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Thyroid Anatomy

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1. Normal radiological anatomy of thyroid cartilage in 600 Chinese individuals: implications for anterior cervical spine surgery Full Text available with Trip Pro

Normal radiological anatomy of thyroid cartilage in 600 Chinese individuals: implications for anterior cervical spine surgery Thyroid cartilage is an important barrier in anterior cervical approach surgery. The objective of this study is to establish normative values for thyroid cartilage at three planes and to determine their significance on preoperative positioning and intraoperative traction in surgery via the anterior cervical approach.Neck CT scans were collected from 600 healthy adults (...) who did not meet any of the exclusion criteria. Transverse diameters (D1, D2, and D3) of the superior border of the thyroid cartilage (SBTC), inferior border of the thyroid cartilage (IBTC), and the trachea transverse diameters of the inferior border of the cricoid cartilage (IBCC) were measured on a horizontal plane.All measured variables had intra-class correlation coefficients (ICCs) of ≥ 0.7. The differences in transverse diameters on the same plane between males and females were significantly

2018 Journal of orthopaedic surgery and research

2. Parathyroid, Thyroid and Recurrent Laryngeal Nerve Anatomy in an Indian Rhinoceros (Rhinoceros unicornis). Full Text available with Trip Pro

Parathyroid, Thyroid and Recurrent Laryngeal Nerve Anatomy in an Indian Rhinoceros (Rhinoceros unicornis). The parathyroid gland was first identified in the Indian rhinoceros in 1849 by Sir Richard Owen. We performed a necropsy in an Indian rhinoceros, recapitulating Owen's dissection and display what appear to be the initial identification of the recurrent laryngeal nerve in situ and the anatomy and histology of the largest rhinoceros parathyroid glands yet identified.Patrick T. Rhino, a 41 (...) structures were photographed in situ and biopsied. The thyroid was identified deep to the strap muscles, received its blood supply from the inferior and superior thyroid arteries and was blue in color. The right recurrent laryngeal nerve, identified and photographed in situ for the first time in the rhinoceros, was deep to the inferior thyroid artery and was traced throughout its cervical course. Single parathyroid glands identified on the lateral thyroid lobes received their blood supply from

2017 World Journal of Surgery

3. Thyroid Anatomy

Thyroid Anatomy Thyroid Anatomy Toggle navigation Brain Head & Neck Chest Endocrine Abdomen Musculoskeletal Skin Infectious Disease Hematology & Oncology Cohorts Diagnostics Emergency Findings Procedures Prevention & Management Pharmacy Resuscitation Trauma Emergency Procedures Ultrasound Cardiovascular Emergencies Lung Emergencies Infectious Disease Pediatrics Neurologic Emergencies Skin Exposure Miscellaneous Abuse Cancer Administration 4 Thyroid Anatomy Thyroid Anatomy Aka: Thyroid Anatomy (...) , Thyroid Physiology , Thyroid , Thyroid Gland II. Embryology Develops from root (foramen cecum) Formed by 5th-6th week of development III. Anatomy Images Normal Adult Thyroid weighs 20-25g Components Two Lateral lobes Isthmus centrally connects the lobes Near structures Recurrent laryngeal nerve s IV. Physiology Stressors stimulate increased Thyroid function Pregnancy Physiologic stress Releasing Hormone (TRH) released TRH passes down pituitary stalk to pituitary Anterior Pituitary (TSH) released TSH

