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Thyroid Releasing Hormone

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1. Thyroid hormone treatment does not help adults with mildly abnormal thyroid tests

of free thyroxine (T4) and high levels of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), which is released from the pituitary gland to try and stimulate the thyroid. Subclinical hypothyroidism is diagnosed when there is a raised level of TSH, but normal levels of free T4. It’s thought to affect around 5-6% of adults and is more common in women and older people. To date, there has been little evidence to guide the management of subclinical hypothyroidism. Two large randomised controlled trials were recently (...) Thyroid hormone treatment does not help adults with mildly abnormal thyroid tests Thyroid hormone treatment does not help adults with subclinical hypothyroidism Discover Portal Discover Portal Thyroid hormone treatment does not help adults with mildly abnormal thyroid tests Published on 8 January 2019 doi: There appears to be no benefit from treating adults with subclinical hypothyroidism. Treatment has no effect on quality of life or symptoms compared with placebo or no treatment. Thyroid

2019 NIHR Dissemination Centre

2. Effects of forced swimming stress on thyroid function, pituitary thyroid-stimulating hormone and hypothalamus thyrotropin releasing hormone expression in adrenalectomy Wistar rats (PubMed)

Effects of forced swimming stress on thyroid function, pituitary thyroid-stimulating hormone and hypothalamus thyrotropin releasing hormone expression in adrenalectomy Wistar rats In order to study the impact that is imposed on the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) axis of adrenalectomy male Wistar rats by stress caused by swimming, the blood level of triiodothyronine (T3), thyroxine (T4) and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), the expression of TSHβ mRNA at the pituitary and thyrotropin (...) releasing hormone (TRH) expression at the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) were measured. A total of 50 male Wistar rats of 6-8 weeks of age and with an average weight of 190-210 grams were randomly divided into the following two groups: The surgical (without adrenal glands) and non-surgical (adrenalectomy) group. These two groups were then divided into the following five groups, according to the time delay of sacrifice following forced swim (10 min, 2 h, 12 h and 24 h) and control (not subjected

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2016 Experimental and therapeutic medicine

3. TSH-independent release of thyroid hormones through cold exposure in aging rats (PubMed)

TSH-independent release of thyroid hormones through cold exposure in aging rats Thyroid function decreases and cold exposure response becomes impaired with increasing age. We investigated the age-related changes in thyroid structure and function and cold-induced changes in the thyroid activity of aging rats. Thirty-two male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into four groups (8 rats per group): young (7 months) and old (22 months) groups exposed to room temperature and cold stress (...) rats. Aging rats have structurally less active thyroid follicles and functionally lower thyroid hormone levels than young rats. Furthermore, old rats are more susceptible to cold stress than young rats, and cold-induced thyroid activation occurs independently of TSH.

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2017 Oncotarget

4. Pathological interactions between mutant thyroid hormone receptors and corepressors and their modulation by a thyroid hormone analogue with therapeutic potential. (PubMed)

. Whereas TRs regulate multiple normal physiological and developmental pathways, mutations in TRs can result in endocrine diseases and be associated with cancers due to impairment of corepressor release. Three mutants that are located in helix H11 of TRs are of special interest: TRα-M388I, a mutant associated with the development of renal clear cell carcinomas (RCCCs), and TRβ-Δ430 and TRβ-Δ432, two deletion mutants causing resistance to thyroid hormone syndrome.Several cell-based and biophysical (...) Pathological interactions between mutant thyroid hormone receptors and corepressors and their modulation by a thyroid hormone analogue with therapeutic potential. Thyroid hormone receptors (TRs) are tightly regulated by the corepressors nuclear receptor corepressor (NCoR) and silencing mediator of retinoic acid and thyroid hormone receptors. Three conserved corepressor/NR signature box motifs (CoRNR1-3) forming the nuclear receptor interaction domain have been identified in these corepressors

