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Test Sensitivity

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171201. Epidural test dose: lidocaine 100 mg, not chloroprocaine, is a symptomatic marker of i.v. injection in labouring parturients. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Epidural test dose: lidocaine 100 mg, not chloroprocaine, is a symptomatic marker of i.v. injection in labouring parturients. The authors studied the sensitivity (SN) and specificity (SP) of an epidural test dose containing either lidocaine 100 mg or 2-chloroprocaine 100 mg as symptomatic markers of intravascular injection in labouring parturients. In a prospective, double-blind and randomized fashion 48 unmedicated and labouring parturients were equally divided into three groups. After (...) and in combination) along with their positive (+) and negative (-) predictive value (PV). In both groups no symptom alone reached clinically acceptable levels of SN (< 87%). Only in the LD group, tinnitus+taste and dizziness+taste reached a SN of 100% with a SP of 81% and 69% respectively. While the -PV was 100% for both groups of symptoms, the +PV reached 42% for tinnitus+taste and 30% for dizziness+taste. We conclude that lidocaine 100 mg is a sensitive marker of intravascular injection in labouring

1993 Canadian journal of anaesthesia = Journal canadien d'anesthesie Controlled trial quality: uncertain

171202. Screening for gestational diabetes mellitus: comparison of a glucose polymer and a glucose monomer test beverage. (Abstract)

drinking the glucose monomer beverage, and 27 percent of the women developed symptoms after drinking the glucose polymer beverage (P less than 0.05). Glucose type did not affect the 1-hour plasma glucose level, mean 5.94 mmol/L (107 mg/dL) for the glucose monomer and 5.76 mmol/L (103.8 mg/dL) for the glucose polymer (P = 0.79). For the capillary test, sensitivity was 0.75 and specificity was 0.82 in detecting a screening test positive by the venous plasma glucose criterion.The results of this study (...) Screening for gestational diabetes mellitus: comparison of a glucose polymer and a glucose monomer test beverage. The current test for gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) uses a glucose monomer test beverage, which frequently causes gastrointestinal symptoms, and venipuncture. We investigated a simplified test using a beverage of glucose polymer and a capillary whole blood glucose measurement.In a randomized, double-blind clinical trial, women at 24 to 28 weeks' gestation received a 50-g

1992 The Journal of the American Board of Family Practice / American Board of Family Practice Controlled trial quality: uncertain

171203. Arterial baroreflex control of the sinus node during dobutamine exercise stress testing. (Abstract)

Arterial baroreflex control of the sinus node during dobutamine exercise stress testing. The contributions of increases in circulating catecholamines, changes in central command, and muscle afferents on baroreflex control of the sinus node during exercise are unclear. We used a dobutamine infusion to induce hemodynamic changes comparable to those of moderate physical exercise in the absence of changes in central command and muscle afferents in 13 healthy subjects. Dobutamine (up to 9 microg/kg (...) body weight per minute) increased systolic blood pressure, shortened the RR interval, increased systolic blood pressure variability, but blunted RR interval variability (P<0.05 versus placebo). Consequently, dobutamine decreased the coherence between variations in systolic blood pressure and RR interval and decreased arterial baroreflex sensitivity from 12+/-2 to 3+/-1 ms/mm Hg (P<0.01). The largest increases in systolic blood pressure with dobutamine were paralleled by the greatest impairments

1999 Hypertension Controlled trial quality: uncertain

171204. Tests of preferential independence in the QALY model. (Abstract)

of independence with 98 subjects. Independence was reliably satisfied in all 27 tests. In experiment 2, 15 additional tests were conducted. These tests had been specifically designed to be more sensitive to independence violations, but independence was still mostly satisfied. In both experiments, the conclusions about independence hold regardless of what discount rate is used. These results act as a "lower bound" on the validity of the QALY model for health profiles. (...) Tests of preferential independence in the QALY model. The author presents evidence for the descriptive adequacy of the quality-adjusted life years (QALY) model as applied to health profiles. One important assumption of the model is preferential independence: if two profiles have the same health state during year X, then preference between them does not switch if the level of health changes during year X. In experiment 1, 30-year health profiles were used to perform 27 empirical tests

