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Thoracic Spine Anatomy

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1. Thoracic Spine Anatomy

Thoracic Spine Anatomy Thoracic Spine Anatomy Toggle navigation Brain Head & Neck Chest Endocrine Abdomen Musculoskeletal Skin Infectious Disease Hematology & Oncology Cohorts Diagnostics Emergency Findings Procedures Prevention & Management Pharmacy Resuscitation Trauma Emergency Procedures Ultrasound Cardiovascular Emergencies Lung Emergencies Infectious Disease Pediatrics Neurologic Emergencies Skin Exposure Miscellaneous Abuse Cancer Administration 4 Thoracic Spine Anatomy Thoracic Spine (...) Anatomy Aka: Thoracic Spine Anatomy , Thoracic Spine II. Anatomy: General Lewis (1918) Gray's Anatomy 20th ed (in at or ) Lewis (1918) Gray's Anatomy 20th ed (in at or ) III. Anatomy: Bone Lewis (1918) Gray's Anatomy 20th ed (in at or ) Lewis (1918) Gray's Anatomy 20th ed (in at or ) Lewis (1918) Gray's Anatomy 20th ed (in at or ) IV. Anatomy: Ligaments Lewis (1918) Gray's Anatomy 20th ed (in at or ) Lewis (1918) Gray's Anatomy 20th ed (in at or ) Lewis (1918) Gray's Anatomy 20th ed (in at or ) Lewis

2018 FP Notebook

2. Understanding Thoracic Spine Morphology, Shape, and Proportionality. (PubMed)

Understanding Thoracic Spine Morphology, Shape, and Proportionality. Retrospective review.The aim of this study was to describe TK in a normal asymptomatic population and to evaluate the association between TK magnitude and its shape.Understanding spinal anatomy requires a 3-dimensional appreciation of the spine's shape, morphology, and proportions. The customary definition of thoracic kyphosis (TK) is the angle between T4 and T12. However, little is known on the actual shape of TK

2019 Spine

3. A novel entry point for pedicle screw placement in the thoracic spine (PubMed)

A novel entry point for pedicle screw placement in the thoracic spine This study was aimed to introduce a novel entry point for pedicle screw fixation in the thoracic spine and compare it with the traditional entry point. A novel entry point was found with the aim of improving accuracy, safety and stability of pedicle screw technique based on anatomical structures of the spine. A total of 76 pieces of normal thoracic CT images at the transverse plane and the thoracic pedicle anatomy of 6 (...) ). The novel entry point significantly improved the accuracy, stability and safety of pedicle screw placement. With reference to the advantages above, the new entry point can be used for spinal internal fixations in the thoracic spine.

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2018 Journal of biomedical research

4. The effect of patient positioning on the relative position of the aorta to the thoracic spine. (PubMed)

The effect of patient positioning on the relative position of the aorta to the thoracic spine. Detailed knowledge of the anatomy of the thoracic aorta is crucial for thoracolumbar spinal surgery. The purpose of the present study is to describe the relative displacement of the aorta to the spine in supine, prone and prone position with padding. Improved understanding of the magnitude and direction of this often-overlooked change could benefit preoperative planning and decision-making.A total (...) of 200 patients underwent CT scan of the thoracic spine in the standard supine, prone and prone position with padding. Axial CT images from T4 to T12, in all three different positions, were selected and the following parameters were measured: (a) distance B connecting left pedicle entry point to the edge of the aortic wall and (b) projections Bx and By, representing the minimum AP depth and horizontal displacement of the aortic wall relative to the left pedicle entry point O.There was a significant

2018 European Spine Journal

5. The anatomy of the thoracic spinal canal in different postures: a magnetic resonance imaging investigation. (PubMed)

The anatomy of the thoracic spinal canal in different postures: a magnetic resonance imaging investigation. The goal of this study was to investigate,with magnetic resonance imaging, the human anatomic positions of the spinal canal (eg, spinal cord, thecal tissue) in various postures and identify possible implications from different patient positioning for neuraxial anesthetic practice.Nine volunteers underwent magnetic resonance imaging in supine, laterally recumbent, and sitting (head-down (...) ) positions. Axial and sagittal slices of the thoracic and lumbar spine were measured for the relative distances between anatomic structures, including dura mater and spinal cord.The posterior dura-spinal cord (midline) distance is on average greater than the anterior dura-spinal cord (midline) distance along the thoracic spinal column, irrespective of volunteer postures (P G 0.05).The separation of the dura mater and spinal cord is greatest posterior in the middle thoracic region compared with upper

