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Thalamus

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1. Structural change of thalamus in cirrhotic patients with or without minimal hepatic encephalopathy and the relationship between thalamus volume and clinical indexes related to cirrhosis Full Text available with Trip Pro

Structural change of thalamus in cirrhotic patients with or without minimal hepatic encephalopathy and the relationship between thalamus volume and clinical indexes related to cirrhosis Aberrant brain structural change in cirrhotic patients with or without hepatic encephalopathy is one of the most typical cases in voxel-based morphometry (VBM) studies. However, there exist inconsistent results regarding to the volume change of the thalamus. Furthermore, the relationship between thalamus (...) to the volume measurements of SPM and FreeSurfer. The manually measured results demonstrate an increase in the volume of the thalamus in cirrhotic patients compared to healthy controls, which differs from the results of FreeSurfer. The structural change of thalamus closely correlated with the blood biochemical indexes, including albumin levels, blood coagulation time, and AST/ALT ratio. All of these biochemical indexes are closely related to the severity of liver cirrhosis. Beyond all the results

2018 NeuroImage : Clinical

2. Loss of glutamate signaling from the thalamus to dorsal striatum impairs motor function and slows the execution of learned behaviors Full Text available with Trip Pro

Loss of glutamate signaling from the thalamus to dorsal striatum impairs motor function and slows the execution of learned behaviors Parkinson's disease (PD) is primarily associated with the degeneration of midbrain dopamine neurons, but it is now appreciated that pathological processes like Lewy-body inclusions and cell loss affect several other brain regions, including the central lateral (CL) and centromedian/parafascicular (CM/PF) thalamic regions. These thalamic glutamatergic neurons

2018 NPJ Parkinson's disease

3. Experience-dependent MeCP2 expression in the excitatory cells of mouse visual thalamus. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Experience-dependent MeCP2 expression in the excitatory cells of mouse visual thalamus. Loss or gain of copy number of the gene encoding the transcription factor methyl-CpG-binding protein 2 (MeCP2) leads to neurodevelopmental disorders (Rett and MeCP2 duplication syndrome), indicating that precisely regulated MeCP2 expression during development is critical for mental health. Consistent with this idea, MeCP2 null mutants exhibit synaptic regression in the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (dLGN (...) ), the visual relay center in the thalamus, a phenotype resembling that of animals reared in the dark during the visual sensitive period. It remains unclear how MeCP2 expression is regulated during circuit formation and maturation, especially in excitatory and inhibitory populations of neurons. We found that, concomitant with the initiation of the dark-rearing sensitive period, MeCP2 protein levels were elevated in glutamatergic but not GABAergic neurons of the dLGN. Moreover, MeCP2 expression

2018 PLoS ONE

4. Single unit activities recorded in the thalamus and the overlying parietal cortex of subjects affected by disorders of consciousness. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Single unit activities recorded in the thalamus and the overlying parietal cortex of subjects affected by disorders of consciousness. The lack of direct neurophysiological recordings from the thalamus and the cortex hampers our understanding of vegetative state/unresponsive wakefulness syndrome and minimally conscious state in humans. We obtained microelectrode recordings from the thalami and the homolateral parietal cortex of two vegetative state/unresponsive wakefulness syndrome and one

2018 PLoS ONE

5. Thalamus-related anomalies as candidate mechanism-based biomarkers for psychosis. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Thalamus-related anomalies as candidate mechanism-based biomarkers for psychosis. Identification of reliable biomarkers of prognosis in subjects with high risk to psychosis is an essential step to improve care and treatment of this population of help-seekers. Longitudinal studies highlight some clinical criteria, cognitive deficits, patterns of gray matter alterations and profiles of blood metabolites that provide some levels of prediction regarding the conversion to psychosis. Further effort (...) is warranted to validate these results and implement these types of approaches in clinical settings. Such biomarkers may however fall short in entangling the biological mechanisms underlying the disease progression, an essential step in the development of novel therapies. Circuit-based approaches, which map on well-identified cerebral functions, could meet these needs. Converging evidence indicates that thalamus abnormalities are central to schizophrenia pathophysiology, contributing to clinical symptoms