2018 Thyroid

5. Thyroid Releasing Hormone

Thyroid Releasing Hormone Thyroid Releasing Hormone Toggle navigation Brain Head & Neck Chest Endocrine Abdomen Musculoskeletal Skin Infectious Disease Hematology & Oncology Cohorts Diagnostics Emergency Findings Procedures Prevention & Management Pharmacy Resuscitation Trauma Emergency Procedures Ultrasound Cardiovascular Emergencies Lung Emergencies Infectious Disease Pediatrics Neurologic Emergencies Skin Exposure Miscellaneous Abuse Cancer Administration 4 Thyroid Releasing Hormone Thyroid (...) Releasing Hormone Aka: Thyroid Releasing Hormone , Thyrotropin-Releasing Hormone , TRH II. Measurement Measures responsiveness of pituitary to TRH III. Protocol Administer TRH 500 ug Measure (TSH) at 30-60 min IV. Interpretation: TSH Normal Response TSH rises 2-4x baseline Low TSH with suppressed response to TRH High TSH with exaggerated TRH response Images: Related links to external sites (from Bing) These images are a random sampling from a Bing search on the term "Thyroid Releasing Hormone." Click

2018 FP Notebook

6. Sex Differences in Brain Thyroid Hormone Levels during Early Post-Hatching Development in Zebra Finch (Taeniopygia guttata). (PubMed)

Sex Differences in Brain Thyroid Hormone Levels during Early Post-Hatching Development in Zebra Finch (Taeniopygia guttata). Thyroid hormones are closely linked to the hatching process in precocial birds. Previously, we showed that thyroid hormones in brain had a strong impact on filial imprinting, an early learning behavior in newly hatched chicks; brain 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine (T3) peaks around hatching and imprinting training induces additional T3 release, thus, extending the sensitive (...) period for imprinting and enabling subsequent other learning. On the other hand, blood thyroid hormone levels have been reported to increase gradually after hatching in altricial species, but it remains unknown how the brain thyroid hormone levels change during post-hatching development of altricial birds. Here, we determined the changes in serum and brain thyroid hormone levels of a passerine songbird species, the zebra finch using radioimmunoassay. In the serum, we found a gradual increase

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2017 PLoS ONE

7. Lactation and resource limitation affect stress responses, thyroid hormones, immune function, and antioxidant capacity of sea otters (Enhydra lutris) (PubMed)

in lactating otters. Cortisol release was lower under resource limitation and suppression during lactation was only evident under resource limitation. Lactation and resource limitation were associated with alterations in thyroid hormones. Immune responses and total antioxidant capacity were not reduced by lactation or resource limitation. Southern sea otters exhibited higher concentrations of antioxidants, immunoglobulins, and thyroid hormones than northern sea otters. These data provide evidence (...) Lactation and resource limitation affect stress responses, thyroid hormones, immune function, and antioxidant capacity of sea otters (Enhydra lutris) Lactation is the most energetically demanding stage of reproduction in female mammals. Increased energetic allocation toward current reproduction may result in fitness costs, although the mechanisms underlying these trade-offs are not well understood. Trade-offs during lactation may include reduced energetic allocation to cellular maintenance

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2018 Ecology and evolution

8. Low Dose Exposure to Di-2-Ethylhexylphthalate in Juvenile Rats Alters the Expression of Genes Related with Thyroid Hormone Regulation (PubMed)

to low to high doses (0.3, 3, 30 and 150 mg/kg) di-2-ethylhexylphthalate (DEHP) from weaning to maturity for 90 days in juvenile rats on the thyroid. The histological examination revealed that DEHP significantly induced hyperplasia in the thyroid from the doses of 30 mg/kg, which was confirmed with Ki67 staining. In line with this finding, increased mRNA expression of thyrotropin releasing hormone (Trh) was observed in the thyroid of female at 0.3 mg/kg and 150 mg/kg as determined by RNAseq analysis (...) Low Dose Exposure to Di-2-Ethylhexylphthalate in Juvenile Rats Alters the Expression of Genes Related with Thyroid Hormone Regulation Phthalates widely used in the manufacture of plastics have deeply penetrated into our everyday lives. Recently, a concern over the toxicity of phthalates on thyroid, has been raised but in most of cases, the doses employed were unrealistically high. To investigate the effects of phthalates on thyroid, we investigated the effects of the repeated oral exposure