2017 Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine

6. Cervical Spine Anatomy

Anatomy Aka: Cervical Spine Anatomy , C-Spine Anatomy , Cervical Vertebrae , Cervical Spine II. Anatomy: Seven Cervical Vertebrae Level C1: Atlas Level C2: Axis with Dens and Odontoid process Level C7: prominens Spinous process long and prominent C8 cervical nerve root exits below C7 III. Anatomy: General Cervical spinal nerves C1-C7 exit about their corresponding e In transitioning to , C8 exits below the C7 , and above T1 In contrast, all thoracic and lumbar spinal nerves exit below (...) Cervical Spine Anatomy Cervical Spine Anatomy Toggle navigation Brain Head & Neck Chest Endocrine Abdomen Musculoskeletal Skin Infectious Disease Hematology & Oncology Cohorts Diagnostics Emergency Findings Procedures Prevention & Management Pharmacy Resuscitation Trauma Emergency Procedures Ultrasound Cardiovascular Emergencies Lung Emergencies Infectious Disease Pediatrics Neurologic Emergencies Skin Exposure Miscellaneous Abuse Cancer Administration 4 Cervical Spine Anatomy Cervical Spine

2018 FP Notebook

7. Lumbar Spine Anatomy

Lumbar Spine Anatomy Lumbar Spine Anatomy Toggle navigation Brain Head & Neck Chest Endocrine Abdomen Musculoskeletal Skin Infectious Disease Hematology & Oncology Cohorts Diagnostics Emergency Findings Procedures Prevention & Management Pharmacy Resuscitation Trauma Emergency Procedures Ultrasound Cardiovascular Emergencies Lung Emergencies Infectious Disease Pediatrics Neurologic Emergencies Skin Exposure Miscellaneous Abuse Cancer Administration 4 Lumbar Spine Anatomy Lumbar Spine Anatomy (...) Aka: Lumbar Spine Anatomy , L-Spine Anatomy , Lumbar Spine , Lumbosacral Spine II. Anatomy: Nerve Course Disc disease affects nerve exiting one level below Nerve passes over the affected disc Example L4-5 disc tion affects L5 nerve Contrast with III. Anatomy: Components Spinal cord terminates at L1-L2 in the adult Lumbosacral nerve roots comprise cauda equina IV. Images: Bone Lewis (1918) Gray's Anatomy 20th ed (in at or ) Lewis (1918) Gray's Anatomy 20th ed (in at or ) Lewis (1918) Gray's Anatomy

2018 FP Notebook

8. Comparison of Cervical Spine Anatomy in Calves, Pigs and Humans (PubMed)

Comparison of Cervical Spine Anatomy in Calves, Pigs and Humans Animals are commonly used to model the human spine for in vitro and in vivo experiments. Many studies have investigated similarities and differences between animals and humans in the lumbar and thoracic vertebrae. However, a quantitative anatomic comparison of calf, pig, and human cervical spines has not been reported.To compare fundamental structural similarities and differences in vertebral bodies from the cervical spines (...) of commonly used experimental animal models and humans.Anatomical morphometric analysis was performed on cervical vertebra specimens harvested from humans and two common large animals (i.e., calves and pigs).Multiple morphometric parameters were directly measured from cervical spine specimens of twelve pigs, twelve calves and twelve human adult cadavers. The following anatomical parameters were measured: vertebral body width (VBW), vertebral body depth (VBD), vertebral body height (VBH), spinal canal

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2016 PloS one

9. Thoracic spine morphology of a pseudo-biped animal model (kangaroo) and comparisons with human and quadruped animals. (PubMed)

