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Thoracic Spine Anatomy

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61. MIND Demons: Symmetric Diffeomorphic Deformable Registration of MR and CT for Image-Guided Spine Surgery (PubMed)

MIND Demons: Symmetric Diffeomorphic Deformable Registration of MR and CT for Image-Guided Spine Surgery Intraoperative localization of target anatomy and critical structures defined in preoperative MR/CT images can be achieved through the use of multimodality deformable registration. We propose a symmetric diffeomorphic deformable registration algorithm incorporating a modality-independent neighborhood descriptor (MIND) and a robust Huber metric for MR-to-CT registration. The method, called (...) Jacobian determinants. It also showed improved registration accuracy in comparison to the reference methods, with mean target registration error (TRE) of 1.7 mm compared to 11.3, 3.1, 5.6, and 2.4 mm for MI FFD, LMI FFD, NMI Demons, and MIND-elastic methods, respectively. Validation in clinical studies demonstrated realistic deformations with sub-voxel TRE in cases of cervical, thoracic, and lumbar spine.

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2016 IEEE transactions on medical imaging

62. Subarachnoid-Pleural Fistula: Applied Anatomy of the Thoracic Spinal Nerve Root (PubMed)

Subarachnoid-Pleural Fistula: Applied Anatomy of the Thoracic Spinal Nerve Root Subarachnoid-pleural fistula (SPF) is a rare complication of chest or spine operations for neoplastic disease. Concomitant dural and parietal pleural defects permit flow of cerebrospinal fluid into the pleural cavity or intrapleural air into the subarachnoid space. Dural injury recognized intraoperatively permits immediate repair, but unnoticed damage may cause postoperative pleural effusion, intracranial (...) hypotension, meningitis, or pneumocephalus. We review two cases of SPF following surgical intervention for chest wall metastatic disease to motivate a detailed review of the anatomy of neural, osseous, and ligamentous structures at the intervertebral foramen. We further provide recommendations for avoidance and detection of such complication.

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2011 ISRN surgery

63. Freehand Thoracic Pedicle Screw Placement: Review of Existing Strategies and a Step-by-Step Guide Using Uniform Landmarks for All Levels (PubMed)

Freehand Thoracic Pedicle Screw Placement: Review of Existing Strategies and a Step-by-Step Guide Using Uniform Landmarks for All Levels Pedicle screw fixation in the thoracic spine presents certain challenges due to the critical regional neurovascular anatomy as well as the narrow pedicular corridor that typically exists. With increased awareness of the dangers of intraoperative radiation, the ability to place pedicle screws with anatomic landmarks alone is paramount. In this study, we (...) reviewed the literature from 1990 to 2015 for studies that included freehand pedicle screw placement in the thoracic spine with special emphasis on entry points and the trajectories of the screws. We excluded studies that used fluoroscopy guidance, navigation techniques, cadaveric and biomechanical articles, case reports, and experimental studies on animals. The search retrieved 40 articles, and after careful selection, seven articles were analyzed. Over 8,000 screws were placed in the different

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2016 Cureus

64. Fine Configuration of Thoracic Type II Meningeal Cysts: Macro-/Microscopic Cadaveric Study Using Epoxy Sheet Plastination. (PubMed)

Fine Configuration of Thoracic Type II Meningeal Cysts: Macro-/Microscopic Cadaveric Study Using Epoxy Sheet Plastination. A cadaveric study OBJECTIVE.: The aim of this study was to analyze the in situ macro- and microscopic configuration of the type II cyst and its anatomic relationship with surrounding structures.The lack of consensus of surgical strategy to manage symptomatic type II meningeal cysts (Tarlov cysts) is because our knowledge of type II cyst anatomy remains incomplete. It has (...) of 2.5 mm. The sections were examined under a stereomicroscope.Three type II cysts were in the thoracic spine and had a common feature that a clearly identifiable cyst neck connected the cyst body to the subarachnoid space. The dorsal root of the spinal nerve was centered in the cyst neck but spread over the cyst body or traversed the cyst cavity. The meningeal opening of the cyst was located above the inferior border of the vertebral pedicle, thus, the cyst neck hugged around the pedicle and sharply

