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Thalamus

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1. Structural change of thalamus in cirrhotic patients with or without minimal hepatic encephalopathy and the relationship between thalamus volume and clinical indexes related to cirrhosis (PubMed)

Structural change of thalamus in cirrhotic patients with or without minimal hepatic encephalopathy and the relationship between thalamus volume and clinical indexes related to cirrhosis Aberrant brain structural change in cirrhotic patients with or without hepatic encephalopathy is one of the most typical cases in voxel-based morphometry (VBM) studies. However, there exist inconsistent results regarding to the volume change of the thalamus. Furthermore, the relationship between thalamus (...) to the volume measurements of SPM and FreeSurfer. The manually measured results demonstrate an increase in the volume of the thalamus in cirrhotic patients compared to healthy controls, which differs from the results of FreeSurfer. The structural change of thalamus closely correlated with the blood biochemical indexes, including albumin levels, blood coagulation time, and AST/ALT ratio. All of these biochemical indexes are closely related to the severity of liver cirrhosis. Beyond all the results

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2018 NeuroImage : Clinical

2. Loss of glutamate signaling from the thalamus to dorsal striatum impairs motor function and slows the execution of learned behaviors (PubMed)

Loss of glutamate signaling from the thalamus to dorsal striatum impairs motor function and slows the execution of learned behaviors Parkinson's disease (PD) is primarily associated with the degeneration of midbrain dopamine neurons, but it is now appreciated that pathological processes like Lewy-body inclusions and cell loss affect several other brain regions, including the central lateral (CL) and centromedian/parafascicular (CM/PF) thalamic regions. These thalamic glutamatergic neurons

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2018 NPJ Parkinson's disease

3. Stereotactic radiosurgery for arteriovenous malformations of the basal ganglia and thalamus: an international multicenter study. (PubMed)

Stereotactic radiosurgery for arteriovenous malformations of the basal ganglia and thalamus: an international multicenter study. OBJECTIVEArteriovenous malformations (AVMs) of the basal ganglia (BG) and thalamus are associated with elevated risks of both hemorrhage if left untreated and neurological morbidity after resection. Therefore, stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) has become a mainstay in the management of these lesions, although its safety and efficacy remain incompletely understood

2019 Journal of Neurosurgery

4. Disrupted modulation of thalamus activation and thalamocortical connectivity during dual task performance in schizophrenia. (PubMed)

Disrupted modulation of thalamus activation and thalamocortical connectivity during dual task performance in schizophrenia. Despite considerable evidence showing thalamus anatomy and connectivity abnormalities in schizophrenia, how these abnormalities are reflected in thalamus function during cognition is relatively understudied. Modulation of thalamic connectivity with the prefrontal cortex (PFC) is required for higher-order cognitive processes, which are often impaired in schizophrenia (...) . To address this gap, we investigated how thalamus function and thalamus-PFC connectivity under different levels of cognitive demand may be disrupted in schizophrenia. Participants underwent fMRI scanning while performing an event-related two-alternative forced choice task under Single and Dual task conditions. In the Single task condition, participants responded either to a visual cue with a well-learned motor response, or an audio cue with a well-learned vocal response. In the Dual task condition

2019 Schizophrenia Research

5. Evaluation of functional connectivity in subdivisions of the thalamus in schizophrenia. (PubMed)

Evaluation of functional connectivity in subdivisions of the thalamus in schizophrenia. Previous studies in schizophrenia revealed abnormalities in the cortico-cerebellar-thalamo-cortical circuit (CCTCC) pathway, suggesting the necessity for defining thalamic subdivisions in understanding alterations of brain connectivity.AimsTo parcellate the thalamus into several subdivisions using a data-driven method, and to evaluate the role of each subdivision in the alterations of CCTCC functional (...) connectivity in patients with schizophrenia.There were 54 patients with schizophrenia and 42 healthy controls included in this study. First, the thalamic structural and functional connections computed, based on diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, white matter tractography) and resting-state functional MRI, were clustered to parcellate thalamus. Next, functional connectivity of each thalamus subdivision was investigated, and the alterations in thalamic functional connectivity for patients

2019 British Journal of Psychiatry

6. Single unit activities recorded in the thalamus and the overlying parietal cortex of subjects affected by disorders of consciousness. (PubMed)

