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Thoracic Spine Anatomy

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101. Shoulder Anatomy

Anatomy , Shoulder II. Anatomy Bone and Ligament Also available as a . See Also available as a . See Lewis (1918) Gray's Anatomy 20th ed (in at or ) Lewis (1918) Gray's Anatomy 20th ed (in at or ) Lewis (1918) Gray's Anatomy 20th ed (in at or ) Muscles Lewis (1918) Gray's Anatomy 20th ed (in at or ) Lewis (1918) Gray's Anatomy 20th ed (in at or ) Lewis (1918) Gray's Anatomy 20th ed (in at or ) III. Anatomy: Bones r spine Third thoracic e r inferior angle Eighth thoracic e (7th rib) Clavicle IV (...) Shoulder Anatomy Shoulder Anatomy Toggle navigation Brain Head & Neck Chest Endocrine Abdomen Musculoskeletal Skin Infectious Disease Hematology & Oncology Cohorts Diagnostics Emergency Findings Procedures Prevention & Management Pharmacy Resuscitation Trauma Emergency Procedures Ultrasound Cardiovascular Emergencies Lung Emergencies Infectious Disease Pediatrics Neurologic Emergencies Skin Exposure Miscellaneous Abuse Cancer Administration 4 Shoulder Anatomy Shoulder Anatomy Aka: Shoulder

2015 FP Notebook

102. Brachial Plexus Anatomy

) Gray's Anatomy 20th ed (in at or ) IV. Anatomy: Plexus Divisions Upper Plexus abductors External rotators flexors Sensation to and radial arm Lower Plexus and Hand motor function Sensation to ulnar arm, , and hand First Thoracic (T1) Sympathetic face fibers Perceived enophthalmos Anhidrosis V. Anatomy: Cords Posterior Cord Supplies Medial Cord Supplies 1/2 Supplies all of Lateral Cord Supplies 1/2 Supplies Musculocutaneous VI. Anatomy: Plexus course Passes between middle and anterior scalene muscles (...) Brachial Plexus Anatomy Brachial Plexus Anatomy Toggle navigation Brain Head & Neck Chest Endocrine Abdomen Musculoskeletal Skin Infectious Disease Hematology & Oncology Cohorts Diagnostics Emergency Findings Procedures Prevention & Management Pharmacy Resuscitation Trauma Emergency Procedures Ultrasound Cardiovascular Emergencies Lung Emergencies Infectious Disease Pediatrics Neurologic Emergencies Skin Exposure Miscellaneous Abuse Cancer Administration 4 Brachial Plexus Anatomy Brachial

2015 FP Notebook

103. Impact of Immobilization on Intrafraction Motion for Spine Stereotactic Body Radiotherapy Using Cone Beam Computed Tomography. (PubMed)

spinal metastases in 84 patients. Thoracic and lumbar spine patients were immobilized with either an evacuated cushion (EC, n = 24) or a semirigid vacuum body fixation (BF, n = 60). For cases treated at cervical/upper thoracic (thoracic [T]1-T3) vertebrae, a thermoplastic S-frame (SF) mask (n = 18) was used. Patient setup was corrected by using bony anatomy image registration and couch translations only (no rotation corrections) with shifts confirmed on verification CBCTs. Repeat imaging (...) Impact of Immobilization on Intrafraction Motion for Spine Stereotactic Body Radiotherapy Using Cone Beam Computed Tomography. Spine stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) involves tight planning margins and steep dose gradients to the surrounding organs at risk (OAR). This study aimed to assess intrafraction motion using cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) for spine SBRT patients treated using three immobilization devices.Setup accuracy using CBCT was retrospectively analyzed for 102 treated

2012 Biology and Physics

104. Establishment of Parameters for Congenital Thoracic Stenosis: A Study of 700 Postmortem Specimens. (PubMed)

Establishment of Parameters for Congenital Thoracic Stenosis: A Study of 700 Postmortem Specimens. Congenital thoracic stenosis (CTS) occurs when the bony anatomy of the canal is smaller than expected in the general population. The diagnosis currently is made based on the clinical impression from subjective radiographic studies, and the normal values for CTS have not been established.We provided a statistical definition for CTS based on objective measurements of thoracic spine specimens (...) %.We statistically defined CTS at each level. A SCD less than 15 mm or IPD less than 18.5 mm predicted the presence of CTS at all levels.In a symptomatic patient, on routine radiologic examination, a physician should suspect stenosis of the thoracic canal if the SCD and IPD are less than 15 and 18.5 mm respectively. As a spinal deformity surgeon, the canal area is especially relevant when considering a possible canal intrusion by implants.

