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Thyroid Adenoma

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1. Toxic thyroid adenoma

Toxic thyroid adenoma Toxic thyroid adenoma - Symptoms, diagnosis and treatment | BMJ Best Practice You'll need a subscription to access all of BMJ Best Practice Search  Toxic thyroid adenoma Last reviewed: February 2019 Last updated: February 2019 Summary Typically a single large thyroid nodule accompanied by clinical and biochemical hyperthyroidism. Diagnosis confirmed by thyroid scan demonstrating a hot area and suppression of extranodular thyroid tissue. Hyperthyroidism caused by toxic (...) adenomas generally does not remit. Definitive treatment, such as radioactive iodine therapy, is usually required. Complications of untreated toxic adenomas may include sequelae of hyperthyroidism such as cardiac dysfunction or bone loss, or tracheal compression by large nodules. Definition A toxic adenoma is an autonomously functioning thyroid nodule that causes hyperthyroidism. Ross DS, Burch HB, Cooper DS, et al. 2016 American Thyroid Association guidelines for diagnosis and management

2019 BMJ Best Practice

3. Toxic thyroid adenoma

Toxic thyroid adenoma Toxic thyroid adenoma - Symptoms, diagnosis and treatment | BMJ Best Practice You'll need a subscription to access all of BMJ Best Practice Search  Toxic thyroid adenoma Last reviewed: February 2019 Last updated: February 2019 Summary Typically a single large thyroid nodule accompanied by clinical and biochemical hyperthyroidism. Diagnosis confirmed by thyroid scan demonstrating a hot area and suppression of extranodular thyroid tissue. Hyperthyroidism caused by toxic (...) adenomas generally does not remit. Definitive treatment, such as radioactive iodine therapy, is usually required. Complications of untreated toxic adenomas may include sequelae of hyperthyroidism such as cardiac dysfunction or bone loss, or tracheal compression by large nodules. Definition A toxic adenoma is an autonomously functioning thyroid nodule that causes hyperthyroidism. Ross DS, Burch HB, Cooper DS, et al. 2016 American Thyroid Association guidelines for diagnosis and management

2017 BMJ Best Practice

4. Gene expression differences between thyroid carcinoma, thyroid adenoma and normal thyroid tissue (PubMed)

Gene expression differences between thyroid carcinoma, thyroid adenoma and normal thyroid tissue To identify differences in gene expression profiles of infected cells between thyroid carcinoma (C), thyroid adenoma (A) and normal thyroid (N) epithelial cells, differentially expressed genes were identified using three pairwise comparisons with the GEO2R online tool. Gene ontology and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathway enrichment analysis were used to classify them at the functional (...) , prognosis and development of drug targets of thyroid neoplasm.

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2018 Oncology reports

5. Thyroid Adenoma and Ectopic Thyroid Carcinoma in a Guinea Pig (Cavia porcellus) (PubMed)

Thyroid Adenoma and Ectopic Thyroid Carcinoma in a Guinea Pig (Cavia porcellus) A 56-mo-old male guinea pig (Cavia porcellus) presented with gradual weight loss from 757 to 691 g during the preceding month. Cardiac-specific diagnostics detected decreased cardiac contractility, moderate cardiomegaly, pericardial effusion, and pulmonary edema. At 1 mo after presentation, the guinea pig died while under treatment. Necropsy revealed a 5 × 3 × 3-mm, tan, smooth nodule on the base of the heart (...) . On histology, the nodule contained moderately cellular neoplastic tissue comprising cuboidal cells arranged in variably sized follicles. Immunohistochemically, the neoplastic cells were positive for thyroglobulin and thyroid transcription factor 1, consistent with ectopic thyroid carcinoma. Other significant histologic lesions included thyroid adenoma of the right thyroid gland, myocardial hypertrophy and degeneration, suppurative bronchopneumonia, and centrilobular hepatocellular degeneration. Although

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2018 Comparative medicine

6. Can noninvasive follicular thyroid neoplasm with papillary-like nuclear features be distinguished from classic papillary thyroid carcinoma and follicular adenomas by fine-needle aspiration? (PubMed)

Can noninvasive follicular thyroid neoplasm with papillary-like nuclear features be distinguished from classic papillary thyroid carcinoma and follicular adenomas by fine-needle aspiration? Noninvasive encapsulated follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma, a diagnosis implying malignancy as a variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC), has recently been reclassified to noninvasive follicular thyroid neoplasm with papillary-like nuclear features (NIFTP) on surgical pathology. Due (...) to the effects of such a recategorization on rate of malignancy and clinical management algorithms, it is imperative that we explore whether presurgical fine-needle aspiration can differentiate NIFTP from PTC and follicular adenoma (FA).Cytology slides from subjects with final surgical pathology resection diagnoses of NIFTP/encapsulated follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma, classic PTC, and FA made between January 2013 and August 2016 were assessed. The Bethesda System diagnoses were tabulated

