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Thyroid Adenoma

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1. Toxic thyroid adenoma

Toxic thyroid adenoma Toxic thyroid adenoma - Symptoms, diagnosis and treatment | BMJ Best Practice You'll need a subscription to access all of BMJ Best Practice Search  Toxic thyroid adenoma Last reviewed: February 2019 Last updated: February 2019 Summary Typically a single large thyroid nodule accompanied by clinical and biochemical hyperthyroidism. Diagnosis confirmed by thyroid scan demonstrating a hot area and suppression of extranodular thyroid tissue. Hyperthyroidism caused by toxic (...) adenomas generally does not remit. Definitive treatment, such as radioactive iodine therapy, is usually required. Complications of untreated toxic adenomas may include sequelae of hyperthyroidism such as cardiac dysfunction or bone loss, or tracheal compression by large nodules. Definition A toxic adenoma is an autonomously functioning thyroid nodule that causes hyperthyroidism. Ross DS, Burch HB, Cooper DS, et al. 2016 American Thyroid Association guidelines for diagnosis and management

2019 BMJ Best Practice

3. Toxic thyroid adenoma

Toxic thyroid adenoma Toxic thyroid adenoma - Symptoms, diagnosis and treatment | BMJ Best Practice You'll need a subscription to access all of BMJ Best Practice Search  Toxic thyroid adenoma Last reviewed: February 2019 Last updated: February 2019 Summary Typically a single large thyroid nodule accompanied by clinical and biochemical hyperthyroidism. Diagnosis confirmed by thyroid scan demonstrating a hot area and suppression of extranodular thyroid tissue. Hyperthyroidism caused by toxic (...) adenomas generally does not remit. Definitive treatment, such as radioactive iodine therapy, is usually required. Complications of untreated toxic adenomas may include sequelae of hyperthyroidism such as cardiac dysfunction or bone loss, or tracheal compression by large nodules. Definition A toxic adenoma is an autonomously functioning thyroid nodule that causes hyperthyroidism. Ross DS, Burch HB, Cooper DS, et al. 2016 American Thyroid Association guidelines for diagnosis and management

2017 BMJ Best Practice

4. Gene expression differences between thyroid carcinoma, thyroid adenoma and normal thyroid tissue Full Text available with Trip Pro

Gene expression differences between thyroid carcinoma, thyroid adenoma and normal thyroid tissue To identify differences in gene expression profiles of infected cells between thyroid carcinoma (C), thyroid adenoma (A) and normal thyroid (N) epithelial cells, differentially expressed genes were identified using three pairwise comparisons with the GEO2R online tool. Gene ontology and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathway enrichment analysis were used to classify them at the functional (...) , prognosis and development of drug targets of thyroid neoplasm.

2018 Oncology reports

5. Thyroid Adenoma and Ectopic Thyroid Carcinoma in a Guinea Pig (Cavia porcellus) Full Text available with Trip Pro

Thyroid Adenoma and Ectopic Thyroid Carcinoma in a Guinea Pig (Cavia porcellus) A 56-mo-old male guinea pig (Cavia porcellus) presented with gradual weight loss from 757 to 691 g during the preceding month. Cardiac-specific diagnostics detected decreased cardiac contractility, moderate cardiomegaly, pericardial effusion, and pulmonary edema. At 1 mo after presentation, the guinea pig died while under treatment. Necropsy revealed a 5 × 3 × 3-mm, tan, smooth nodule on the base of the heart (...) . On histology, the nodule contained moderately cellular neoplastic tissue comprising cuboidal cells arranged in variably sized follicles. Immunohistochemically, the neoplastic cells were positive for thyroglobulin and thyroid transcription factor 1, consistent with ectopic thyroid carcinoma. Other significant histologic lesions included thyroid adenoma of the right thyroid gland, myocardial hypertrophy and degeneration, suppurative bronchopneumonia, and centrilobular hepatocellular degeneration. Although

2018 Comparative medicine

6. Typical manifestations of Hürthle cell adenoma of the thyroid on contrast-enhanced CT: A case report. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Typical manifestations of Hürthle cell adenoma of the thyroid on contrast-enhanced CT: A case report. Hürthle cell adenoma (HCA) of the thyroid is a rare thyroid tumor, and there are limited studies on the contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT).We report the case of a 63-year-old woman with gradual enlargement of the thyroid over 10 years.Preoperative contrast-enhanced CT revealed typical lesion characteristics of HCA, confirmed by postoperative pathology.Left thyroidectomy and partial (...) right thyroidectomy were performed on the patient after general anesthesia.At follow-up of 12 months after surgery, the patient was in good health without recurrence.The typical imaging features of HCA on contrast-enhanced CT are helpful for the early diagnosis of thyroid eosinophilic adenoma. This will provide an important basis for the preoperative diagnosis and treatment strategy of HCA of the thyroid in future.