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2012 Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research

105. Comparison of Thoracoscopic Talc Pleurodesis by Thoracic Epidural or General Anesthesia

and one-lung ventilation Unfavourable anatomy for TEA Previous surgery of the thoracic spine Coagulation disorders (thromboplastin time < 80%, prothrombin time > 40 sec, platelet count < 200/nL or bleeding disorders Contacts and Locations Go to Information from the National Library of Medicine To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contact information provided by the sponsor. Please refer to this study by its ClinicalTrials.gov identifier (NCT (...) Comparison of Thoracoscopic Talc Pleurodesis by Thoracic Epidural or General Anesthesia Comparison of Thoracoscopic Talc Pleurodesis by Thoracic Epidural or General Anesthesia - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov Hide glossary Glossary Study record managers: refer to the if submitting registration or results information. Search for terms x × Study Record Detail Saved Studies Save this study Warning You have reached the maximum number of saved studies (100). Please remove one or more studies

2011 Clinical Trials

106. The medial inclination of the human thoracic intervertebral articular facets (PubMed)

The medial inclination of the human thoracic intervertebral articular facets 13620618 2000 07 01 2018 12 01 0021-8782 93 1 1959 Jan Journal of anatomy J. Anat. The medial inclination of the human thoracic intervertebral articular facets. 68-74 DAVIS P R PR eng Journal Article England J Anat 0137162 0021-8782 OM Back Humans Joints Spine anatomy & histology 5935:50302:551 SPINE/anatomy and histology 1959 1 1 1959 1 1 0 1 1959 1 1 0 0 ppublish 13620618 PMC1244328 J Bone Joint Surg Br. 1953 May;35

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1959 Journal of anatomy

107. Intra-operative computer navigation guided cervical pedicle screw insertion in thirty-three complex cervical spine deformities (PubMed)

described before. We evaluated the safety and accuracy of Iso-C 3D-navigated pedicle screws in the deformed cervical spine.Thirty-three patients including 15 children formed the study group. One hundred and forty-five cervical pedicle screws were inserted using Iso-C 3D-based computer navigation in patients undergoing cervical spine stabilization for craniovertebral junction anomalies, cervico-thoracic deformities and cervical instabilities due to trauma, post-surgery and degenerative disorders (...) Intra-operative computer navigation guided cervical pedicle screw insertion in thirty-three complex cervical spine deformities Cervical pedicle screw fixation is challenging due to the small osseous morphometrics and the close proximity of neurovascular elements. Computer navigation has been reported to improve the accuracy of pedicle screw placement. There are very few studies assessing its efficacy in the presence of deformity. Also cervical pedicle screw insertion in children has not been

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2010 Journal of craniovertebral junction and spine

108. Prediction of the human thoracic and lumbar articular facet joint morphometry from radiographic images (PubMed)

Prediction of the human thoracic and lumbar articular facet joint morphometry from radiographic images The articular facet joints (AFJ) play an important role in the biomechanics of the spine. Although it is well known that some AFJ dimensions (e.g. facet height/width or facet angles) play a major role in spinal deformities such as scoliosis, little is known about statistical correlations between these dimensions and the size of the vertebral bodies. Such relations could allow patient-specific (...) prediction of AFJ morphometry from a few dimensions measurable by X-ray. This would be of clinical interest and could also provide parameters for mathematical modeling of the spine. Our purpose in this study was to generate prediction equations for 20 parameters of the human thoracic and lumbar AFJ from T1 to L4 as a function of only one given parameter, the vertebral body height posterior (VBHP). Linear and nonlinear regression analyses were performed with published anatomical data, including linear

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2010 Journal of anatomy

109. Management of stable angina

to prevent new vascular events 17 4.4 Medication concordance 18 5 Interventional cardiology and cardiac surgery 19 5.1 Coronary artery anatomy and definitions 19 5.2 Percutaneous coronary intervention 19 5.3 Coronary artery bypass grafting 21 5.4 Choice of revascularisation technique 23 5.5 Postintervention drug therapy 26 5.6 Postintervention rehabilitation 28 5.7 Managing restenosis 28 5.8 Managing refractory angina 28 6 Stable angina and non-cardiac surgery 30 6.1 Assessment prior to surgery 30 6.2 (...) : minor (meniscectomy) • Urological: minor (transurethral resection of the prostate) • Intraperitoneal: splenectomy, hiatal hernia repair, cholecystectomy • Carotid symptomatic (CEA or CAS) • Peripheral arterial angioplasty • Endovascular aneurysm repair • Head and neck surgery • Neurological or orthopaedic: major (hip and spine surgery) • Urological or gynaecological: major • Renal transplant • Intrathoracic: non-major • Aortic and major vascular surgery • Open lower limb revascularisation