Thoracic spine morphology of a pseudo-biped animal model (kangaroo) and comparisons with human and quadruped animals. Based on the structural anatomy, loading condition and range of motion (ROM), no quadruped animal has been shown to accurately mimic the structure and biomechanical function of the human spine. The objective of this study is to quantify the thoracic vertebrae geometry of the kangaroo, and compare with adult human, pig, sheep, and deer.The thoracic vertebrae (T1-T12) from whole (...) of the adult human and quadruped animals. The most significant (p < 0.001) correlations (Rho) found between the human and kangaroo were in vertebrae and endplate dimensions (0.951 ≤ Rho ≤ 0.963), pedicles (0.851 ≤ Rho ≤ 0.951), and inter-facet heights (0.891 ≤ Rho ≤ 0.967). The deer displayed the least similar trends across vertebral levels.Similarities in thoracic spine vertebral geometry, particularly of the vertebrae, pedicles and facets may render the kangaroo a more clinically relevant human surrogate

2016 European Spine Journal

10. Ligaments of the Costovertebral Joints including Biomechanics, Innervations, and Clinical Applications: A Comprehensive Review with Application to Approaches to the Thoracic Spine (PubMed)

Ligaments of the Costovertebral Joints including Biomechanics, Innervations, and Clinical Applications: A Comprehensive Review with Application to Approaches to the Thoracic Spine Few studies have examined the costovertebral joint and its ligaments in detail. Therefore, the following review was performed to better elucidate their anatomy, function and involvement in pathology. Standard search engines were used to find studies concerning the costovertebral joints and ligaments. These often (...) -overlooked ligaments of the body serve important functions in maintaining appropriate alignment between the ribs and spine. With an increasing interest in minimally invasive approaches to the thoracic spine and an improved understanding of the function and innervation of these ligaments, surgeons and clinicians should have a good working knowledge of these structures.

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2016 Cureus

11. A comparative study on the accuracy of pedicle screw placement assisted by personalized rapid prototyping template between pre- and post-operation in patients with relatively normal mid-upper thoracic spine. (PubMed)

A comparative study on the accuracy of pedicle screw placement assisted by personalized rapid prototyping template between pre- and post-operation in patients with relatively normal mid-upper thoracic spine. The aim of this study was to assess the accuracy of rapid prototyping drill template technique for placing pedicle screws in the mid-upper thoracic vertebrae in clinics.151 consecutive patients underwent thoracic instrumentation and fusion for a total of 582 pedicle screws placed in the mid (...) -right-Δy(P = 0.015)).Use of a rapid prototyping drill template to assist in the placement of mid and upper thoracic pedicle screws may lead to increased accuracy. This patient specific technology must be combined with an understanding of the patients' anatomy and carefully secured to the posterior elements intraoperatively to avoid nerve or vascular complications.

2016 European Spine Journal

12. Thoracic outlet syndrome

/annsurg00008-0185.pdf http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9790350?tool=bestpractice.com The thoracic outlet is the area between the neck and shoulder, over the top of the thorax, and under the clavicle to the axilla. Knowledge of the thoracic outlet anatomy is cardinal for the physician to diagnose any type of TOS. Peet RM, Hendriksen JD, Anderson TP, et al. Thoracic outlet syndrome: evaluation of the therapeutic exercise program. Proc Staff Meet Mayo Clin. 1956;31:281-287. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov (...) /pubmed/13323047?tool=bestpractice.com Urschel HC Jr. Anatomy of the thoracic outlet. In: Ferguson MK, Deslauriers J, eds. Thoracic surgery clinics, vol 17, no 4. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2007:511-520. The subclavian artery leaves the thorax by arching over the first rib behind the scalenus anticus muscle and in front of the scalenus medius muscle. It then passes under the clavicle and finally enters the axilla beneath the pectoralis minor muscle. The subclavian vein has an identical course, except

2018 BMJ Best Practice

13. ACR–ASNR–ASSR–SPR Practice Parameter for the Performance of Computed Tomography (CT) of the Spine

HA, Fredrickson BE, Lubicky JP. The value of computed tomography in thoracolumbar fractures. An analysis of one hundred consecutive cases and a new classification. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 1983;65(4):461-473. 9. Obenauer S, Alamo L, Herold T, Funke M, Kopka L, Grabbe E. Imaging skeletal anatomy of injured cervical spine specimens: comparison of single-slice vs multi-slice helical CT. Eur Radiol. 2002;12(8):2107-2111. 10. Rivas LA, Fishman JE, Munera F, Bajayo DE. Multislice CT in thoracic trauma (...) or facet degeneration should include 1- to 3-mm contiguous slices or axial reformats obtained from pedicle to pedicle for each disc space, assessed in both bone and soft-tissue algorithms. Oblique reformats perpendicular to the long axis of the neural foramina on both sides can sometimes be helpful in the assessment of neural foraminal stenosis. 2. Thoracic spine and lumbar spine Acceptable technique (for all entities except evaluation of spine fusion integrity): Effective slice thickness should