2019 Schizophrenia Research

6. Changes in auditory thalamus neural firing patterns after acoustic trauma in rats. (Abstract)

Changes in auditory thalamus neural firing patterns after acoustic trauma in rats. Tinnitus is an abnormal phantom perception associated with cochlear trauma, and is thought to cause changes in the rates and patterns of firing neurons in the central auditory pathway. Recent studies have suggested a key role for the auditory thalamus, the medial geniculate nucleus (MGN), in the generation of tinnitus as it may serve a gating function for information en route to cortex. Dysfunctional gating would

2019 Hearing Research

7. Functional, Anatomical, and Morphological Networks Highlight the Role of Basal Ganglia-Thalamus-Cortex Circuits in Schizophrenia. (Abstract)

Functional, Anatomical, and Morphological Networks Highlight the Role of Basal Ganglia-Thalamus-Cortex Circuits in Schizophrenia. Evidence from electrophysiological, functional, and structural research suggests that abnormal brain connectivity plays an important role in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. However, most previous studies have focused on single modalities only, each of which is associated with its own limitations. Multimodal combinations can more effectively utilize various (...) in combination with machine learning to identify more consistent biomarkers of brain connectivity and explore the relationships between different modalities. We found that although each modality had divergent connectivity biomarkers, the convergent pattern was that all were mostly located within the basal ganglia-thalamus-cortex circuit. Furthermore, using the biomarkers of these 3 modalities as a feature yielded the highest classification accuracy (91.75%, relative to a single modality), suggesting

2019 Schizophrenia bulletin

8. Functional brain connectome and its relation to mild cognitive impairment in cerebral small vessel disease patients with thalamus lacunes: A cross-sectional study. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Functional brain connectome and its relation to mild cognitive impairment in cerebral small vessel disease patients with thalamus lacunes: A cross-sectional study. To investigate the functional connectome alterations in cerebral small-vessel disease (CSVD) patients with thalamus lacunes and its relation to cognitive impairment.This case-control study was approved by the local research ethics committee, and all participants provided informed consent. There were 14 CSVD patients with thalamus (...) relative to controls (Pā€Š>ā€Š.05).The configurations of brain functional connectome in CSVDw. patients were perturbed but not obvious for those without, and correlated with the mild cognitive impairment, especially for EM and PS. This study suggested that lacunes on thalamus played a vital role in mediating the neural functional changes of CSVD patients.

2019 Medicine

9. Evaluation of functional connectivity in subdivisions of the thalamus in schizophrenia. (Abstract)

Evaluation of functional connectivity in subdivisions of the thalamus in schizophrenia. Previous studies in schizophrenia revealed abnormalities in the cortico-cerebellar-thalamo-cortical circuit (CCTCC) pathway, suggesting the necessity for defining thalamic subdivisions in understanding alterations of brain connectivity.AimsTo parcellate the thalamus into several subdivisions using a data-driven method, and to evaluate the role of each subdivision in the alterations of CCTCC functional (...) connectivity in patients with schizophrenia.There were 54 patients with schizophrenia and 42 healthy controls included in this study. First, the thalamic structural and functional connections computed, based on diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, white matter tractography) and resting-state functional MRI, were clustered to parcellate thalamus. Next, functional connectivity of each thalamus subdivision was investigated, and the alterations in thalamic functional connectivity for patients

2019 British Journal of Psychiatry

10. Stereotactic radiosurgery for arteriovenous malformations of the basal ganglia and thalamus: an international multicenter study. (Abstract)

Stereotactic radiosurgery for arteriovenous malformations of the basal ganglia and thalamus: an international multicenter study. OBJECTIVEArteriovenous malformations (AVMs) of the basal ganglia (BG) and thalamus are associated with elevated risks of both hemorrhage if left untreated and neurological morbidity after resection. Therefore, stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) has become a mainstay in the management of these lesions, although its safety and efficacy remain incompletely understood

2019 Journal of Neurosurgery

11. Disrupted modulation of thalamus activation and thalamocortical connectivity during dual task performance in schizophrenia. (Abstract)