Single unit activities recorded in the thalamus and the overlying parietal cortex of subjects affected by disorders of consciousness. The lack of direct neurophysiological recordings from the thalamus and the cortex hampers our understanding of vegetative state/unresponsive wakefulness syndrome and minimally conscious state in humans. We obtained microelectrode recordings from the thalami and the homolateral parietal cortex of two vegetative state/unresponsive wakefulness syndrome and one

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2018 PLoS ONE

7. Anterior nucleus of paraventricular thalamus mediates chronic mechanical hyperalgesia. (PubMed)

Anterior nucleus of paraventricular thalamus mediates chronic mechanical hyperalgesia. Pain-related diseases are the top leading causes of life disability. Identifying brain regions involved in persistent neuronal changes will provide new insights for developing efficient chronic pain treatment. Here, we showed that anterior nucleus of paraventricular thalamus (PVA) plays an essential role in the development of mechanical hyperalgesia in neuropathic and inflammatory pain models in mice

2019 Pain

8. Thalamus-related anomalies as candidate mechanism-based biomarkers for psychosis. (PubMed)

Thalamus-related anomalies as candidate mechanism-based biomarkers for psychosis. Identification of reliable biomarkers of prognosis in subjects with high risk to psychosis is an essential step to improve care and treatment of this population of help-seekers. Longitudinal studies highlight some clinical criteria, cognitive deficits, patterns of gray matter alterations and profiles of blood metabolites that provide some levels of prediction regarding the conversion to psychosis. Further effort (...) is warranted to validate these results and implement these types of approaches in clinical settings. Such biomarkers may however fall short in entangling the biological mechanisms underlying the disease progression, an essential step in the development of novel therapies. Circuit-based approaches, which map on well-identified cerebral functions, could meet these needs. Converging evidence indicates that thalamus abnormalities are central to schizophrenia pathophysiology, contributing to clinical symptoms

2019 Schizophrenia Research

9. Changes in auditory thalamus neural firing patterns after acoustic trauma in rats. (PubMed)

Changes in auditory thalamus neural firing patterns after acoustic trauma in rats. Tinnitus is an abnormal phantom perception associated with cochlear trauma, and is thought to cause changes in the rates and patterns of firing neurons in the central auditory pathway. Recent studies have suggested a key role for the auditory thalamus, the medial geniculate nucleus (MGN), in the generation of tinnitus as it may serve a gating function for information en route to cortex. Dysfunctional gating would

2019 Hearing Research

10. Functional, Anatomical, and Morphological Networks Highlight the Role of Basal Ganglia-Thalamus-Cortex Circuits in Schizophrenia. (PubMed)

Functional, Anatomical, and Morphological Networks Highlight the Role of Basal Ganglia-Thalamus-Cortex Circuits in Schizophrenia. Evidence from electrophysiological, functional, and structural research suggests that abnormal brain connectivity plays an important role in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. However, most previous studies have focused on single modalities only, each of which is associated with its own limitations. Multimodal combinations can more effectively utilize various (...) in combination with machine learning to identify more consistent biomarkers of brain connectivity and explore the relationships between different modalities. We found that although each modality had divergent connectivity biomarkers, the convergent pattern was that all were mostly located within the basal ganglia-thalamus-cortex circuit. Furthermore, using the biomarkers of these 3 modalities as a feature yielded the highest classification accuracy (91.75%, relative to a single modality), suggesting

2019 Schizophrenia bulletin

11. Functional brain connectome and its relation to mild cognitive impairment in cerebral small vessel disease patients with thalamus lacunes: A cross-sectional study. (PubMed)

Functional brain connectome and its relation to mild cognitive impairment in cerebral small vessel disease patients with thalamus lacunes: A cross-sectional study. To investigate the functional connectome alterations in cerebral small-vessel disease (CSVD) patients with thalamus lacunes and its relation to cognitive impairment.This case-control study was approved by the local research ethics committee, and all participants provided informed consent. There were 14 CSVD patients with thalamus (...) relative to controls (P > .05).The configurations of brain functional connectome in CSVDw. patients were perturbed but not obvious for those without, and correlated with the mild cognitive impairment, especially for EM and PS. This study suggested that lacunes on thalamus played a vital role in mediating the neural functional changes of CSVD patients.