1999 Medical Decision Making

171205. A novel tablet-based 13C urea breath test for Helicobacter pylori with enhanced performance during acid suppression therapy. (Abstract)

A novel tablet-based 13C urea breath test for Helicobacter pylori with enhanced performance during acid suppression therapy. The urea breath test (UBT) can still be improved in terms of user-friendliness and accuracy during acid-suppression therapy. This study was designed to evaluate a novel, rapidly disintegrating 13C UBT tablet, which was supplemented with citric acid to facilitate diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori in the hypochlorhydric stomach.The efficacy of a fasting 13C tablet-based UBT (...) (TUBT) was compared with that of a standard 13C UBT (SUBT) during 40 min after dosing, and optimal sampling points were determined. The single-point TUBT was validated against a 'gold standard' (GS) including a TUBT, culture, histology, and a CLO test in 134 dyspeptic patients, and its optimal cut-off point was determined by means of a biometric method. In addition, 20 SUBT-positive patients were randomized to perform either the TUBT or the SUBT after 7 days of omeprazole therapy (20 mg twice daily

1999 Scandinavian journal of gastroenterology Controlled trial quality: uncertain

171206. Development of sustained attention assessed using the continuous performance test among children 6-15 years of age. (Abstract)

Development of sustained attention assessed using the continuous performance test among children 6-15 years of age. The Continuous Performance Test (CPT) is a widely used measure of sustained attention, which may rely on the efficiency of cognitive inhibition. We examined the relationships of age and sex with CPT performance among 341 randomly selected school children 6-15 years of age. Multiple regression analyses revealed that the hit rate, false alarm rate, and sensitivity of both (...) the undegraded and the degraded CPT were associated with age by a quadratic relationship. The age-development curves for the hit rate and sensitivity were convex, whereas that for the false alarm rate was concave. Sex was associated with the hit rate and sensitivity on the degraded CPT only. Our findings are consistent with the hypothesis that sustained attention develops during the primary school ages. The data reported are essential for identifying children with conditions associated with sustained

1999 Journal of abnormal child psychology

171207. Use of the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test in the detection of malingering in student simulator and patient samples. (Abstract)

Use of the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test in the detection of malingering in student simulator and patient samples. We analyzed the ability of the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test to distinguish between 41 malingering and 31 normal undergraduates, and 17 probable malingering and 16 brain injured patients. A logistic regression consisting of number of categories (CAT) and failure to maintain set (FMS) distinguished malingering and normal undergraduates with 70.7% sensitivity, 87.1% specificity, and 77.8 (...) % overall classification, and distinguished patients suspected of malingering from brain injured controls with 82.4% sensitivity, 93. 3% specificity, and 87.5% overall classification.

1999 Journal of clinical and experimental neuropsychology

171208. Concurrent administration of the erythromycin breath test (EBT) and oral midazolam as in vivo probes for CYP3A activity. (Abstract)

Concurrent administration of the erythromycin breath test (EBT) and oral midazolam as in vivo probes for CYP3A activity. Given the prominent role of CYP3A in the metabolism of drugs, it is important to identify whether new chemical entities will affect this enzyme system and produce clinically relevant drug interactions. This study evaluated concomitant administration of intravenous [14C N-methyl] erythromycin (3 microCi) (erythromycin breath test; EBT) and 2 mg oral midazolam as probes (...) third period (N = 5), ketoconazole was given simultaneously with midazolam (no EBT); midazolam AUC0-last was similar whether ketoconazole was given 2 hours prior to or simultaneously with the midazolam. The low midazolam dose was generally well tolerated; mild sedation was occasionally seen. Concurrent administration of the EBT and oral midazolam is a sensitive and reproducible tool to screen new chemical entities for potentially important CYP3A interactions.