2018 SIGN

110. Assessment of mediastinal mass

Assessment of mediastinal mass Assessment of mediastinal mass - Differential diagnosis of symptoms | BMJ Best Practice You'll need a subscription to access all of BMJ Best Practice Search  Assessment of mediastinal mass Last reviewed: February 2019 Last updated: June 2018 Summary Mediastinal anatomy The mediastinum is the thoracic space between the visceral pleura of the lungs. The boundaries of the mediastinum are the visceral pleura, thoracic inlet (spine, first ribs, and manubrium (...) and carina Lymph nodes Oesophagus Vagus nerves Thoracic duct. Posterior mediastinal contents include: Proximal intercostal vessels Thoracic spinal ganglion Sympathetic nerve chain Lymph nodes. Differentials Thoracic aortic aneurysm Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma Metastatic cancer Thymoma Lung cancer Aortic dissection Hodgkin's lymphoma Mediastinal germ cell tumour: seminoma Mediastinal germ cell tumour: non-seminoma Thymic carcinoma Primary tracheal tumours Neurogenic tumour Thyroid neoplasm Substernal goitre

2018 BMJ Best Practice

111. Scoliosis

scoliometer measurement of >5° at paraspinal prominence symmetric abdominal reflexes shoulder asymmetry waist-line asymmetry thoracic wall or breast asymmetry normal gag reflex truncal decompensation positive FHx peak adolescent growth spurt Diagnostic investigations clinical exam standing PA x-rays of cervical, thoracic, and lumbar spine, and pelvis standing lateral x-rays of cervical, thoracic, and lumbar spine, and pelvis MRI of cervical, thoracic, lumbar, and sacral spine, and brainstem Treatment (...) accounts for the vast majority (approximately 90%) of cases. Parent S, Newton PO, Wenger DR. Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis: etiology, anatomy, natural history, and bracing. Instr Course Lect. 2005;54:529-536. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15948477?tool=bestpractice.com History and exam presence of risk factors age >10 years 6 to 12 months post puberty postural asymmetry absent or minimal pain absence of neurological symptoms with normal neurological exam paraspinal prominences on forward bending

2018 BMJ Best Practice

112. New and emerging technologies in neurophysiology and operating theatres

of the corticospinal tract more precisely. This technique seems specifically useful for conditions affecting the proximal peripheral nerves (those in regions not far from the spine) which are frequently affected by peripheral neuropathies. On the other hand, conventional NCS are ‘insufficient for detecting’ neuropathies in these nerves 26 although NCS can still provide useful information (see below). A review article concludes: “These stimulation methods are expected TECHNOLOGY IN NEUROPHYSIOLOGY AND OPERATING

2018 Sax Institute Evidence Check

113. Oncologic imaging

Health. All Rights Reserved. 3 Pancreatic Cancer 72 Paraneoplastic Syndrome 74 Penile, Vaginal, and Vulvar Cancers 75 Prostate Cancer 77 Sarcoma of Bone and Soft Tissue 80 Thoracic Cancers – Pleura, Thymus, Heart and Mediastinum 83 Thyroid Cancer 85 Uterine Cancer 88 Codes 91 History 93 Oncologic Imaging Copyright © 2019. AIM Specialty Health. All Rights Reserved. 4 Description and Application of the Guidelines The AIM Clinical Appropriateness Guidelines (hereinafter “the AIM Clinical Appropriateness (...) require a peer-to-peer conversation to understand the individual circumstances that support the medically necessity of performing all imaging studies simultaneously. Examples of multiple imaging studies that may require a peer-to-peer conversation include: ? CT brain and CT sinus for headache ? MRI brain and MRA brain for headache ? MRI cervical spine and MRI shoulder for pain indications ? MRI lumbar spine and MRI hip for pain indications ? MRI or CT of multiple spine levels for pain or radicular

2019 AIM Specialty Health

115. AIM Clinical Appropriateness Guidelines for Advanced Imaging of the Heart.

require a peer-to-peer conversation include: ¾ CT brain and CT sinus for headache ¾ MRI brain and MRA brain for headache ¾ MRI cervical spine and MRI shoulder for pain indications ¾ MRI lumbar spine and MRI hip for pain indications ¾ MRI or CT of multiple spine levels for pain or radicular indications ¾ MRI foot and MRI ankle for pain indications ¾ Bilateral exams, particularly comparison studies There are certain clinical scenarios where simultaneous ordering of multiple imaging studies is consistent