2019 Medicine

12. Neuronal correlates of ketamine and walking induced gamma oscillations in the medial prefrontal cortex and mediodorsal thalamus. (PubMed)

Neuronal correlates of ketamine and walking induced gamma oscillations in the medial prefrontal cortex and mediodorsal thalamus. Alterations in the function of the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and its major thalamic source of innervation, the mediodorsal (MD) thalamus, have been hypothesized to contribute to the symptoms of schizophrenia. The NMDAR antagonist ketamine, used to model schizophrenia, elicits a brain state resembling early stage schizophrenia characterized by cognitive deficits (...) and increases in cortical low gamma (40-70 Hz) power. Here we sought to determine how ketamine differentially affects spiking and gamma local field potential (LFP) activity in the rat mPFC and MD thalamus. Additionally, we investigated the ability of drugs targeting the dopamine D4 receptor (D4R) to modify the effects of ketamine on gamma activity as a measure of potential cognitive therapeutic efficacy. Rats were trained to walk on a treadmill to reduce confounds related to hyperactivity after ketamine

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2017 PLoS ONE

13. Effect of teriflunomide on cortex-basal ganglia-thalamus (CxBGTh) circuit glutamatergic dysregulation in the Theiler's Murine Encephalomyelitis Virus mouse model of multiple sclerosis. (PubMed)

Effect of teriflunomide on cortex-basal ganglia-thalamus (CxBGTh) circuit glutamatergic dysregulation in the Theiler's Murine Encephalomyelitis Virus mouse model of multiple sclerosis. Pathology of gray matter is associated with development of physical and cognitive disability in patients with multiple sclerosis. In particular, glutamatergic dysregulation in the cortex-basal ganglia-thalamus (CxBGTh) circuit could be associated with decline in these behaviors.To investigate the effect (...) of an immunomodulatory therapy (teriflunomide, Aubagio®) on changes of the CxBGTh loop in the Theiler's Murine Encephalomyelitis Virus, (TMEV) mouse model of MS.Forty-eight (48) mice were infected with TMEV, treated with teriflunomide (24) or control vehicle (24) and followed for 39 weeks. Mice were examined with MRS and volumetric MRI scans (0, 8, 26, and 39 weeks) in the cortex, basal ganglia and thalamus, using a 9.4T scanner, and with behavioral tests (0, 4, 8, 12, 17, 26, and 39 weeks). Within conditions, MRI

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2017 PLoS ONE

14. BIG1 is required for the survival of deep layer neurons, neuronal polarity, and the formation of axonal tracts between the thalamus and neocortex in developing brain. (PubMed)

BIG1 is required for the survival of deep layer neurons, neuronal polarity, and the formation of axonal tracts between the thalamus and neocortex in developing brain. BIG1, an activator protein of the small GTPase, Arf, and encoded by the Arfgef1 gene, is one of candidate genes for epileptic encephalopathy. To know the involvement of BIG1 in epileptic encephalopathy, we analyzed BIG1-deficient mice and found that BIG1 regulates neurite outgrowth and brain development in vitro and in vivo

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2017 PLoS ONE

15. Inhibitory mechanisms shaping delay-tuned combination-sensitivity in the auditory cortex and thalamus of the mustached bat. (PubMed)

Inhibitory mechanisms shaping delay-tuned combination-sensitivity in the auditory cortex and thalamus of the mustached bat. Delay-tuned auditory neurons of the mustached bat show facilitative responses to a combination of signal elements of a biosonar pulse-echo pair with a specific echo delay. The subcollicular nuclei produce latency-constant phasic on-responding neurons, and the inferior colliculus produces delay-tuned combination-sensitive neurons, designated "FM-FM" neurons. The combination

2018 Hearing Research

16. Decreased Cerebral Blood Flow in Mesial Thalamus and Precuneus/PCC during Midazolam Induced Sedation Assessed with ASL. (PubMed)