Disrupted modulation of thalamus activation and thalamocortical connectivity during dual task performance in schizophrenia. Despite considerable evidence showing thalamus anatomy and connectivity abnormalities in schizophrenia, how these abnormalities are reflected in thalamus function during cognition is relatively understudied. Modulation of thalamic connectivity with the prefrontal cortex (PFC) is required for higher-order cognitive processes, which are often impaired in schizophrenia (...) . To address this gap, we investigated how thalamus function and thalamus-PFC connectivity under different levels of cognitive demand may be disrupted in schizophrenia. Participants underwent fMRI scanning while performing an event-related two-alternative forced choice task under Single and Dual task conditions. In the Single task condition, participants responded either to a visual cue with a well-learned motor response, or an audio cue with a well-learned vocal response. In the Dual task condition

2019 Schizophrenia Research

12. Anterior nucleus of paraventricular thalamus mediates chronic mechanical hyperalgesia. (Abstract)

Anterior nucleus of paraventricular thalamus mediates chronic mechanical hyperalgesia. Pain-related diseases are the top leading causes of life disability. Identifying brain regions involved in persistent neuronal changes will provide new insights for developing efficient chronic pain treatment. Here, we showed that anterior nucleus of paraventricular thalamus (PVA) plays an essential role in the development of mechanical hyperalgesia in neuropathic and inflammatory pain models in mice

2019 Pain

13. Decreased Cerebral Blood Flow in Mesial Thalamus and Precuneus/PCC during Midazolam Induced Sedation Assessed with ASL. (Abstract)

Decreased Cerebral Blood Flow in Mesial Thalamus and Precuneus/PCC during Midazolam Induced Sedation Assessed with ASL. While some previous work suggests that midazolam-induced light sedation results from the functional disconnection within resting state network, little is known about the underlying alterations of cerebral blood flow (CBF) associated with its effects. A randomized, double-blind, within-subject, cross-over design was adopted, while 12 healthy young volunteers were scanned (...) with arterial spin-labeling (ASL) perfusion MRI both before and after an injection of either saline or midazolam. The contrast of MRI signal before and after midazolam administration revealed the CBF decrease in the bilateral mesial thalamus and precuneus/posterior cingulate cortex (PCC). These effects were confirmed after controlling for any effect of injection as well as head motions. These findings provide new evidences that midazolam-induced light sedation is related to the disruption of cortical

2018 Neuroinformatics Controlled trial quality: uncertain

14. Inhibitory mechanisms shaping delay-tuned combination-sensitivity in the auditory cortex and thalamus of the mustached bat. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Inhibitory mechanisms shaping delay-tuned combination-sensitivity in the auditory cortex and thalamus of the mustached bat. Delay-tuned auditory neurons of the mustached bat show facilitative responses to a combination of signal elements of a biosonar pulse-echo pair with a specific echo delay. The subcollicular nuclei produce latency-constant phasic on-responding neurons, and the inferior colliculus produces delay-tuned combination-sensitive neurons, designated "FM-FM" neurons. The combination

2018 Hearing Research

15. Multimodal management of arteriovenous malformations of the basal ganglia and thalamus: factors affecting obliteration and outcome. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Multimodal management of arteriovenous malformations of the basal ganglia and thalamus: factors affecting obliteration and outcome. OBJECTIVEArteriovenous malformations (AVMs) of the basal ganglia and thalamus are particularly difficult lesions to treat, accounting for 3%-13% of all AVMs in surgical series and 23%-44% of malformations in radiosurgery series. The goal of this study was to report the results of multimodal management of basal ganglia and thalamic AVMs and investigate the factors

2018 Journal of Neurosurgery

16. Human Motor Thalamus Reconstructed in 3D from Continuous Sagittal Sections with Identified Subcortical Afferent Territories Full Text available with Trip Pro