2018 FP Notebook

4. 2015 American Thyroid Association Management Guidelines for Adult Patients with Thyroid Nodules and Differentiated Thyroid Cancer

thyroid uptake (60–62). Focal thyroid uptake most often corresponds to a clinically relevant thyroid nodule, and US examination is thus rec- ommended to de?ne thyroid anatomy. Importantly, focal 18 FDG-PET uptake increases malignancy risk in an affected nodule, and therefore clinical evaluation and FNA of nodules ‡1 cm is recommended. 18 FDG-PET positive thyroid nodules 25%–50% cystic component) (64) or sampling error (dif?cult to palpate or posteriorly located nodules), US-guided FNA is preferred (...) 2015 American Thyroid Association Management Guidelines for Adult Patients with Thyroid Nodules and Differentiated Thyroid Cancer SPECIAL ARTICLE 2015 American Thyroid Association Management Guidelines for Adult Patients with Thyroid Nodules and Differentiated Thyroid Cancer The American Thyroid Association Guidelines Task Force on Thyroid Nodules and Differentiated Thyroid Cancer Bryan R. Haugen, 1, * Erik K. Alexander, 2 Keith C. Bible, 3 Gerard M. Doherty, 4 Susan J. Mandel, 5 Yuri E

2015 Pediatric Endocrine Society

5. The surgical anatomy of the recurrent laryngeal nerve and inferior thyroid artery: a systematic review and meta-analysis

The surgical anatomy of the recurrent laryngeal nerve and inferior thyroid artery: a systematic review and meta-analysis Print | PDF PROSPERO This information has been provided by the named contact for this review. CRD has accepted this information in good faith and registered the review in PROSPERO. CRD bears no responsibility or liability for the content of this registration record, any associated files or external websites. Email salutation (e.g. "Dr Smith" or "Joanne") for correspondence

2017 PROSPERO

6. Ultrasonography-Based Thyroidal and Perithyroidal Anatomy and Its Clinical Significance Full Text available with Trip Pro

Ultrasonography-Based Thyroidal and Perithyroidal Anatomy and Its Clinical Significance Ultrasonography (US)-guided procedures such as ethanol ablation, radiofrequency ablation, laser ablation, selective nerve block, and core needle biopsy have been widely applied in the diagnosis and management of thyroid and neck lesions. For a safe and effective US-guided procedure, knowledge of neck anatomy, particularly that of the nerves, vessels, and other critical structures, is essential. However, most (...) previous reports evaluated neck anatomy based on cadavers, computed tomography, or magnetic resonance imaging rather than US. Therefore, the aim of this article was to elucidate US-based thyroidal and perithyroidal anatomy, as well as its clinical significance in the use of prevention techniques for complications during the US-guided procedures. Knowledge of these areas may be helpful for maximizing the efficacy and minimizing the complications of US-guided procedures for the thyroid and other neck

2015 Korean Journal of Radiology

7. Cricothyroid joint anatomy as a predicting factor for success of cricoid-thyroid approximation in transwomen. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Cricothyroid joint anatomy as a predicting factor for success of cricoid-thyroid approximation in transwomen. Cricoid-thyroid approximation (CTA) performed to elevate the vocal pitch in transwomen fails in about one-third of the patients. The purpose of this study was to test the feasibility of predicting the likelihood of success of CTA by preoperative determination of the crico-thyroid joint (CTJ) type using three-dimensional (3-D) images derived from high-resolution computer tomography (HRCT (...) ).Prospective cohort study of 18 transwomen who underwent CTA at our institution.All patients had a preoperative and a postoperative HRCT of the larynx, as well as pre- and postoperative measurements of the fundamental vocal pitch (F0 ).Three-dimensional images showed type A CTJs in 11 patients and type B or C CTJs in seven patients (see below for the definition of these types). Cricoid-thyroid approximation raised the F0 on average by 76 Hz in patients with type A CTJs and by 45 Hz in patients with type B

2015 Laryngoscope

8. Anterior cervical pain syndrome: Risk factors, variations in hyolaryngeal anatomy, and treatments. (Abstract)

Anterior cervical pain syndrome: Risk factors, variations in hyolaryngeal anatomy, and treatments. Anterior cervical pain syndromes (ACPS) are a poorly understood entity associated with lateral neck discomfort when talking, chewing, or yawning, and with occasional excruciating pain and dysphagia. This investigation aims to describe patients with ACPS presenting symptoms and treatments.Retrospective chart review of all patients with ACPS presenting to a tertiary care laryngology practice in 1 (...) aspect of the hyoid or superior cornu of the thyroid cartilage (89%). Pain triggers included speaking (67%), head turn (56%), chewing (44%), yawning (56%), and swallowing (56%). On CT imaging, eight of nine patients had abnormalities of the hyoid bone or the superior cornu of the thyroid cartilage, correlating 100% with point tenderness location. Treatments include physical therapy (33%), steroid injection (44%), lidocaine injection (22%), and surgical intervention (56%).ACPS is a frustrating