2019 Medicine

7. Evaluation of the thyroid characteristics of patients with growth hormone-secreting adenomas. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Evaluation of the thyroid characteristics of patients with growth hormone-secreting adenomas. Acromegaly is highly associated with thyroid disorders. However, the clinical characteristics of thyroid nodules in individuals with acromegaly who present with thyroid diseases have not been completely elucidated.Overall, 134 consecutive participants with growth hormone (GH)-secreting adenoma (n = 67) and non-functioning (NF) pituitary adenoma (n = 67) were recruited from the outpatient and inpatient (...) patient department of The First Affiliated Hospital, Jinan University from August 2015 to August 2017. Thyroid ultrasonography was performed using an ultrasound system. The cytopathological results of fine-needle aspiration biopsy were analyzed by a pathologist according to the Bethesda system. Twenty-one patients with GH-secreting adenoma and thyroid disease underwent transsphenoidal pituitary adenoma resection and were followed up for 1 year.The prevalence of thyroid disease increased in the GH

2019 BMC Endocrine Disorders

8. Ectopic thyroid microfollicular adenoma in the lung: A case report. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Ectopic thyroid microfollicular adenoma in the lung: A case report. Ectopic thyroid occurs due to aberrant development of the thyroid gland during its migration to the pretracheal region. Intrapulmonary ectopic thyroid is extremely rare and its benign transformation (microfollicular adenoma) has never been reported. This paper reports a case of ectopic thyroid microfollicular adenoma in the lung mimicking metastatic pelvic tumors.A 76-year old female presented to our hospital because (...) of transient unconsciousness. Pelvic ultrasound (US) and chest computed tomography (CT) showed pelvic tumors and pulmonary nodules.The patient underwent pelvic tumors resection and CT-guided fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) at the largest pulmonary nodule. Pathological description revealed bilateral ovarian serous cystadenoma and endometrioma in pelvic, and ectopic thyroid microfollicular adenoma in lung. In view of the patient's age and physical conditions, it is unanimously decided

2019 Medicine

9. Korean Thyroid Imaging Reporting and Data System features of follicular thyroid adenoma and carcinoma: a single-center study Full Text available with Trip Pro

Korean Thyroid Imaging Reporting and Data System features of follicular thyroid adenoma and carcinoma: a single-center study This study aimed to assess the diagnostic efficacy of Korean Thyroid Imaging Reporting and Data System (K-TIRADS) features for distinguishing follicular thyroid adenoma (FTA) from follicular thyroid carcinoma (FTC).From January 2013 to July 2016, 46 follicular neoplasms in 45 patients who underwent preoperative thyroid ultrasonography (US) and thyroid surgery were (...) included. The US features of each thyroid nodule were retrospectively evaluated by a single radiologist using a picture archiving and communication system. The diagnostic indices of K-TIRADS for follicular neoplasms were calculated according to whether K-TIRADS category 4 lesions were excluded or classified as benign or malignant.Of the 46 follicular neoplasms (mean size, 3.1±1.6 cm), 37 were FTAs (mean size, 3.1±1.7 cm) and nine were FTCs (mean size, 3.0±1.5 cm). A statistically significant difference

2017 Ultrasonography

10. Can noninvasive follicular thyroid neoplasm with papillary-like nuclear features be distinguished from classic papillary thyroid carcinoma and follicular adenomas by fine-needle aspiration? Full Text available with Trip Pro

Can noninvasive follicular thyroid neoplasm with papillary-like nuclear features be distinguished from classic papillary thyroid carcinoma and follicular adenomas by fine-needle aspiration? Noninvasive encapsulated follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma, a diagnosis implying malignancy as a variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC), has recently been reclassified to noninvasive follicular thyroid neoplasm with papillary-like nuclear features (NIFTP) on surgical pathology. Due (...) to the effects of such a recategorization on rate of malignancy and clinical management algorithms, it is imperative that we explore whether presurgical fine-needle aspiration can differentiate NIFTP from PTC and follicular adenoma (FA).Cytology slides from subjects with final surgical pathology resection diagnoses of NIFTP/encapsulated follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma, classic PTC, and FA made between January 2013 and August 2016 were assessed. The Bethesda System diagnoses were tabulated

