Neck Anatomy Toggle navigation Brain Head & Neck Chest Endocrine Abdomen Musculoskeletal Skin Infectious Disease Hematology & Oncology Cohorts Diagnostics Emergency Findings Procedures Prevention & Management Pharmacy Resuscitation Trauma Emergency Procedures Ultrasound Cardiovascular Emergencies Lung Emergencies Infectious Disease Pediatrics Neurologic Emergencies Skin Exposure Miscellaneous Abuse Cancer Administration 4 Head and Neck Anatomy Head and Neck (...) Anatomy Aka: Head and Neck Anatomy , Head Anatomy II. Components Head Sensory Nose and Pharynx Related Anatomy III. Anatomy Lewis (1918) Gray's Anatomy 20th ed (in at or ) Lewis (1918) Gray's Anatomy 20th ed (in at or ) Lewis (1918) Gray's Anatomy 20th ed (in at or ) Lewis (1918) Gray's Anatomy 20th ed (in at or ) Images: Related links to external sites (from Bing) These images are a random sampling from a Bing search on the term "Head and Neck Anatomy." Click on the image (or right click) to open

2018 FP Notebook

30. Pituitary Anatomy

Pituitary Anatomy Pituitary Anatomy Toggle navigation Brain Head & Neck Chest Endocrine Abdomen Musculoskeletal Skin Infectious Disease Hematology & Oncology Cohorts Diagnostics Emergency Findings Procedures Prevention & Management Pharmacy Resuscitation Trauma Emergency Procedures Ultrasound Cardiovascular Emergencies Lung Emergencies Infectious Disease Pediatrics Neurologic Emergencies Skin Exposure Miscellaneous Abuse Cancer Administration 4 Pituitary Anatomy Pituitary Anatomy Aka: Pituitary (...) Anatomy , Pituitary Gland , Lactotroph , Gonadotroph , Somatotroph , Corticotroph , Thyrotroph II. Anatomy: Images Lewis (1918) Gray's Anatomy 20th ed (in at or ) Lewis (1918) Gray's Anatomy 20th ed (in at or ) Lewis (1918) Gray's Anatomy 20th ed (in at or ) III. Physiology: Cell types of Pituitary Gland Lactotrophs secreting cells Gonadotrophs (LH) secreting cells (FSH) secreting cells Somatotroph secreting cells (GH) Corticotroph Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) secreting cells Thyrotroph

2018 FP Notebook

31. Larynx Anatomy

Larynx Anatomy Larynx Anatomy Toggle navigation Brain Head & Neck Chest Endocrine Abdomen Musculoskeletal Skin Infectious Disease Hematology & Oncology Cohorts Diagnostics Emergency Findings Procedures Prevention & Management Pharmacy Resuscitation Trauma Emergency Procedures Ultrasound Cardiovascular Emergencies Lung Emergencies Infectious Disease Pediatrics Neurologic Emergencies Skin Exposure Miscellaneous Abuse Cancer Administration 4 Larynx Anatomy Larynx Anatomy Aka: Larynx Anatomy (...) , Laryngeal Anatomy , Larynx , Vocal Cords II. Physiology Sounds are generated by Larynx when air us forced through Vocal Cords that are partially closed Sound is further modified by lip, and III. Anatomy: Three levels of Larynx (from base of Tongue, down to trachea) Supraglottis ( base to above true Vocal Cords) Protected by , cartilage Contains epiglottis, false Vocal Cords, arytenoids Glottis (true Vocal Cords to 1 cm below) Protected by cartilage Contains true Vocal Cords Subglottis (below true Vocal

2018 FP Notebook

32. Design and Production of Two-piece Thyroid-neck Phantom by the Concurrent Use of Epoxy Resin and Poly(methyl methacrylate) Soft Tissue Equivalent Materials (PubMed)

) and measurements (practical dosimetry) and compared to those related to human soft tissue (ICRU 44). The thyroid-neck phantom and thyroid gland dimensions were derived from scientific references and the atlas of human anatomy, respectively. The thyroid phantom was designed by CATIA V5R16 software and produced by the epoxy resin compound by three-dimensional printer. Other organs were designed by ProNest software and made by the plexiglass sheets by CNC laser cutting machine. The mass attenuation coefficients (...) Design and Production of Two-piece Thyroid-neck Phantom by the Concurrent Use of Epoxy Resin and Poly(methyl methacrylate) Soft Tissue Equivalent Materials The aim of this report is to present a new two-piece thyroid-neck phantom produced by the concurrent use of epoxy resin and poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA: plexiglass) soft tissue equivalent materials. Accordingly, mass attenuation coefficients of the epoxy resin and the plexiglass compounds were obtained from simulation (NIST XCOM 3.1