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2018 Biomolecules & therapeutics

9. Impact of Triclosan on Female Reproduction through Reducing Thyroid Hormones to Suppress Hypothalamic Kisspeptin Neurons in Mice (PubMed)

. In addition, the serum thyroid hormones (triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4)) in TCS mice were reduced with increases in levels of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) and thyroid releasing hormone (TRH). In TCS mice, the treatment with Levothyroxine (L-T4) corrected the increases in PRL, TSH and TRH; the administration of L-T4 or type-2 dopamine receptors agonist quinpirole inhibiting PRL release could rescue the decline of kisspeptin expression in AVPV and ARC; the treatment with L-T4, quinpirole (...) Impact of Triclosan on Female Reproduction through Reducing Thyroid Hormones to Suppress Hypothalamic Kisspeptin Neurons in Mice Triclosan (TCS), a broad-spectrum antimicrobial agent, is widely used in clinical settings and various personal care products. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of TCS on reproductive endocrine and function. Here, we show that the exposure of adult female mice to 10 or 100 mg/kg/day TCS caused prolongation of diestrus, and decreases in antral

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2018 Frontiers in molecular neuroscience

10. Integrating Thyroid Hormone Signaling in Hypothalamic Control of Metabolism: Crosstalk Between Nuclear Receptors (PubMed)

that permit the sensing and integration of several peripheral inputs, including metabolic and hormonal signals for an appropriate physiological response. Current evidence shows that thyroid hormones (THs) constitute one of the key endocrine factors governing the regulation and the integration of metabolic homeostasis at the hypothalamic level. THs modulate numerous genes involved in the central control of metabolism, as TRH (Thyrotropin-Releasing Hormone) and MC4R (Melanocortin 4 Receptor). THs act (...) Integrating Thyroid Hormone Signaling in Hypothalamic Control of Metabolism: Crosstalk Between Nuclear Receptors The obesity epidemic is well recognized as a significant global health issue. A better understanding of the energy homeostasis mechanisms could help to identify promising anti-obesity therapeutic strategies. It is well established that the hypothalamus plays a pivotal role governing energy balance. The hypothalamus consists of tightly interconnected and specialized neurons

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2018 International journal of molecular sciences

11. FRTL-5 Rat Thyroid Cells Release Thyroglobulin Sequestered in Exosomes: A Possible Novel Mechanism for Thyroglobulin Processing in the Thyroid (PubMed)

FRTL-5 Rat Thyroid Cells Release Thyroglobulin Sequestered in Exosomes: A Possible Novel Mechanism for Thyroglobulin Processing in the Thyroid Exosomes are 30-100 nm, membrane-bound vesicles containing specific cellular proteins, mRNAs, and microRNAs that take part in intercellular communication between cells. A possible role for exosomes in thyroid function has not been fully explored. In the present study, FRTL-5 rat thyroid cells were grown to confluence and received medium containing either (...) thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), exogenous bovine thyroglobulin (bTg), or neither additive for 24 or 48 hours followed by collection of spent medium and ultracentrifugation to isolate small vesicles. Transmission electron microscopy and Western blotting for CD9 indicated the presence of exosomes. Western blotting of exosome extract using a monoclonal anti-Tg antibody revealed a Tg-positive band at ~330 kDa (the expected size of monomeric Tg) with a higher density in TSH-treated cells compared

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2016 Journal of thyroid research

12. Propylthiouracil, Perchlorate, and Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone Modulate High Concentrations of Iodide Instigated Mitochondrial Superoxide Production in the Thyroids of Metallothionein I/II Knockout Mice (PubMed)