2019 AIM Specialty Health

116. AIM Clinical Appropriateness Guidelines for Radiation Oncology

, anteroposterior and superoinferior shifts were required in 15%, 6% and 19% of cases respectively supporting the use of pre- treatment imaging. The ACR-ASTRO practice parameter for IGRT indicates that “when the target is not clearly visible and bony anatomy is not sufficient for adequate target alignment, fiducial markers may be needed.” For soft tissue targets such as the prostate, implanted fiducial markers have been validated as an accurate way to localize the target when using orthogonal imaging. Based (...) , using cone beam CT registration to the spine and carina improved target coverage approximately 50% of the time. Even using skin tattoos, however, the combined lung and nodal targets were found to be within the PTV over 97% of the time. Tumor motion during the breathing cycle needs to be evaluated and managed when highly conformal radiation techniques are used to treat lung cancer. Liu evaluated respiratory related tumor motion in 152 patients with lung cancer and found that motion

2019 AIM Specialty Health

117. ACR–ASNR–SPR Practice Parameter for the Performance of Myelography and Cisternography

based contrast); nevertheless, reflecting the much greater contrast resolution of MR imaging, the contrast between the opacified cerebrospinal fluid and the spinal cord and nerve roots is marked. MR myelography with intrathecal contrast is conducted in an entirely analogous manner to the technique used in conventional myelography followed by CT. Pulsing sequences for examining the cervical, thoracic or lumbar spine typically include sagittal and axial T1- and T2-weighted fast spin echo with fat (...) be used in a similar fashion for similar indications; however, such media are not presently FDA approved for this purpose. Following the introduction of a sufficient quantity of intrathecal contrast medium, the needle is withdrawn. With the aid of a tilting table, the opacified cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is positioned in the desired region of the spinal subarachnoid space (lumbar, thoracic, or cervical) or in the intracranial basal cisterns, and appropriate radiographic/fluoroscopic (conventional

2019 American Society of Neuroradiology

118. Paediatric Urology

or 3 years. J Urol, 2007. 178: 1589. 75. Novaes, H.F., et al. Single scrotal incision orchiopexy - a systematic review. Int Braz J Urol, 2013. 39: 305. 76. Docimo, S.G. The results of surgical therapy for cryptorchidism: a literature review and analysis. J Urol, 1995. 154: 1148. 77. Ziylan, O., et al. Failed orchiopexy. Urol Int, 2004. 73: 313. 78. Prentiss, R.J., et al. Undescended testis: surgical anatomy of spermatic vessels, spermatic surgical triangles and lateral spermatic ligament. J Urol (...) . Laparoscopic versus open orchiopexy in the management of peeping testis: a multi-institutional prospective randomized study. J Pediatr Urol, 2014. 10: 605. 91. Kirsch, A.J., et al. Surgical management of the nonpalpable testis: the Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia experience. J Urol, 1998. 159: 1340. 92. Fowler, R., et al. The role of testicular vascular anatomy in the salvage of high undescended testes. Aust N Z J Surg, 1959. 29: 92. 93. Koff, S.A., et al. Treatment of high undescended testes by low

2019 European Association of Urology

119. Renal Cell Carcinoma

in the diagnosis and management of renal cell carcinoma: role of multidetector ct and three-dimensional CT. Radiographics, 2001. 21 Spec No: S237. 96. Wittekind Ch., et al. TNM supplement, A Commentary on Uniform Use. Wittekind Ch., Greene F., Henson D.E., Hutter R.V., Sobin L.H., Editors. 2012, Wiley-Blackwell. 97. Klatte, T., et al. A Literature Review of Renal Surgical Anatomy and Surgical Strategies for Partial Nephrectomy. Eur Urol, 2015. 68: 980. 98. Spaliviero, M., et al. An Arterial Based Complexity

2019 European Association of Urology

120. Evaluation and management of polyhydramnios

anatomy • Placenta for presence of large chorioangiomas • Fetal movement to assess neurologic function • Positioning of fetal hands and feet to rule out arthrogryposis syndromes • Presence and size of fetal stomach to rule out tracheoesophageal fistula or esophageal atresia • Anatomy of the fetal face and palate • Positioning and appearance of the fetal neck to rule out an obstructing mass • Fetal kidneys to assess for ureteropelvic junction obstruction • Lower spine and pelvis for evidence (...) -output cardiac state, renal abnormality, or osmotic fetal diuresis ( Table 1 ). Table 1 Fetal/neonatal etiologies of polyhydramnios Impaired Swallowing Excess Urine Production GI Obstruction Neuro-muscular Craniofacial Renal/Urinary Cardiac Osmotic diuresis/Other Duodenal atresia Myotonic dystrophy Cleft lip/palate UPJ obstruction Cardiac structural anomaly Diabetes TE Fistula Arthrogryposis Micrognathia Mesoblastic nephroma Tachyarrhythmia Hydrops Thoracic mass Intracranial anomaly Neck mass Bartter

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2019 Society for Maternal-Fetal Medicine

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