Human Motor Thalamus Reconstructed in 3D from Continuous Sagittal Sections with Identified Subcortical Afferent Territories Classification and delineation of the motor-related nuclei in the human thalamus have been the focus of numerous discussions for a long time. Difficulties in finding consensus have for the most part been caused by paucity of direct experimental data on connections of individual nuclear entities. Kultas-Ilinsky et al. (2011) showed that distribution of glutamic acid (...) decarboxylase isoform 65 (GAD65), the enzyme that synthesizes inhibitory neurotransmitter Ī³-aminobutyric acid, is a reliable marker that allows to delineate connectionally distinct nuclei in the human motor thalamus, namely the territories innervated by nigral, pallidal, and cerebellar afferents. We compared those immunocytochemical staining patterns with underlying cytoarchitecture and used the latter to outline the three afferent territories in a continuous series of sagittal Nissl-stained sections

2018 eNeuro

17. MRI Changes in the Thalamus and Basal Ganglia of Full-Term Neonates with Perinatal Asphyxia Full Text available with Trip Pro

MRI Changes in the Thalamus and Basal Ganglia of Full-Term Neonates with Perinatal Asphyxia Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is the standard neuroimaging technique to assess perinatal asphyxia-associated brain injury in full-term infants. Diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) is most informative when assessed during the first week after the insult.To study the DWI abnormalities of the thalamus and basal ganglia in full-term infants with perinatal asphyxia.Fifty-five (near) term infants (normothermia (...) n = 23; hypothermia n = 32) with thalamus and/or basal ganglia injury were included. MRI findings were assessed visually and quantitatively calculating apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values. Thalamus/basal ganglia ADC ratios were calculated to analyze the differences between these areas. Infants with an early MRI (days 1-3) or later MRI (days 4-7) were compared.Isolated extensive thalamic injury was seen early, and focal thalamic and basal ganglia injury was seen later. On the early MRI

2018 Neonatology

18. Technical Implications in Revision Surgery for Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS) of the Thalamus for Refractory Epilepsy Full Text available with Trip Pro

Technical Implications in Revision Surgery for Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS) of the Thalamus for Refractory Epilepsy Implantation of deep brain stimulation (DBS) electrodes in the anterior nucleus of the thalamus (ANT) or the centromedian nucleus (CM), for the treatment of refractory epilepsy, is technically demanding. To enhance the accuracy of electrode placement within the ANT and CM, we analyzed our experience with electrode revision surgery in ANT and CM DBS and investigated the cause

2018 Journal of epilepsy research

19. Author Correction: Cardioprotection induced in a mouse model of neuropathic pain via anterior nucleus of paraventricular thalamus Full Text available with Trip Pro

Author Correction: Cardioprotection induced in a mouse model of neuropathic pain via anterior nucleus of paraventricular thalamus The original version of this Article contained an error in the affiliation of the second author, Ya-Ting Chang. The correct affiliations for Ya-Ting Chang are Institute of Biomedical Sciences, Academia Sinica, Taipei, 115, Taiwan and International Graduate Program in Molecular Medicine, National Yang-Ming University and Academia Sinica, Taipei 115, Taiwan.

2018 Nature communications

20. VGLUT1 or VGLUT2 mRNA-positive neurons in spinal trigeminal nucleus provide collateral projections to both the thalamus and the parabrachial nucleus in rats Full Text available with Trip Pro

VGLUT1 or VGLUT2 mRNA-positive neurons in spinal trigeminal nucleus provide collateral projections to both the thalamus and the parabrachial nucleus in rats The trigemino-thalamic (T-T) and trigemino-parabrachial (T-P) pathways are strongly implicated in the sensory-discriminative and affective/emotional aspects of orofacial pain, respectively. These T-T and T-P projection fibers originate from the spinal trigeminal nucleus (Vsp). We previously determined that many vesicular glutamate (...) transporter (VGLUT1 and/or VGLUT2) mRNA-positive neurons were distributed in the Vsp of the adult rat, and most of these neurons sent their axons to the thalamus or cerebellum. However, whether VGLUT1 or VGLUT2 mRNA-positive projection neurons exist that send their axons to both the thalamus and the parabrachial nucleus (PBN) has not been reported. Thus, in the present study, dual retrograde tract tracing was used in combination with fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) for VGLUT1 or VGLUT2 mRNA

2018 Molecular brain

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