2017 Cancer

11. Carney complex: a case with thyroid follicular adenoma without a PRKAR1A mutation Full Text available with Trip Pro

Carney complex: a case with thyroid follicular adenoma without a PRKAR1A mutation Carney complex (CNC) is a very rare disease. Although thyroid lesions are included in the diagnostic criteria for CNC, they are an infrequent occurrence.The patient was a 69-year-old woman who had undergone the removal of a left atrial myxoma 10 years earlier, at the age of 59. At the time of the operation, thyroid ultrasonography (US) revealed multiple hypoechoic nodules. Thyroid scintigraphy revealed (...) an increased uptake of 99mTc in these lesions, which was consistent with toxic multinodular goiter, and she was diagnosed with CNC. Genetic studies showed no mutation in the PRKAR1A (protein kinase A regulatory subunit 1-α) gene. From then on, she received annual brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), abdominal computed tomography (CT), and thyroid US examinations. Her follicular thyroid nodules gradually increased in number and size. Although aspiration cytology samples from the thyroid nodules diagnosed

2018 Surgical Case Reports

12. Atypical Features Resembling Poorly Differentiated Thyroid Carcinoma Presenting Entirely within a Follicular Adenoma Full Text available with Trip Pro

Atypical Features Resembling Poorly Differentiated Thyroid Carcinoma Presenting Entirely within a Follicular Adenoma Poorly differentiated thyroid carcinoma (PDTC) is rare and is usually widely invasive at presentation. Here we present an unusual case with a component meeting diagnostic criteria for PDTC by Turin consensus proposal arising within a follicular adenoma. A 44-year-old female was found to have an incidental right thyroid nodule that was suggestive of follicular neoplasm on FNA

2018 Case Reports in Pathology

13. A case of a co-secreting TSH and growth hormone pituitary adenoma presenting with a thyroid nodule Full Text available with Trip Pro

A case of a co-secreting TSH and growth hormone pituitary adenoma presenting with a thyroid nodule Co-secreting TSH and growth hormone pituitary adenomas are rare. We present a case of a 55-year-old woman who presented with symptoms of neck fullness. Ultrasound revealed multiple thyroid nodules and examination revealed several clinical features of acromegaly. She was found to have a co-secreting TSH and growth hormone pituitary macroadenoma. She underwent surgical resection followed by gamma (...) knife radiation, which resulted in complete remission of her TSH and GH-secreting adenoma.TSH-secreting pituitary adenomas are rare and about one-third co-secrete other hormones.Thyroid nodules are common in acromegaly and can be the presenting sign of a growth hormone-secreting pituitary adenoma.In the workup of acromegaly, assessment of other pituitary hormones is essential, even in the absence of symptoms of other pituitary hormone dysfunction.Complete remission of co-secreting GH and TSH

2018 Endocrinology, diabetes & metabolism case reports

14. Coexistence of medullary thyroid carcinoma and recurrent non-functional pituitary adenoma: a case report Full Text available with Trip Pro

Coexistence of medullary thyroid carcinoma and recurrent non-functional pituitary adenoma: a case report Medullary thyroid carcinoma and pituitary adenoma are neuroendocrine tumors and their coexistence has not been reported in the literature, previously. Medullary thyroid carcinoma is a neoplasm of the thyroid gland arising from parafollicular c-cells producing calcitonin, and pituitary adenoma is a benign hyperplasia of the cells of the pituitary gland. Coexistence of these neoplasms can (...) be explained by being affected by simultaneous primary neoplasms or tumor-to-tumor metastasis phenomenon.We present the case of a 60-year-old Persian man who presented to the clinic with a chief complaint of headache for the last 2 months. His past medical history was significant for non-functional pituitary macroadenoma and medullary thyroid carcinoma and he had received a total thyroidectomy and a transsphenoidal surgery several years ago. Diagnostic evaluations revealed that the pituitary adenoma has

2018 Journal of medical case reports

15. Adrenocortical adenoma manifesting as false-positive iodine accumulation in a patient with history of thyroid carcinoma Full Text available with Trip Pro

Adrenocortical adenoma manifesting as false-positive iodine accumulation in a patient with history of thyroid carcinoma A 47-year-old female diagnosed with well-differentiated papillary thyroid carcinoma was referred to our center for a 131Iodine whole body scintigraphy as follow-up. The patient had been previously treated with total thyroidectomy and ablative dose of 175mCi 131I three years ago. Diagnostic 131I scan showed a zone of radioiodine uptake in posterior aspect of the left upper (...) quadrant of the abdomen. Spiral abdominal and pelvic CT scan showed an enhancing solid mass in superior aspect of the left adrenal gland, which was in favor of metastasis to the lymph node or an adrenal tumor. A biopsy was performed from the lesion. Histological examination of the surgical specimen was consistent with adrenocortical adenoma. Even though rare, adrenocortical adenoma should be included in the potential causes of false-positive results of radioiodine scans.