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2018 Journal of Biomedical Physics & Engineering

33. Predictive Parameters for Difficult Tracheal Intubation Identification in Thyroid Surgery

Information provided by (Responsible Party): Alessandro De Cassai, University of Padova Study Details Study Description Go to Brief Summary: Intubation manoeuvres in patients undergoing thyroid surgery might be challenging for anesthesiologist. Thyroid gland enlargement (goiter) or tissue fibrosis (neoplasms) could alter the physiologic anatomy of upper airways and trachea, resulting in compression or dislocation. We want to evaluate the incidence and identify predictive parameters of difficult intubation (...) in patients undergoing thyroid surgery. Condition or disease Intervention/treatment Intubation;Difficult Other: Thyroid surgery Detailed Description: Intubation manoeuvres in patients undergoing thyroid surgery might be challenging for anesthesiologist. Thyroid gland enlargement (goiter) or tissue fibrosis (neoplasms) could alter the physiologic anatomy of upper airways and trachea, resulting in compression or dislocation. There are few scientific data about airway management and thyroid pathology

2018 Clinical Trials

34. Ectopic thyroid tissue presenting as a new neck mass in a pediatric patient (PubMed)

Ectopic thyroid tissue presenting as a new neck mass in a pediatric patient Ectopic thyroid tissue is an uncommon, but well-documented condition. We present a case of an ectopic thyroid gland with an atypical presentation as a new neck mass in a 3-year-old female without symptoms of hypothyroidism. Imaging confirmed ectopic thyroid and suggested thyroiditis due to hyperemia and heterogeneity on ultrasound. However, there were no laboratory findings of hypothyroidism. An understanding of anatomy (...) and sonographic features of ectopic thyroid gland allows the radiologist to provide a more accurate differential diagnosis in the setting of a neck mass.

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2018 Radiology Case Reports

35. Displacement of the Recurrent Laryngeal Nerve in Patients with Recurrent Goiter Undergoing Redo Thyroid Surgery (PubMed)

Displacement of the Recurrent Laryngeal Nerve in Patients with Recurrent Goiter Undergoing Redo Thyroid Surgery Thyroid reoperations are surgically challenging because of scarring and disturbances in the anatomy of the recurrent laryngeal nerve (RLN). This study was conducted on 49 patients who underwent redo surgery. 61 RLNs were identified and completely exposed. Their functional integrity was evaluated using intraoperative nerve monitoring (IONM). Indications for secondary surgery (...) , anatomical changes secondary to recurrent goiter mass and prior surgery, and results of IONM were studied. Frequent indications for redo surgery were multinodular goiter (MNG) in 19 (38.8%) and results of cytology in 14 (28.5%) patients. The mean time interval between primary and redo thyroid surgery was 23.4 years. We laterally approached 41 (67.2%) thyroid lobes between the sternocleidomastoid and sternohyoid muscles. 16 (26.2%) RLNs were found to be adherent to the lateral surface of the corresponding

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2018 Journal of thyroid research

36. Deafness and loss of cochlear hair cells in the absence of thyroid hormone transporters Slc16a2 (Mct8) and Slc16a10 (Mct10) (PubMed)

thyroxine (T4) have been identified in vitro but the wider significance of such transporters in vivo is unclear. The development of the auditory system requires thyroid hormone and the cochlea is a primary target tissue. We have proposed that the compartmental anatomy of the cochlea would necessitate transport mechanisms to convey blood-borne hormone to target tissues. We report hearing loss in mice with mutations in Slc16a2 and a related gene Slc16a10 (Mct10, Tat1). Deficiency of both transporters (...) Deafness and loss of cochlear hair cells in the absence of thyroid hormone transporters Slc16a2 (Mct8) and Slc16a10 (Mct10) Transmembrane proteins that mediate the cellular uptake or efflux of thyroid hormone potentially provide a key level of control over neurodevelopment. In humans, defects in one such protein, solute carrier SLC16A2 (MCT8) are associated with psychomotor retardation. Other proteins that transport the active form of thyroid hormone triiodothyronine (T3) or its precursor