2019 American Society of Neuroradiology

14. ACR–ASNR–SCBT-MR Practice Parameter for the Performance of Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) of the Adult Spine

, and software), patient body habitus, and the personal preferences of the radiologists who manage and interpret the studies. Generally, images should cover the relevant anatomy/pathology. The MR signal that is produced from a region of the spine (cervical, thoracic, and lumbosacral) in response to a particular pulse sequence is often, but not always, detected using surface coil receivers, commonly in a phased array configuration. Contrast In addition to images with contrast based on intrinsic MR properties (...) , including abscess 4. Vascular disorders a. Spinal vascular malformations and/or the cause of occult subarachnoid hemorrhage b. Spinal cord infarction c. Extraspinal vascular malformations and neoplasms PRACTICE PARAMETER 3 MRI Adult Spine 5. Degenerative conditions a. Degenerative disc disease and its sequelae in the lumbar, thoracic, and cervical spine, including myelopathy b. Disc herniation and radiculopathy c. Neurodegenerative disorders, such as subacute combined degeneration, spinal muscular

2019 American Society of Neuroradiology

15. Thoracic Outlet Syndrome.

, Remy J, Artaud D, Fribourg M, Duhamel A. Functional anatomy of the thoracic outlet: evaluation with spiral CT. Radiology. 1997;205(3):843-851. 23. Smedby O, Rostad H, Klaastad O, Lilleas F, Tillung T, Fosse E. Functional imaging of the thoracic outlet syndrome in an open MR scanner. Eur Radiol. 2000;10(4):597-600. 24. Chang KZ, Likes K, Davis K, Demos J, Freischlag JA. The significance of cervical ribs in thoracic outlet syndrome. J Vasc Surg. 2013;57(3):771-775. 25. Balakrishnan A, Coates P, Parry (...) Appropriateness Criteria ® 7 Imaging in the Diagnosis of Thoracic Outlet Syndrome 28. Davis GA, Knight SR. Pancoast tumors. Neurosurg Clin N Am. 2008;19(4):545-557, v-vi. 29. Gillard J, Perez-Cousin M, Hachulla E, et al. Diagnosing thoracic outlet syndrome: contribution of provocative tests, ultrasonography, electrophysiology, and helical computed tomography in 48 patients. Joint Bone Spine. 2001;68(5):416-424. 30. Stapleton C, Herrington L, George K. Sonographic evaluation of the subclavian artery during

2019 American College of Radiology

16. Interventional Spine and Pain Procedures in Patients on Antiplatelet and Anticoagulant Medications

, ligamentum flavum hypertrophy, spondylolisthesis, or spondylosis, which may compress the epidural venous plexus within tight epidural spaces. Moreover, patients, after various spine surgeries, may develop fibrous adhesions and scar tissue, thus further compromising the capacity of the epidural space and distorting the anatomy of the epidural vessels. The risk of bleeding is further increased in pain patients taking several concomitant medications with antiplatelet effects including NSAIDs, ASA (...) the risk of bleeding and neurological injury secondary to impairment of coagulation in the setting of implantable neurostimulation devices in the spine, brain, and periphery. These recommendations are aligned with the recommendations published here. | Anatomical Considerations for Hematoma Development in Spinal and Nonspinal Areas Although most cases of a spinal hematoma have a multifactorial etiology, certain anatomical features may pose higher risks secondary to the anatomy and vascular supply