), a thyroid peroxidase inhibitor, perchlorate (KClO₄), a competitive inhibitor of iodide transport, and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) on mitochondrial superoxide production instigated by high concentrations of iodide in the thyroids of MT-I/II knockout (MT-I/II KO) mice.Eight-week-old 129S7/SvEvBrd-Mt1(tm1Bri) Mt2(tm1Bri)/J (MT-I/II KO) mice and background-matched wild type (WT) mice were used.By using a mitochondrial superoxide indicator (MitoSOX Red), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release, and methyl (...) Propylthiouracil, Perchlorate, and Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone Modulate High Concentrations of Iodide Instigated Mitochondrial Superoxide Production in the Thyroids of Metallothionein I/II Knockout Mice Increased oxidative stress has been suggested as one of the underlying mechanisms in iodide excess-induced thyroid disease. Metallothioneins (MTs) are regarded as scavengers of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in oxidative stress. Our aim is to investigate the effects of propylthiouracil (PTU

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2016 Endocrinology and Metabolism

13. The forgotten effects of thyrotropin-releasing hormone: metabolic functions and medical applications. (PubMed)

The forgotten effects of thyrotropin-releasing hormone: metabolic functions and medical applications. Thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) causes a variety of thyroidal and non-thyroidal effects, the best known being the feedback regulation of thyroid hormone levels. This was employed in the TRH stimulation test, which is currently little used. The role of TRH as a cancer biomarker is minor, but exaggerated responses to TSH and prolactin levels in breast cancer led to the hypothesis

2018 Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology

14. The Retinol Circulating Complex Releases Hormonal Ligands During Acute Stress Disorders (PubMed)

The Retinol Circulating Complex Releases Hormonal Ligands During Acute Stress Disorders Intensive care workers actively participate in very hot debates aiming at defining the true metabolic, hormonal and nutritional requirements of critically ill patients, the contributory roles played by thyroid and retinoid ligands being largely underestimated. The present article makes up for redressing the balance on behalf of these last hormonal compounds. The retinol circulating complex is transported (...) in the bloodstream in the form of a trimolecular edifice made up of transthyretin (TTR), retinol-binding protein (RBP) and its retinol ligand. TTR reflects the size of the lean body mass (LBM) and is one of the 3 carrier-proteins of thyroid hormones whereas RBP is the sole conveyor of retinol in human plasma. In acute inflammatory disorders, both TTR and RBP analytes experience abrupt cytokine-induced suppressed hepatic synthesis whose amplitude is dependent on the duration and severity of the inflammatory

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2018 Frontiers in endocrinology

15. Myxedema Coma Following the Administration of Gonadotropin-releasing Hormone Agonist Complicated by Acute Pancreatitis (PubMed)

Myxedema Coma Following the Administration of Gonadotropin-releasing Hormone Agonist Complicated by Acute Pancreatitis Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonists have been used for the treatment of various diseases. Although autoimmune thyroid disease has been reported as a rare complication of these agents, the symptoms are almost always transient and non-life-threatening. We herein report a rare case of an 83-year-old man receiving GnRH agonist treatment for prostate cancer who developed (...) myxedema coma complicated by acute pancreatitis. This is the first report of myxedema coma potentially associated with a GnRH agonist. The follow-up of the thyroid function is necessary for patients undergoing treatment with GnRH agonists, especially those known to have or to be susceptible to autoimmune thyroid disease.

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2018 Internal Medicine

16. Effects of Intravenous Thyrotropin Releasing Hormone on 18F-Fluorodeoxyglucose Uptake in Human Brown Adipose Tissue: A Randomized Controlled Trial. (PubMed)

Effects of Intravenous Thyrotropin Releasing Hormone on 18F-Fluorodeoxyglucose Uptake in Human Brown Adipose Tissue: A Randomized Controlled Trial. Brown adipose tissue (BAT) activity in humans is stimulated by cold and by a limited number of pharmacological agents, including β3-adrenergic agonists and bile acids. Although thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) is known to activate BAT in several mammals, this has not been reported in humans.A randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, cross (...) of thyroid hormone and catecholamine concentrations. This trial is registered with The Netherlands National Trial Register (number NTR5512).Sixteen participants were recruited. Six men studied at room temperature showed no visible BAT activity during either session. After exposure to mild cold, four of nine men (44.4%) showed clear increase of 18F-FDG uptake after TRH administration compared to placebo. Maximal standardized 18F-FDG uptake showed a trend toward increase after TRH compared to placebo (P