2019 Laryngoscope

9. Salient Anatomical Landmarks of Thyroid and Their Practical Significance in Thyroid Surgery: a Pictorial Review of Thyroid Surgical Anatomy (Revisited) Full Text available with Trip Pro

Salient Anatomical Landmarks of Thyroid and Their Practical Significance in Thyroid Surgery: a Pictorial Review of Thyroid Surgical Anatomy (Revisited) Thyroid surgery is a prototype of operations requiring thorough knowledge of surgical anatomy. There are many vital and delicate anatomical structures such as recurrent laryngeal nerve, superior laryngeal nerve, parathyroid glands, and distinct fascial planes surrounding the thyroid gland. A protean range of pathologies such as goiter, nodules (...) in the surgical management of thyroid disorders. Surgeons attempting thyroidectomy need to have thorough knowledge of embryology and surgical anatomy of the thyroid gland. In this context, we highlight through a pictorial assay the embryological and anatomical aspects of the thyroid gland emphasizing on their clinical and surgical importance.

2013 The Indian journal of surgery

10. Childhood Thyroid Cancer Treatment (PDQ®): Patient Version

. General Information About Childhood Thyroid Cancer Key Points for This Section Thyroid cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the tissues of the thyroid gland. The is a at the base of the near the (windpipe). It is shaped like a butterfly, with a right and a left lobe. The is a thin piece of that connects the two lobes. It usually cannot be felt through the skin. Anatomy of the thyroid and parathyroid glands. The thyroid gland lies at the base of the throat near the trachea (...) Childhood Thyroid Cancer Treatment (PDQ®): Patient Version Childhood Thyroid Cancer Treatment (PDQ®) - PDQ Cancer Information Summaries - NCBI Bookshelf Warning: The NCBI web site requires JavaScript to function. Search database Search term Search NCBI Bookshelf. A service of the National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health. PDQ Cancer Information Summaries [Internet]. Bethesda (MD): National Cancer Institute (US); 2002-. PDQ Cancer Information Summaries [Internet]. Bethesda (MD

2018 PDQ - NCI's Comprehensive Cancer Database

11. Thyroid Cancer Screening (PDQ®): Patient Version

. The is a at the base of the near the (windpipe). It is shaped like a butterfly, with a right and a left lobe. The , a thin piece of , connects the two lobes. A healthy thyroid is about the size of a walnut. It usually cannot be felt through the skin. Anatomy of the thyroid and parathyroid glands. The thyroid gland lies at the base of the throat near the trachea. It is shaped like a butterfly, with the right lobe and left lobe connected by a thin piece of tissue called the isthmus. The parathyroid glands are four (...) Thyroid Cancer Screening (PDQ®): Patient Version Thyroid Cancer Screening (PDQ®) - PDQ Cancer Information Summaries - NCBI Bookshelf Warning: The NCBI web site requires JavaScript to function. Search database Search term Search NCBI Bookshelf. A service of the National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health. PDQ Cancer Information Summaries [Internet]. Bethesda (MD): National Cancer Institute (US); 2002-. PDQ Cancer Information Summaries [Internet]. Bethesda (MD): ; 2002-. Search