2016 Spine

65. Primary Failure of Thoracic Epidural Analgesia in Training Centers: The Invisible Elephant? (PubMed)

Primary Failure of Thoracic Epidural Analgesia in Training Centers: The Invisible Elephant? In teaching centers, primary failure of thoracic epidural analgesia can be due to multiple etiologies. In addition to the difficult anatomy of the thoracic spine, the conventional end point-loss-of-resistance-lacks specificity. Furthermore, insufficient training compounds the problem: learning curves are nonexistent, pedagogical requirements are often inadequate, supervisors may be inexperienced (...) , and exposure during residency is decreasing. Any viable solution needs to be multifaceted. Learning curves should be explored to determine the minimal number of blocks required for proficiency. The problem of decreasing caseload can be tackled with epidural simulators to supplement in vivo learning. From a technical standpoint, fluoroscopy and ultrasonography could be used to navigate the complex anatomy of the thoracic spine. Finally, correct identification of the thoracic epidural space should

2016 Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine

66. Movements of the thoracic and lumbar spine when lifting: A chrono-cyclophotographic study (PubMed)

Movements of the thoracic and lumbar spine when lifting: A chrono-cyclophotographic study 14245340 1996 12 01 2018 12 01 0021-8782 99 1965 Jan Journal of anatomy J. Anat. MOVEMENTS OF THE THORACIC AND LUMBAR SPINE WHEN LIFTING: A CHRONO-CYCLOPHOTOGRAPHIC STUDY. 13-26 DAVIS P R PR TROUP J D JD BURNARD J H JH eng Journal Article England J Anat 0137162 0021-8782 OM Biophysical Phenomena Biophysics Humans Lifting Lumbar Vertebrae Movement Photography Physical Exertion Posture Spine Thoracic (...) Vertebrae BIOPHYSICS EXERTION LUMBAR VERTEBRAE MOVEMENT PHOTOGRAPHY POSTURE SPINE THORACIC VERTEBRAE 1965 1 1 1965 1 1 0 1 1965 1 1 0 0 ppublish 14245340 PMC1261458 J Physiol. 1955 Jul 28;129(1):184-203 13252593 Br Med J. 1959 Jan 10;1(5114):87-9 13608086 Lancet. 1959 Aug 22;2(7095):155-7 13814506 J Anat. 1962 Oct;96(Pt 4):509-20 17105132

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1965 Journal of anatomy

67. Thoracic Aortic Disease: Guidelines For the Diagnosis and Management of Patients With

Thoracic Aortic Disease: Guidelines For the Diagnosis and Management of Patients With PRACTICE GUIDELINE: FULL TEXT 2010 ACCF/AHA/AATS/ACR/ASA/SCA/SCAI/SIR/STS/SVM Guidelines for the Diagnosis and Management of Patients With Thoracic Aortic Disease A Report of the American College of Cardiology Foundation/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines, American Association for Thoracic Surgery, American College of Radiology, American Stroke Association, Society of Cardiovascular (...) Anesthesiologists, Society for Cardiovascular Angiography and Interventions, Society of Interventional Radiology, Society of Thoracic Surgeons, and Society for Vascular Medicine Endorsed by the North American Society for Cardiovascular Imaging WRITING GROUP MEMBERS Loren F. Hiratzka, MD, Chair*; George L. Bakris, MD†; Joshua A. Beckman, MD, MS‡; Robert M. Bersin, MD§; Vincent F. Carr, DO; Donald E. Casey Jr, MD, MPH, MBA¶; Kim A. Eagle, MD*#; Luke K. Hermann, MD**; Eric M. Isselbacher, MD*; Ella A. Kazerooni

2010 American College of Cardiology

68. Spinal Cord, Topographical and Functional Anatomy (Follow-up)

impairment of , sensory, or function. This review focuses on spinal cord anatomy. Basic clinical descriptions of common patterns of spinal cord involvement are related to essential aspects of spinal cord anatomy. The is located inside the vertebral canal, which is formed by the foramina of 7 cervical, 12 thoracic, 5 lumbar, and 5 sacral vertebrae, which together form the spine. The spinal cord extends from the foramen magnum down to the level of the first and second lumbar vertebrae (at birth, down (...) to second and third lumbar vertebrae). See the image below. Spine, anterior view. The spinal cord is composed of the following 31 segments: 8 cervical (C) segments 12 thoracic (T) segments 5 lumbar (L) segments 5 sacral (S) segments 1 coccygeal (Co) segment - mainly vestigial The spinal nerves consist of the sensory nerve roots, which enter the spinal cord at each level, and the motor roots, which emerge from the cord at each level. The spinal nerves are named and numbered according to the site