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2018 European Journal of Endocrinology

17. Targeting thyroid cancer with acid-triggered release of doxorubicin from silicon dioxide nanoparticles (PubMed)

nanoparticles with thyroid-stimulating-hormone receptor-targeting ligand that can specifically target the thyroid cancer. Doxorubicin nanoparticles can be triggered by acid to release the drug payload for cancer therapy. These nanoparticles shrink the tumor size in vivo with less toxic side effects. This research paves the way toward effective chemotherapy for thyroid cancer. (...) Targeting thyroid cancer with acid-triggered release of doxorubicin from silicon dioxide nanoparticles Currently, therapy for thyroid cancer mainly involves surgery and radioiodine therapy. However, chemotherapy can be used in advanced and aggressive thyroid cancer that cannot be treated by other options. Nevertheless, a major obstacle to the successful treatment of thyroid cancer is the delivery of drugs to the thyroid gland. Here, we present an example of the construction of silicon dioxide

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2017 International journal of nanomedicine

18. The Effects of Desflurane and Propofol on the Release of Thyroid Hormones in Euthyroid Patients Undergoing Elective Lumbar Discectomy. (PubMed)

The Effects of Desflurane and Propofol on the Release of Thyroid Hormones in Euthyroid Patients Undergoing Elective Lumbar Discectomy. In this study, we aimed to compare the effects of desflurane and propofol on the release of thyroid hormones in euthyroid patients undergoing single-level lumbar discectomy.The study group included 21-65-year-old American Society of Anesthesiology (ASA) I-II euthyroid 40 patients undergoing elective single-level lumbar discectomy. They were randomly divided (...) patients with thyroid gland pathologies.

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2016 Turkish journal of anaesthesiology and reanimation

19. Thyroid and Glucocorticoid Hormones Promote Functional T-tubule Development in Human-Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell Derived Cardiomyocytes. (PubMed)

-contraction coupling in the heart ventricle. T3+Dex enhanced elementary Ca release measured by Ca sparks and promoted RyR2 (ryanodine receptor) structural organization. Simultaneous measurements of L-type Ca current and intracellular Ca release confirmed enhanced functional coupling between L-type Ca channels and RyR2 in T3+Dex-treated cells.Our results suggest a permissive role of combined thyroid and glucocorticoid hormones during the cardiac differentiation process, which when coupled with further (...) Thyroid and Glucocorticoid Hormones Promote Functional T-tubule Development in Human-Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell Derived Cardiomyocytes. Human-induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (hiPSC-CM) are increasingly being used for modeling heart disease and are under development for regeneration of the injured heart. However, incomplete structural and functional maturation of hiPSC-CM, including lack of T-tubules, immature excitation-contraction coupling, and inefficient Ca-induced Ca

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2017 Circulation Research

20. Seasonal rhythms: the role of thyrotropin and thyroid hormones. (PubMed)

genomic analysis in quail uncovered the photoperiodic signal transduction pathway, which regulates avian seasonal reproduction: a long-day stimulus induces secretion of thyrotropin (TSH) from the pars tuberalis (PT) of the anterior pituitary gland. This PT-derived TSH locally activates thyroid hormone within the hypothalamus, which in turn induces gonadotropin-releasing hormone and then gonadotropin secretion, leading to gonadal growth.Studies using TSH receptor-null mice confirmed the involvement (...) Seasonal rhythms: the role of thyrotropin and thyroid hormones. Seasonal changes in various physiological events have been reported in humans, including metabolism, immune function, and mood. However, the molecular and endocrine basis of these seasonal changes remains unclear.Animals that breed seasonally, such as Japanese quail and the Siberian hamster, have sophisticated seasonal mechanisms, and hence they provide excellent opportunities to understand the underlying processes. Functional

2017 Thyroid

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