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2017 Cancer

7. Korean Thyroid Imaging Reporting and Data System features of follicular thyroid adenoma and carcinoma: a single-center study (PubMed)

Korean Thyroid Imaging Reporting and Data System features of follicular thyroid adenoma and carcinoma: a single-center study This study aimed to assess the diagnostic efficacy of Korean Thyroid Imaging Reporting and Data System (K-TIRADS) features for distinguishing follicular thyroid adenoma (FTA) from follicular thyroid carcinoma (FTC).From January 2013 to July 2016, 46 follicular neoplasms in 45 patients who underwent preoperative thyroid ultrasonography (US) and thyroid surgery were (...) included. The US features of each thyroid nodule were retrospectively evaluated by a single radiologist using a picture archiving and communication system. The diagnostic indices of K-TIRADS for follicular neoplasms were calculated according to whether K-TIRADS category 4 lesions were excluded or classified as benign or malignant.Of the 46 follicular neoplasms (mean size, 3.1±1.6 cm), 37 were FTAs (mean size, 3.1±1.7 cm) and nine were FTCs (mean size, 3.0±1.5 cm). A statistically significant difference

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2017 Ultrasonography

8. Adrenocortical adenoma manifesting as false-positive iodine accumulation in a patient with history of thyroid carcinoma (PubMed)

Adrenocortical adenoma manifesting as false-positive iodine accumulation in a patient with history of thyroid carcinoma A 47-year-old female diagnosed with well-differentiated papillary thyroid carcinoma was referred to our center for a 131Iodine whole body scintigraphy as follow-up. The patient had been previously treated with total thyroidectomy and ablative dose of 175mCi 131I three years ago. Diagnostic 131I scan showed a zone of radioiodine uptake in posterior aspect of the left upper (...) quadrant of the abdomen. Spiral abdominal and pelvic CT scan showed an enhancing solid mass in superior aspect of the left adrenal gland, which was in favor of metastasis to the lymph node or an adrenal tumor. A biopsy was performed from the lesion. Histological examination of the surgical specimen was consistent with adrenocortical adenoma. Even though rare, adrenocortical adenoma should be included in the potential causes of false-positive results of radioiodine scans.

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2018 Radiology Case Reports

9. Atypical Features Resembling Poorly Differentiated Thyroid Carcinoma Presenting Entirely within a Follicular Adenoma (PubMed)

Atypical Features Resembling Poorly Differentiated Thyroid Carcinoma Presenting Entirely within a Follicular Adenoma Poorly differentiated thyroid carcinoma (PDTC) is rare and is usually widely invasive at presentation. Here we present an unusual case with a component meeting diagnostic criteria for PDTC by Turin consensus proposal arising within a follicular adenoma. A 44-year-old female was found to have an incidental right thyroid nodule that was suggestive of follicular neoplasm on FNA

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2018 Case Reports in Pathology

10. Carney complex: a case with thyroid follicular adenoma without a PRKAR1A mutation (PubMed)

Carney complex: a case with thyroid follicular adenoma without a PRKAR1A mutation Carney complex (CNC) is a very rare disease. Although thyroid lesions are included in the diagnostic criteria for CNC, they are an infrequent occurrence.The patient was a 69-year-old woman who had undergone the removal of a left atrial myxoma 10 years earlier, at the age of 59. At the time of the operation, thyroid ultrasonography (US) revealed multiple hypoechoic nodules. Thyroid scintigraphy revealed (...) an increased uptake of 99mTc in these lesions, which was consistent with toxic multinodular goiter, and she was diagnosed with CNC. Genetic studies showed no mutation in the PRKAR1A (protein kinase A regulatory subunit 1-α) gene. From then on, she received annual brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), abdominal computed tomography (CT), and thyroid US examinations. Her follicular thyroid nodules gradually increased in number and size. Although aspiration cytology samples from the thyroid nodules diagnosed

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2018 Surgical Case Reports

11. Huge thyroid adenoma with tracheomalacia (PubMed)

Huge thyroid adenoma with tracheomalacia This case shows the importance of the early diagnosis of the tracheomalacia and the treatment of asphyxia in thyroid huge mass.