2014 eMedicine.com

69. Spinal Cord, Topographical and Functional Anatomy (Treatment)

impairment of , sensory, or function. This review focuses on spinal cord anatomy. Basic clinical descriptions of common patterns of spinal cord involvement are related to essential aspects of spinal cord anatomy. The is located inside the vertebral canal, which is formed by the foramina of 7 cervical, 12 thoracic, 5 lumbar, and 5 sacral vertebrae, which together form the spine. The spinal cord extends from the foramen magnum down to the level of the first and second lumbar vertebrae (at birth, down (...) to second and third lumbar vertebrae). See the image below. Spine, anterior view. The spinal cord is composed of the following 31 segments: 8 cervical (C) segments 12 thoracic (T) segments 5 lumbar (L) segments 5 sacral (S) segments 1 coccygeal (Co) segment - mainly vestigial The spinal nerves consist of the sensory nerve roots, which enter the spinal cord at each level, and the motor roots, which emerge from the cord at each level. The spinal nerves are named and numbered according to the site

2014 eMedicine.com

70. Spinal Cord, Topographical and Functional Anatomy (Overview)

impairment of , sensory, or function. This review focuses on spinal cord anatomy. Basic clinical descriptions of common patterns of spinal cord involvement are related to essential aspects of spinal cord anatomy. The is located inside the vertebral canal, which is formed by the foramina of 7 cervical, 12 thoracic, 5 lumbar, and 5 sacral vertebrae, which together form the spine. The spinal cord extends from the foramen magnum down to the level of the first and second lumbar vertebrae (at birth, down (...) to second and third lumbar vertebrae). See the image below. Spine, anterior view. The spinal cord is composed of the following 31 segments: 8 cervical (C) segments 12 thoracic (T) segments 5 lumbar (L) segments 5 sacral (S) segments 1 coccygeal (Co) segment - mainly vestigial The spinal nerves consist of the sensory nerve roots, which enter the spinal cord at each level, and the motor roots, which emerge from the cord at each level. The spinal nerves are named and numbered according to the site

2014 eMedicine.com

71. Spinal Cord, Topographical and Functional Anatomy (Diagnosis)

impairment of , sensory, or function. This review focuses on spinal cord anatomy. Basic clinical descriptions of common patterns of spinal cord involvement are related to essential aspects of spinal cord anatomy. The is located inside the vertebral canal, which is formed by the foramina of 7 cervical, 12 thoracic, 5 lumbar, and 5 sacral vertebrae, which together form the spine. The spinal cord extends from the foramen magnum down to the level of the first and second lumbar vertebrae (at birth, down (...) to second and third lumbar vertebrae). See the image below. Spine, anterior view. The spinal cord is composed of the following 31 segments: 8 cervical (C) segments 12 thoracic (T) segments 5 lumbar (L) segments 5 sacral (S) segments 1 coccygeal (Co) segment - mainly vestigial The spinal nerves consist of the sensory nerve roots, which enter the spinal cord at each level, and the motor roots, which emerge from the cord at each level. The spinal nerves are named and numbered according to the site

2014 eMedicine.com

72. Breast Anatomy

Breast Anatomy Breast Anatomy: Overview, Vascular Anatomy and Innervation of the Breast, Breast Parenchyma and Support Structures Edition: No Results No Results Please confirm that you would like to log out of Medscape. If you log out, you will be required to enter your username and password the next time you visit. https://profreg.medscape.com/px/getpracticeprofile.do?method=getProfessionalProfile&urlCache=aHR0cHM6Ly9yZWZlcmVuY2UubWVkc2NhcGUuY29tL2FydGljbGUvMTI3MzEzMy1vdmVydmlldw== processing (...) > Breast Anatomy Updated: Jun 29, 2016 Author: Allen Gabriel, MD, FACS; Chief Editor: James Neal Long, MD, FACS Share Email Print Feedback Close Sections Sections Breast Anatomy Overview Overview Breast shape varies among patients, but knowing and understanding the anatomy of the ensures safe planning (see the image below). When the breasts are carefully examined, significant asymmetries are revealed in most patients. Any preexisting asymmetries, spinal curvature, or chest wall deformities must