2018 Radiology Case Reports

16. Huge thyroid adenoma with tracheomalacia Full Text available with Trip Pro

Huge thyroid adenoma with tracheomalacia This case shows the importance of the early diagnosis of the tracheomalacia and the treatment of asphyxia in thyroid huge mass.

2018 Clinical Case Reports

17. A six-gene panel to label follicular adenoma, low- and high-risk follicular thyroid carcinoma Full Text available with Trip Pro

A six-gene panel to label follicular adenoma, low- and high-risk follicular thyroid carcinoma The distinction between follicular thyroid carcinomas (FTCs) and follicular-patterned benign lesions is almost impossible on fine-needle aspiration cytology. Furthermore, minimally invasive FTCs (MI-FTCs) with less than 4 vascular invasion foci generally have an excellent prognosis, but there are exceptions and, so far, no molecular marker appears able to identify them reliably. We aimed to distinguish (...) benign lesions from low- and high-risk FTCs by a small-scale combination of genes. The expression analysis of 75 selected genes was performed on 18 follicular adenomas (FAs), 14 MI-FTCs and 6 widely invasive FTC (WI-FTCs). The mutational status of the RAS genes, TERT promoter and PAX8-PPARG rearrangements was also investigated. Seven samples were mutated, namely 3 MI-FTCs and 4 WI-FTCs. Twenty-five genes were differentially expressed (FDR <0.05) between FAs and WI-FTCs. Six of these (ECM1, RXRG, SDPR

2017 Endocrine connections

18. Thyroid follicular adenomas and carcinomas: molecular profiling provides evidence for a continuous evolution Full Text available with Trip Pro

Thyroid follicular adenomas and carcinomas: molecular profiling provides evidence for a continuous evolution Non-autonomous thyroid nodules are common in the general population with a proportion found to be cancerous. A current challenge in the field is to be able to distinguish benign adenoma (FA) from preoperatively malignant thyroid follicular carcinoma (FTC), which are very similar both histologically and genetically. One controversial issue, which is currently not understood, is whether (...) , molecular functions and biological processes. The additional deregulations in FTC include the lipid transport process that may be involved in tumor progression. The strongest candidate genes which may be able to discriminate follicular adenomas and carcinomas, CRABP1, FABP4 and HMGA2, were validated in independent samples by qRT-PCR and immunohistochemistry. However, they were not able to adequately classify FA or FTC, supporting the notion of continuous evolving tumors, whereby FA and FTC appear

2017 Oncotarget

19. Concurrent thoracic mesothelioma and thyroid C‐cell adenoma with amyloid deposition in an aged horse Full Text available with Trip Pro

Concurrent thoracic mesothelioma and thyroid C‐cell adenoma with amyloid deposition in an aged horse A 21-year-old American Saddlebred mare died with a history of weight loss and breathing difficulties of 1 month duration. Post-mortem examination revealed a copious pleural effusion with multifocal to coalescing numerous white to grey nodular masses on the serosal surface of the pericardium, lungs and thoracic cavity. In addition, the left thyroid gland was markedly enlarged. A thoracic (...) mesothelioma and C-cell adenoma with amyloid deposits of the left thyroid gland were diagnosed by histopathology and confirmed by immunohistochemistry employing antibodies against cytokeratin (CK), vimentin and calcitonin. Amyloid deposits in the thyroid tumour were confirmed by Congo red staining with apple-green birefringence under polarized light. Mesothelioma remains an uncommon neoplasm encountered in aged horses. Discussion includes the diagnostic challenge of differentiating carcinomatosis from

2017 Veterinary Medicine and Science

20. Ectopic thyrotropin secreting pituitary adenoma concomitant with papillary thyroid carcinoma: Case report. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Ectopic thyrotropin secreting pituitary adenoma concomitant with papillary thyroid carcinoma: Case report. Ectopic thyrotropin (TSH)-secreting pituitary adenomas are exceedingly rare. To date, there are only 6 cases reported. Here, we describe an even rarer ectopic TSH-secreting pituitary adenoma (TSH-oma) concomitant with papillary thyroid carcinoma.A 27-year-old female was admitted to the hospital in 2002 for neck enlargement and palpitation. Thyroid function test showed increased thyroid (...) serum TSH remained at high levels even with adequate levothyroxine. Unexpected, thyroid papillary carcinoma and a neoplasm in her nasopharynx were successively detected in 2012, which were then removed by surgery. Somewhat interestingly, the serum TSH declined to normal after the operation.The patient was ultimately diagnosed as an ectopic TSH-secreting pituitary adenoma concomitant with papillary thyroid carcinoma.Thyroidectomy and removal of the ectopic TSH-secreting pituitary adenoma by surgery

2017 Medicine

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