2018 American Society of Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine

17. Combined Fluoroscopy and CT Guided Radiofrequency Ablation of Thoracic Dorsal Root Ganglia in Severe Thoracic Pain

either neurosurgically, chemically or using selective percutaneous procedures such as cryoanalgesia and radiofrequency (RF) ablation.There are many technical difficulties in approaching the deep-seated thoracic dorsal root ganglia (DRG) through the transforaminal route.The spine is kyphotic - with the tip at T6 - and slightly scoliotic to the right side even in normal subjects . Spinous processes are acute, especially at T5-T8 level. Besides, broad and wide laminae together with narrow intervertebral (...) Combined Fluoroscopy and CT Guided Radiofrequency Ablation of Thoracic Dorsal Root Ganglia in Severe Thoracic Pain Combined Fluoroscopy and CT Guided Radiofrequency Ablation of Thoracic Dorsal Root Ganglia in Severe Thoracic Pain - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov Hide glossary Glossary Study record managers: refer to the if submitting registration or results information. Search for terms x × Study Record Detail Saved Studies Save this study Warning You have reached the maximum number

2018 Clinical Trials

18. Thoracic Spine Anatomy

Thoracic Spine Anatomy Thoracic Spine Anatomy Toggle navigation Brain Head & Neck Chest Endocrine Abdomen Musculoskeletal Skin Infectious Disease Hematology & Oncology Cohorts Diagnostics Emergency Findings Procedures Prevention & Management Pharmacy Resuscitation Trauma Emergency Procedures Ultrasound Cardiovascular Emergencies Lung Emergencies Infectious Disease Pediatrics Neurologic Emergencies Skin Exposure Miscellaneous Abuse Cancer Administration 4 Thoracic Spine Anatomy Thoracic Spine (...) Anatomy Aka: Thoracic Spine Anatomy , Thoracic Spine II. Anatomy: General Lewis (1918) Gray's Anatomy 20th ed (in at or ) Lewis (1918) Gray's Anatomy 20th ed (in at or ) III. Anatomy: Bone Lewis (1918) Gray's Anatomy 20th ed (in at or ) Lewis (1918) Gray's Anatomy 20th ed (in at or ) Lewis (1918) Gray's Anatomy 20th ed (in at or ) IV. Anatomy: Ligaments Lewis (1918) Gray's Anatomy 20th ed (in at or ) Lewis (1918) Gray's Anatomy 20th ed (in at or ) Lewis (1918) Gray's Anatomy 20th ed (in at or ) Lewis

2015 FP Notebook

19. Incidence and Clinical Significance of Vascular Encroachment Resulting from Free Hand Placement of Pedicle Screws in the Thoracic and Lumbar Spine: Analysis of 6,816 Consecutive Screws. (PubMed)

to place in the setting of variable anatomy. There is a paucity of data regarding iatrogenic major vascular injuries during posterior instrumentation procedures.We retrospectively reviewed the records of all patients undergoing freehand pedicle screw placement without image guidance in the thoracic or lumbar spine during a 7-year period. The incidence and extent of vascular encroachment by a pedicle screw was determined by review of routine postoperative computed tomographic scans obtained within 24 (...) Incidence and Clinical Significance of Vascular Encroachment Resulting from Free Hand Placement of Pedicle Screws in the Thoracic and Lumbar Spine: Analysis of 6,816 Consecutive Screws. Retrospective case series.Evaluate the incidence and clinical significance of vascular encroachment resulting from freehand placement of pedicle screws in the thoracic and lumbosacral spine.Pedicle screws are routinely used to effectively stabilize all 3 columns of the spine but can be technically demanding

2014 Spine

20. Optimal Approach to Circumferential Decompression and Reconstruction for Thoracic Spine Metastatic Disease. (PubMed)

QOL.For ambulatory patients, an anterior approach resulted in a slightly higher QOL, and for nonambulatory patients, a posterior approach was favored, but these differences were not statistically significant.Using a decision-analytic model, we found no significant difference in QOL resulting from anterior versus posterior approaches to metastatic lesions in the thoracic spine. Decisions should instead be based on surgeon comfort, tumor characteristics, anatomy of the lesion, patient-related factors (...) Optimal Approach to Circumferential Decompression and Reconstruction for Thoracic Spine Metastatic Disease. Circumferential decompression has been demonstrated to be the first-line therapy for patients with metastatic tumors in the thoracic spine requiring surgical intervention. However, there is significant debate regarding whether these tumors are best accessed anteriorly utilizing a thoracotomy or posteriorly. We used decision analysis to determine which approach yields greater health

2014 Annals of Surgical Oncology

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