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2018 Clinical Case Reports

12. A case of a co-secreting TSH and growth hormone pituitary adenoma presenting with a thyroid nodule (PubMed)

A case of a co-secreting TSH and growth hormone pituitary adenoma presenting with a thyroid nodule Co-secreting TSH and growth hormone pituitary adenomas are rare. We present a case of a 55-year-old woman who presented with symptoms of neck fullness. Ultrasound revealed multiple thyroid nodules and examination revealed several clinical features of acromegaly. She was found to have a co-secreting TSH and growth hormone pituitary macroadenoma. She underwent surgical resection followed by gamma (...) knife radiation, which resulted in complete remission of her TSH and GH-secreting adenoma.TSH-secreting pituitary adenomas are rare and about one-third co-secrete other hormones.Thyroid nodules are common in acromegaly and can be the presenting sign of a growth hormone-secreting pituitary adenoma.In the workup of acromegaly, assessment of other pituitary hormones is essential, even in the absence of symptoms of other pituitary hormone dysfunction.Complete remission of co-secreting GH and TSH

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2018 Endocrinology, diabetes & metabolism case reports

13. Coexistence of medullary thyroid carcinoma and recurrent non-functional pituitary adenoma: a case report (PubMed)

Coexistence of medullary thyroid carcinoma and recurrent non-functional pituitary adenoma: a case report Medullary thyroid carcinoma and pituitary adenoma are neuroendocrine tumors and their coexistence has not been reported in the literature, previously. Medullary thyroid carcinoma is a neoplasm of the thyroid gland arising from parafollicular c-cells producing calcitonin, and pituitary adenoma is a benign hyperplasia of the cells of the pituitary gland. Coexistence of these neoplasms can (...) be explained by being affected by simultaneous primary neoplasms or tumor-to-tumor metastasis phenomenon.We present the case of a 60-year-old Persian man who presented to the clinic with a chief complaint of headache for the last 2 months. His past medical history was significant for non-functional pituitary macroadenoma and medullary thyroid carcinoma and he had received a total thyroidectomy and a transsphenoidal surgery several years ago. Diagnostic evaluations revealed that the pituitary adenoma has

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2018 Journal of medical case reports

14. Thyroid Function Testing in the Diagnosis and Monitoring of Thyroid Function Disorder

Thyroid Function Testing in the Diagnosis and Monitoring of Thyroid Function Disorder Guidelines & Protocols Advisory Committee Thyroid Function Testing in the Diagnosis and Monitoring of Thyroid Function Disorder Effective Date: October 24, 2018 Scope This guideline outlines testing for thyroid dysfunction in patients (pediatric and adult), including pregnant women or women planning pregnancy, and the monitoring of patients treated for primary thyroid function disorders. It does not apply (...) to the BC Newborn Screening Program. This guideline outlines testing for thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), free thyroxine (fT4), free triiodothyronine (fT3) and anti-thyroid peroxidase (TPO). Information on other tests, including thyroglobulin/antithyroglobulin (Tg/anti Tg) and antibodies to the thyroid stimulating hormone receptor (TRAb), are covered in the associated BC Guideline Hormone Testing – Indications and Appropriate Use. Key Recommendations • Routine thyroid function testing

2018 Clinical Practice Guidelines and Protocols in British Columbia

15. Thyroid adenoma and nasopharyngeal carcinoma with metastasis to cervical lymph nodes is misdiagnosed and treated for thyroid carcinoma: A case report (PubMed)

Thyroid adenoma and nasopharyngeal carcinoma with metastasis to cervical lymph nodes is misdiagnosed and treated for thyroid carcinoma: A case report Lymph node metastasis of nasopharyngeal carcinoma follows an orderly pattern, and diagnosis of nasopharyngeal carcinoma is often made by lymph node biopsy. In the present study, following neck palpation, ultrasonography and cervical computer tomography, a 52-year-old female patient with thyroid adenoma and enlarged cervical lymph nodes (...) was misdiagnosed as thyroid carcinoma without undergoing preoperative biopsy, followed by unnecessary total thyroidectomy. Systematic CT scan and nasal endoscopic biopsy confirmed the correct diagnosis of primary NPC concurrent with thyroid adenoma. The patient received palliative radiotherapy and L-thyroxine substitution therapy, and was followed up closely via internet-based approaches with life-style intervention, medication consultation and psychological support for improvement of life quality after

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2016 Oncology letters

16. Ectopic thyrotropin secreting pituitary adenoma concomitant with papillary thyroid carcinoma: Case report. (PubMed)

Ectopic thyrotropin secreting pituitary adenoma concomitant with papillary thyroid carcinoma: Case report. Ectopic thyrotropin (TSH)-secreting pituitary adenomas are exceedingly rare. To date, there are only 6 cases reported. Here, we describe an even rarer ectopic TSH-secreting pituitary adenoma (TSH-oma) concomitant with papillary thyroid carcinoma.A 27-year-old female was admitted to the hospital in 2002 for neck enlargement and palpitation. Thyroid function test showed increased thyroid (...) serum TSH remained at high levels even with adequate levothyroxine. Unexpected, thyroid papillary carcinoma and a neoplasm in her nasopharynx were successively detected in 2012, which were then removed by surgery. Somewhat interestingly, the serum TSH declined to normal after the operation.The patient was ultimately diagnosed as an ectopic TSH-secreting pituitary adenoma concomitant with papillary thyroid carcinoma.Thyroidectomy and removal of the ectopic TSH-secreting pituitary adenoma by surgery