Decreased Cerebral Blood Flow in Mesial Thalamus and Precuneus/PCC during Midazolam Induced Sedation Assessed with ASL. While some previous work suggests that midazolam-induced light sedation results from the functional disconnection within resting state network, little is known about the underlying alterations of cerebral blood flow (CBF) associated with its effects. A randomized, double-blind, within-subject, cross-over design was adopted, while 12 healthy young volunteers were scanned (...) with arterial spin-labeling (ASL) perfusion MRI both before and after an injection of either saline or midazolam. The contrast of MRI signal before and after midazolam administration revealed the CBF decrease in the bilateral mesial thalamus and precuneus/posterior cingulate cortex (PCC). These effects were confirmed after controlling for any effect of injection as well as head motions. These findings provide new evidences that midazolam-induced light sedation is related to the disruption of cortical

2018 Neuroinformatics

17. Properties of oscillatory neuronal activity in the basal ganglia and thalamus in patients with Parkinson’s disease (PubMed)

Properties of oscillatory neuronal activity in the basal ganglia and thalamus in patients with Parkinson’s disease The cardinal features of Parkinson's disease (PD) are bradykinesia, rigidity and rest tremor. Abnormal activity in the basal ganglia is predicted to underlie the mechanism of motor symptoms. This study aims to characterize properties of oscillatory activity in the basal ganglia and motor thalamus in patients with PD.Twenty-nine patients with PD who underwent bilateral (...) or unilateral electrode implantation for subthalamic nucleus (STN) DBS (n = 11), unilateral pallidotomy (n = 9) and unilateral thalamotomy (n = 9) were studied. Microelectrode recordings in the STN, globus pallidus internus (GPi) and ventral oral posterior/ventral intermediate of thalamus (Vop/Vim) were performed. Electromyography of the contralateral limbs was recorded. Single unit characteristics including interspike intervals were analyzed. Spectral and coherence analyses were assessed. Mean spontaneous

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2018 Translational neurodegeneration

18. Cheiro-Oral syndrome caused by thalamus hemorrhage: A case report. (PubMed)

Cheiro-Oral syndrome caused by thalamus hemorrhage: A case report. Cheiro-Oral syndrome (COS) is a pure sensory deficit confined to the perioral area and ipsilateral distal fingers or hand. Owing to relatively minor clinical findings and various presentations in different cases, the insidious and severe illness it implies may be overlooked at acute settings.A 70-year-old man with history of hypertension and type II diabetes mellitus under regular medication control came to our emergency

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2018 Medicine

19. Fingolimod effect on gray matter, thalamus, and white matter in patients with multiple sclerosis. (PubMed)

Fingolimod effect on gray matter, thalamus, and white matter in patients with multiple sclerosis. To study the effect of fingolimod on deep gray matter (dGM), thalamus, cortical GM (cGM), white matter (WM), and ventricular volume (VV) in patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS).Data were pooled from 2 phase III studies. A total of 2,064 of 2,355 (88%) contributed to the analysis: fingolimod 0.5 mg n = 783, fingolimod 1.25 mg n = 799, or placebo n = 773. Percentage change from (...) evaluation using normalization of atrophy percentage brain volume change (r = 0.713, p < 0.001). For placebo, volume reductions were most pronounced in cGM, and relative changes from baseline were strongest in dGM. Over 24 months, there were significant reductions with fingolimod vs placebo for dGM (0.5 mg -14.5%, p = 0.017; 1.25 mg -26.6%, p < 0.01) and thalamus (0.5 mg -26.1%, p = 0.006; 1.25 mg -49.7%, p < 0.001). Reduction of cGM volume loss was not significant. Significantly less WM loss and VV

2018 Neurology

20. High-frequency stimulation of anterior nucleus of thalamus desynchronizes epileptic network in humans. (PubMed)

High-frequency stimulation of anterior nucleus of thalamus desynchronizes epileptic network in humans. Epilepsy has been classically seen as a brain disorder resulting from abnormally enhanced neuronal excitability and synchronization. Although it has been described since antiquity, there are still significant challenges achieving the therapeutic goal of seizure freedom. Deep brain stimulation of the anterior nucleus of the thalamus has emerged as a promising therapy for focal drug-resistant (...) epilepsy; the basic mechanism of action, however, remains unclear. Here, we show that desynchronization is a potential mechanism of deep brain stimulation of the anterior nucleus of the thalamus by studying local field potentials recordings from the cortex during high-frequency stimulation (130 Hz) of the anterior nucleus of the thalamus in nine patients with drug-resistant focal epilepsy. We demonstrate that high-frequency stimulation applied to the anterior nucleus of the thalamus desynchronizes

2018 Brain

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