2018 PDQ - NCI's Comprehensive Cancer Database

12. Thyroid Cancer Treatment (PDQ®): Health Professional Version

%, but it is higher in people younger than 40 years and in people with calcifications present on preoperative ultrasonography.[ , ] Anatomy Thyroid gland tissue envelops the upper trachea just below the thyroid and cricoid cartilages that make up the larynx. The gland has an isthmus and often asymmetric right and left lobes; usually four parathyroid glands lie posteriorly. When swallowing, the thyroid may be felt to rise with the larynx—most commonly in the presence of a disease process. Anatomy of the thyroid (...) Thyroid Cancer Treatment (PDQ®): Health Professional Version Thyroid Cancer Treatment (Adult) (PDQ®) - PDQ Cancer Information Summaries - NCBI Bookshelf Warning: The NCBI web site requires JavaScript to function. Search database Search term Search NCBI Bookshelf. A service of the National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health. PDQ Cancer Information Summaries [Internet]. Bethesda (MD): National Cancer Institute (US); 2002-. PDQ Cancer Information Summaries [Internet]. Bethesda (MD

2018 PDQ - NCI's Comprehensive Cancer Database

13. Thyroid Cancer Treatment (PDQ®): Patient Version

for This Section Thyroid cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the tissues of the thyroid gland. The is a at the base of the near the (windpipe). It is shaped like a butterfly, with a right and a left lobe. The , a thin piece of , connects the two lobes. A healthy thyroid is a little larger than a quarter. It usually cannot be felt through the skin. Anatomy of the thyroid and parathyroid glands. The thyroid gland lies at the base of the throat near the trachea. It is shaped like (...) Thyroid Cancer Treatment (PDQ®): Patient Version Thyroid Cancer Treatment (Adult) (PDQ®) - PDQ Cancer Information Summaries - NCBI Bookshelf Warning: The NCBI web site requires JavaScript to function. Search database Search term Search NCBI Bookshelf. A service of the National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health. PDQ Cancer Information Summaries [Internet]. Bethesda (MD): National Cancer Institute (US); 2002-. PDQ Cancer Information Summaries [Internet]. Bethesda (MD): ; 2002

2018 PDQ - NCI's Comprehensive Cancer Database

14. American Thyroid Association Consensus Review and Statement Regarding the Anatomy, Terminology, and Rationale for Lateral Neck Dissection in Differentiated Thyroid Cancer. Full Text available with Trip Pro

American Thyroid Association Consensus Review and Statement Regarding the Anatomy, Terminology, and Rationale for Lateral Neck Dissection in Differentiated Thyroid Cancer. Cervical lymph node metastases from differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) are common. Thirty to eighty percent of patients with papillary thyroid cancer harbor lymph node metastases, with the central neck being the most common compartment involved. The goals of this study were to: (1) identify appropriate methods (...) for determining metastatic DTC in the lateral neck and (2) address the extent of lymph node dissection for the lateral neck necessary to control nodal disease balanced against known risks of surgery.A literature review followed by formulation of a consensus statement was performed.Four proposals regarding management of the lateral neck are made for consideration by organizations developing management guidelines for patients with thyroid nodules and DTC including the next iteration of management guidelines

2012 Thyroid

15. American Thyroid Association Consensus Review of the Anatomy, Terminology and Rationale for Lateral Neck Dissection in Differentiated Thyroid Cancer. Full Text available with Trip Pro

American Thyroid Association Consensus Review of the Anatomy, Terminology and Rationale for Lateral Neck Dissection in Differentiated Thyroid Cancer.

2012 Thyroid

16. A reappraisal of vascular anatomy of the parathyroid gland based on fluorescence techniques Full Text available with Trip Pro

A reappraisal of vascular anatomy of the parathyroid gland based on fluorescence techniques Identification of the parathyroid glands (PGs) during thyroid surgery may prevent their inadvertent surgical removal and prevent postoperative hypoparathyroidism. However, identification of the PGs does not guarantee their function, and their vascular supply needs to be preserved as well. The recent introduction of intraoperative indocyanine green (ICG) fluorescent angiography of the PGs during thyroid (...) surgery allows for the appraisal of the vascular anatomy and evaluation of PG function. The use of this tool could lead to a significant reduction in the rate of postoperative hypoparathyroidism, as it allows surgeons to adapt their surgical technique for the preservation of the PGs. ICG fluorescent angiography is currently the only available real-time tool to assess the vascular blood supply of each individual PG intraoperatively and can thus assist surgeons in their decision-making. Herein, we