2014 eMedicine Surgery

73. MIS lateral spine surgery: a systematic literature review of complications, outcomes, and economics. (PubMed)

), case reports (40), complications (30), clinical and radiographic outcomes (43), deformity (23), trauma or thoracic applications (10), and review articles (41).In answer to the questions posed, (1) there is a high strength of evidence showing MI-LIF to be anatomically justified at all levels of the lumbar spine from L1-2 to L4-5. The evidence also supports the use of advanced neuromonitoring modalities. (2) There is moderate strength evidence in support of reproducible and reasonable complication (...) MIS lateral spine surgery: a systematic literature review of complications, outcomes, and economics. Over the past decade, the minimally disruptive lateral transpsoas approach for lumbar interbody fusion (MI-LIF) is increasingly being used as an alternative to conventional surgical approaches. The purpose of this review was to evaluate four primary questions as they relate to MI-LIF: (1) Is there an anatomical justification for MI-LIF at L4-5? (2) What are the complication and outcome profiles

2015 European Spine Journal

74. Lower Cervical Spine Fractures and Dislocations (Diagnosis)

Lower Cervical Spine Fractures and Dislocations (Diagnosis) Lower Cervical Spine Fractures and Dislocations: Background, Anatomy, Pathophysiology Edition: No Results No Results Please confirm that you would like to log out of Medscape. If you log out, you will be required to enter your username and password the next time you visit. https://profreg.medscape.com/px/getpracticeprofile.do?method=getProfessionalProfile&urlCache (...) , resulting in bony or soft-tissue injury; however, the presence of multiple traumatic injuries may distract the examiner from the cervical spine. In the evaluation of the patient, examining the cervical spine is a high priority and must take precedence. The cervical spine is important to consider in positioning the head in space. The dominant motion in the lower cervical spine is flexion-extension, but the cervical spine's anatomy permits a fair amount of motion in all planes. In high-speed injuries

2014 eMedicine Surgery

75. Lumbar Spine Fractures and Dislocations (Diagnosis)

of the spine based on the system introduced by Cotrel and Dubousset. This article reviews the diagnosis and management of acute lumbar vertebral fractures. (For more information, see and ) Next: Anatomy Anatomic components The lumbar spine consists of a mobile segment of five vertebrae, which are located between the relatively immobile segments of the thoracic and sacral segments. The thoracic spine is stabilized by the attached rib cage and intercostal musculature, whereas the sacral segments are fused (...) Lumbar Spine Fractures and Dislocations (Diagnosis) Lumbar Spine Fractures and Dislocations: Background, Anatomy, Pathophysiology Edition: No Results No Results Please confirm that you would like to log out of Medscape. If you log out, you will be required to enter your username and password the next time you visit. https://profreg.medscape.com/px/getpracticeprofile.do?method=getProfessionalProfile&urlCache=aHR0cHM6Ly9lbWVkaWNpbmUubWVkc2NhcGUuY29tL2FydGljbGUvMTI2NDE5MS1vdmVydmlldw== processing

2014 eMedicine Surgery

76. Lumbar Spine Fractures and Dislocations (Follow-up)

resuscitated, plain films of the cervical, thoracic, and lumbosacral spine should be obtained. When possible, a detailed history should be obtained to ascertain the mechanism of injury and the relative force sustained. Individuals who sustain falls often have hyperflexion injuries at the thoracolumbar region in association with pelvic and lower-extremity fractures. Persons who wore seat belts during motor vehicle accidents often have distraction injuries or associated cervical spine injuries (...) at the thoracolumbar junction and neurologic deficits. In contrast with patients with spinal cord injuries at the cervical and thoracic spine, patients with nerve root compression at the lumbosacral region often achieve better outcomes following surgical decompression. The effect of the timing of decompressive surgery on the rate of neurologic recovery also has remained unclear. [ , ] Improved neurologic function has been reported with early and late decompression. Most studies have reported on the neurologic