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2017 Medicine

17. A six-gene panel to label follicular adenoma, low- and high-risk follicular thyroid carcinoma (PubMed)

A six-gene panel to label follicular adenoma, low- and high-risk follicular thyroid carcinoma The distinction between follicular thyroid carcinomas (FTCs) and follicular-patterned benign lesions is almost impossible on fine-needle aspiration cytology. Furthermore, minimally invasive FTCs (MI-FTCs) with less than 4 vascular invasion foci generally have an excellent prognosis, but there are exceptions and, so far, no molecular marker appears able to identify them reliably. We aimed to distinguish (...) benign lesions from low- and high-risk FTCs by a small-scale combination of genes. The expression analysis of 75 selected genes was performed on 18 follicular adenomas (FAs), 14 MI-FTCs and 6 widely invasive FTC (WI-FTCs). The mutational status of the RAS genes, TERT promoter and PAX8-PPARG rearrangements was also investigated. Seven samples were mutated, namely 3 MI-FTCs and 4 WI-FTCs. Twenty-five genes were differentially expressed (FDR <0.05) between FAs and WI-FTCs. Six of these (ECM1, RXRG, SDPR

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2017 Endocrine connections

18. Thyroid follicular adenomas and carcinomas: molecular profiling provides evidence for a continuous evolution (PubMed)

Thyroid follicular adenomas and carcinomas: molecular profiling provides evidence for a continuous evolution Non-autonomous thyroid nodules are common in the general population with a proportion found to be cancerous. A current challenge in the field is to be able to distinguish benign adenoma (FA) from preoperatively malignant thyroid follicular carcinoma (FTC), which are very similar both histologically and genetically. One controversial issue, which is currently not understood, is whether (...) , molecular functions and biological processes. The additional deregulations in FTC include the lipid transport process that may be involved in tumor progression. The strongest candidate genes which may be able to discriminate follicular adenomas and carcinomas, CRABP1, FABP4 and HMGA2, were validated in independent samples by qRT-PCR and immunohistochemistry. However, they were not able to adequately classify FA or FTC, supporting the notion of continuous evolving tumors, whereby FA and FTC appear

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2017 Oncotarget

19. Concurrent thoracic mesothelioma and thyroid C‐cell adenoma with amyloid deposition in an aged horse (PubMed)

Concurrent thoracic mesothelioma and thyroid C‐cell adenoma with amyloid deposition in an aged horse A 21-year-old American Saddlebred mare died with a history of weight loss and breathing difficulties of 1 month duration. Post-mortem examination revealed a copious pleural effusion with multifocal to coalescing numerous white to grey nodular masses on the serosal surface of the pericardium, lungs and thoracic cavity. In addition, the left thyroid gland was markedly enlarged. A thoracic (...) mesothelioma and C-cell adenoma with amyloid deposits of the left thyroid gland were diagnosed by histopathology and confirmed by immunohistochemistry employing antibodies against cytokeratin (CK), vimentin and calcitonin. Amyloid deposits in the thyroid tumour were confirmed by Congo red staining with apple-green birefringence under polarized light. Mesothelioma remains an uncommon neoplasm encountered in aged horses. Discussion includes the diagnostic challenge of differentiating carcinomatosis from

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2017 Veterinary Medicine and Science

20. A Rare Complication following Thyroid Percutaneous Ethanol Injection: Plummer Adenoma (PubMed)

A Rare Complication following Thyroid Percutaneous Ethanol Injection: Plummer Adenoma Percutaneous ethanol injection (PEI) is a technique used only for benign thyroid nodules, cystic or mixed cystic-solid with a large fluid component. It is a quite low-cost, safe, and outpatient method of treatment. Rare and severe complications have been described after PEI: jugular vein thrombosis and severe ethanol toxic necrosis of the larynx combined with necrotic dermatitis. Moreover, only four (...) of compressive symptoms and cosmetic disorders. About 30 days after treatment, there was a significant volume reduction, but patient developed an acclaimed symptomatic thyrotoxicosis. After ruling out several causes of hyperthyroidism and according to the thyroid scintigraphy findings, we made the diagnosis of Plummer adenoma. To our knowledge, our patient is the first case of Plummer adenoma following PEI treatment of nontoxic thyroid nodule.

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2017 Case reports in endocrinology

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