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2018 Scientific reports

37. THE ANATOMY OF SECRETION IN THE FOLLICULAR CELL OF THE THYROID GLAND : III. The Acute Effect in Vivo of Thyrotropic Hormone on Amino Acid Uptake and Incorporation into Protein by the Mouse Thyroid Gland (PubMed)

THE ANATOMY OF SECRETION IN THE FOLLICULAR CELL OF THE THYROID GLAND : III. The Acute Effect in Vivo of Thyrotropic Hormone on Amino Acid Uptake and Incorporation into Protein by the Mouse Thyroid Gland 5968979 1967 08 26 2018 11 13 0021-9525 30 2 1966 Aug The Journal of cell biology J. Cell Biol. The anatomy of secretion in the follicular cell of the thyroid gland. 3. The acute effect in vivo of thyrotropic hormone on amino acid uptake and incorporation into protein by the mouse thyroid gland (...) . 433-6 Bradley A S AS Wissig S L SL eng Journal Article United States J Cell Biol 0375356 0021-9525 0 Amino Acids 9002-71-5 Thyrotropin IM Amino Acids metabolism Animals Mice Protein Biosynthesis Thyroid Gland metabolism Thyrotropin pharmacology 1966 8 1 1966 8 1 0 1 1966 8 1 0 0 ppublish 5968979 PMC2106997 J Cell Biol. 1963 Jan;16:93-117 14001357 Science. 1953 Jan 30;117(3031):103-4 13028298 Endocrinology. 1960 Jul;67:70-81 14399138 Biochim Biophys Acta. 1961 Jul 8;50:513-20 13699360 J Cell Biol

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1966 The Journal of cell biology

38. Thyroid Cancer Treatment (PDQ®): Patient Version

for This Section Thyroid cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the tissues of the thyroid gland. The is a at the base of the near the (windpipe). It is shaped like a butterfly, with a right and a left lobe. The , a thin piece of , connects the two lobes. A healthy thyroid is a little larger than a quarter. It usually cannot be felt through the skin. Anatomy of the thyroid and parathyroid glands. The thyroid gland lies at the base of the throat near the trachea. It is shaped like (...) Thyroid Cancer Treatment (PDQ®): Patient Version Thyroid Cancer Treatment (Adult) (PDQ®) - PDQ Cancer Information Summaries - NCBI Bookshelf Warning: The NCBI web site requires JavaScript to function. Search database Search term Search NCBI Bookshelf. A service of the National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health. PDQ Cancer Information Summaries [Internet]. Bethesda (MD): National Cancer Institute (US); 2002-. PDQ Cancer Information Summaries [Internet]. Bethesda (MD): ; 2002

2016 PDQ - NCI's Comprehensive Cancer Database

39. mRNA Expression in Papillary and Anaplastic Thyroid Carcinoma: Molecular Anatomy of a Killing Switch (PubMed)

mRNA Expression in Papillary and Anaplastic Thyroid Carcinoma: Molecular Anatomy of a Killing Switch Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (ATC) is the most lethal form of thyroid neoplasia and represents the end stage of thyroid tumor progression. No effective treatment exists so far. ATC frequently derive from papillary thyroid carcinomas (PTC), which have a good prognosis. In this study, we analyzed the mRNA expression profiles of 59 thyroid tumors (11 ATC and 48 PTC) by microarrays. ATC and PTC

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2012 PloS one

40. Thyroid Anatomy

Thyroid Anatomy Thyroid Anatomy Toggle navigation Brain Head & Neck Chest Endocrine Abdomen Musculoskeletal Skin Infectious Disease Hematology & Oncology Cohorts Diagnostics Emergency Findings Procedures Prevention & Management Pharmacy Resuscitation Trauma Emergency Procedures Ultrasound Cardiovascular Emergencies Lung Emergencies Infectious Disease Pediatrics Neurologic Emergencies Skin Exposure Miscellaneous Abuse Cancer Administration 4 Thyroid Anatomy Thyroid Anatomy Aka: Thyroid Anatomy (...) , Thyroid Physiology , Thyroid , Thyroid Gland II. Embryology Develops from root (foramen cecum) Formed by 5th-6th week of development III. Anatomy Images Normal Adult Thyroid weighs 20-25g Components Two Lateral lobes Isthmus centrally connects the lobes Near structures Recurrent laryngeal nerve s IV. Physiology Stressors stimulate increased Thyroid function Pregnancy Physiologic stress Releasing Hormone (TRH) released TRH passes down pituitary stalk to pituitary Anterior Pituitary (TSH) released TSH

2015 FP Notebook

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