2014 eMedicine Surgery

77. Lumbosacral Spine Acute Bony Injuries (Diagnosis)

in data collection and reporting among countries. In England, Williams estimated that spinal injuries accounted for 15% of all injuries sustained in sports. [ ] Furthermore, injuries to the thoracic and lumbar spine seemed to be more frequent in automobile racing, horseback riding, parachuting, mountain climbing, and weightlifting. Previous Next: Functional Anatomy The lumbar spine consists of a mobile segment of 5 vertebrae, located between the relatively immobile segments of the thoracic and sacral (...) Lumbosacral Spine Acute Bony Injuries (Diagnosis) Lumbosacral Spine Acute Bony Injuries: Background, Epidemiology, Functional Anatomy Edition: No Results No Results Please confirm that you would like to log out of Medscape. If you log out, you will be required to enter your username and password the next time you visit. https://profreg.medscape.com/px/getpracticeprofile.do?method=getProfessionalProfile&urlCache=aHR0cHM6Ly9lbWVkaWNpbmUubWVkc2NhcGUuY29tL2FydGljbGUvOTUxMzItb3ZlcnZpZXc= processing

2014 eMedicine.com

78. Lumbosacral Spine Acute Bony Injuries (Overview)

in data collection and reporting among countries. In England, Williams estimated that spinal injuries accounted for 15% of all injuries sustained in sports. [ ] Furthermore, injuries to the thoracic and lumbar spine seemed to be more frequent in automobile racing, horseback riding, parachuting, mountain climbing, and weightlifting. Previous Next: Functional Anatomy The lumbar spine consists of a mobile segment of 5 vertebrae, located between the relatively immobile segments of the thoracic and sacral (...) Lumbosacral Spine Acute Bony Injuries (Overview) Lumbosacral Spine Acute Bony Injuries: Background, Epidemiology, Functional Anatomy Edition: No Results No Results Please confirm that you would like to log out of Medscape. If you log out, you will be required to enter your username and password the next time you visit. https://profreg.medscape.com/px/getpracticeprofile.do?method=getProfessionalProfile&urlCache=aHR0cHM6Ly9lbWVkaWNpbmUubWVkc2NhcGUuY29tL2FydGljbGUvOTUxMzItb3ZlcnZpZXc= processing

2014 eMedicine.com

79. Lumbar Spine, Trauma

) and lateral radiographs should be obtained in most patients suspected of lumbar injury. The 2-view radiographic series is simple to perform with a minimal delay in providing other essential care. A possible exception is the patient who is ambulating independently and complaining of back pain after a motor vehicle collision; in a retrospective study that included 1,110 such patients, Tamir et al found that no lumbar and thoracic spine radiographs were positive for a fracture or dislocation. [ ] Oblique (...) fractures (eg, compression-type fractures) from combined anterior and middle column fractures (burst type). The system demonstrated 92% sensitivity for fracture detection and localization of the correct vertebra, with a false-positive occurrence rate of 1.6 per patient. [ ] Many patients who present with lumbar spine injury have pulmonary, rib, or vascular injury. The expense and delay of obtaining routine CT scans of the lumbar spine are not justified. A review of the bone windows of thoracic

2014 eMedicine Radiology

80. Hemangioblastoma, Spine

with hemangioblastomas of the spine. This edema extends rostrally to the medulla and caudally to the upper thoracic spinal cord. If the tumor is left untreated, the edema develops into a syrinx. Gadolinium-based contrast agents have been linked to the development of nephrogenic systemic fibrosis (NSF) or nephrogenic fibrosing dermopathy (NFD). Previous Next: Angiography Spinal angiography is indicated for large neoplasms when the diagnosis is indeterminate on MRI. [ ] Angiography reveals a hypervascular, well (...) Hemangioblastoma, Spine Imaging in Spinal Hemangioblastoma: Practice Essentials, Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Angiography Edition: No Results No Results Please confirm that you would like to log out of Medscape. If you log out, you will be required to enter your username and password the next time you visit. https://profreg.medscape.com/px/getpracticeprofile.do?method=getProfessionalProfile&urlCache=aHR0cHM6Ly9lbWVkaWNpbmUubWVkc2NhcGUuY29tL2FydGljbGUvMzQ1MzE0LW92ZXJ2aWV3 processing > Imaging

2014 eMedicine Radiology

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