2017 Gland surgery

17. Ultrasound comparison of external and internal neck anatomy with the LMA Unique Full Text available with Trip Pro

Ultrasound comparison of external and internal neck anatomy with the LMA Unique Internal neck anatomy landmarks and their relation after placement of an extraglottic airway devices have not been studied extensively by the use of ultrasound. Based on our group experience with external landmarks as well as internal landmarks evaluation with other techniques, we aimed use ultrasound to analyze the internal neck anatomy landmarks and the related changes due to the placement of the Laryngeal Mask (...) Airway Unique.Six subjects were recruited. Ultrasound measurements of hyoid-mental distance, thyroid-cricoid distance, thyroid height, and thyroid width were found to be significantly (p < 0.05) overestimated using a tape measure. Sagittal neck landmark distances such as thyroid height, sternal-mental distance, and thyroid-cricoid distance significantly decreased after placement of the Laryngeal Mask Airway Unique.The laryngeal mask airway Unique resulted in significant changes in internal neck

2017 Journal of Ultrasonography

18. Surgical anatomy of double pyramidal lobe on total thyroidectomy: a rare case report Full Text available with Trip Pro

Surgical anatomy of double pyramidal lobe on total thyroidectomy: a rare case report Double pyramidal lobe is a scarce anatomical variation of the thyroid gland. Its presence impinges on the completeness of total and subtotal thyroidectomy and the postoperative treatment. Surgeons should be always aware of this variation in order to perform sufficient resection of the thyroid gland and minimize the possibility of recurrence of benign and malignant thyroidopathies.

2017 Journal of surgical case reports

19. Anatomy of the external branch of the superior laryngeal nerve in Asian population Full Text available with Trip Pro

Anatomy of the external branch of the superior laryngeal nerve in Asian population Injury to the external branch of the superior laryngeal nerve (eSLN) can cause a hoarse or weak voice with dysergia of the cricothyroid. The present study provided the topographic information of the eSLN in the Asian and verified anatomical validity of the landmarks previously recruited to localize the eSLN. Thirty specimens were dissected from 16 human embalmed cadavers (12 men and four women; mean age: 80.5 (...) years). The vertical distance between the eSLN and the apical pole of the thyroid gland (AP) was 8.2 ± 4.2 mm. It descended over the AP with <1 cm distance in 51.7%, >1 cm distance in 27.6% and under the AP in 20.7%. The piercing point (PP) of the eSLN to the muscles located 26.0 ± 5.5 mm posterior and 14.7 ± 5.0 mm inferior to the laryngeal prominence. Generally, the PP located superoposterior to the midpoint of the joint between the joint of inferior constrictor and cricothyroid (ICJ

2017 Scientific reports

20. Thyroidectomy Improves Tracheal Anatomy and Airflow in Patients with Nodular Goiter: A Prospective Cohort Study Full Text available with Trip Pro

Thyroidectomy Improves Tracheal Anatomy and Airflow in Patients with Nodular Goiter: A Prospective Cohort Study A large goiter may cause compression of the trachea. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of thyroidectomy on tracheal anatomy and airflow and to correlate this with changes in health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in patients with benign nodular goiter.Magnetic resonance images of the neck and respiratory flow-volume curves, including both inspiration and expiration (...) , were performed prior to and 6 months following surgery. HRQoL was measured by selected scales from the thyroid-specific patient-reported outcome (ThyPRO). Cohen's effect size (ES) was calculated as mean change divided by standard deviation at baseline. ES of 0.2-0.5 were defined as small, 0.5-0.8 as moderate, and values >0.8 as large.Sixty-five patients completed all examinations. Median goiter volume was 58 mL (range, 14-642 mL) before surgery with surgical removal of a median of 43 g (range, 8

2017 European thyroid journal

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