1999 Journal of clinical pharmacology Controlled trial quality: uncertain

171209. A randomized clinical trial of daily nonstress testing versus biophysical profile in the management of preterm premature rupture of membranes. (Abstract)

complications had been predicted.One hundred thirty-five patients were enrolled in the study. Demographics, pregnancy characteristics, and neonatal outcomes were similar. Neither the daily nonstress test nor the daily biophysical profile had good sensitivity for predicting infectious complications (39.1% and 25.0%, respectively). However, both had good specificity (84.6% and 92.6%, respectively). Positive and negative predictive values were 52.9% and 75.9%, respectively, for the daily nonstress test (...) and 66.7% and 68.4%, respectively, for the daily biophysical profile. Cost was significantly higher in the daily biophysical profile group. Nonstress testing of patients at <28 weeks' gestation generally required a backup biophysical profile.Neither the daily nonstress test nor the daily biophysical profile had good sensitivity for predicting infectious complications after preterm premature rupture of membranes.

1999 American journal of obstetrics and gynecology Controlled trial quality: uncertain

171210. The attentional blink reflects retrieval competition among multiple rapid serial visual presentation items: tests of an interference model. (Abstract)

The attentional blink reflects retrieval competition among multiple rapid serial visual presentation items: tests of an interference model. When people respond to a target (T1) in a rapid serial visual presentation stream, their perception of a subsequent target (T2) is impaired if the intertarget stimulus onset asynchrony is between about 100 and 500 ms. Three experiments supported the interference model's (K. L. Shapiro, J. E. Raymond, & K. M. Arnell, 1994) claim that this attentional blink (...) reflects competition for retrieval among multiple items in visual short-term memory. Experiments 1 and 2 revealed that items appearing during the blink are named as T2 on an above-chance proportion of trials when T2 must be identified. Experiment 3 demonstrated that both the size of the blink and sensitivity to T2 reflected the number of items competing for retrieval as T2; such competition, moreover, occurred at a conceptual or categorical level rather than at a purely visual one. The relationship

1999 Journal of experimental psychology. Human perception and performance

171211. Valproate monotherapy in juvenile myoclonic epilepsy: dose-related effects on electroencephalographic and other neurophysiologic tests. (Abstract)

Valproate monotherapy in juvenile myoclonic epilepsy: dose-related effects on electroencephalographic and other neurophysiologic tests. A neurophysiologic test battery (consisting of a 24-hour, seven-channel electroencephalogram [EEG], EEG spectral analysis, multiple sleep latency test, visual evoked potentials, critical flicker fusion, and visual contrast sensitivity) was administered twice to 16 patients with juvenile myoclonic epilepsy (JME) in a double-blind, randomized, crossover study (...) . The other tests also showed no change between doses. Our results suggested that EEG and our selection of other neurophysiologic tests were of limited value for monitoring seizure frequency and clinical effects of VPA.

1999 Therapeutic drug monitoring Controlled trial quality: uncertain

171212. Value of sublingual isosorbide dinitrate before isoproterenol tilt test for diagnosis of neurally mediated syncope. (Abstract)

Value of sublingual isosorbide dinitrate before isoproterenol tilt test for diagnosis of neurally mediated syncope. Head-up tilt-table test is valuable in diagnosing type of syncope. Sensitivity varies in reports and is mostly poor. Isoproterenol or nitroglycerin is regularly used to increase head-up tilt-table test sensitivity. The aim of this study was to assess the value of sublingual isosorbide dinitrate administration before isoproterenol tilt test as a simple, practical test for diagnosis (...) induction in the isosorbide-isoproterenol test were shorter than those in the isoproterenol test (24.84 +/- 5.15 vs 35.70 +/- 6.28 minutes [p <0.01]; 4.53 +/- 2.86 vs 6.27 +/- 4.11 minutes [p <0.05]). This study concluded that isosorbide-isoproterenol test could be valuable in diagnosing unexplained syncope for its high sensitivity, powerful specificity, and short duration.

1999 The American journal of cardiology Controlled trial quality: uncertain

171213. The 13C-urea blood test accurately detects active Helicobacter pylori infection: a United States, multicenter trial. Full Text available with Trip Pro

for the urea blood test were calculated using the endoscopic biopsy tests as a gold standard.One hundred and twenty-one patients (54 infected) were enrolled. The urea blood test yielded sensitivity of 89%, specificity of 96%, positive predictive value of 94%, negative predictive value of 91%, and accuracy of 93% using histology as a gold standard. There was no difference between results obtained with the urea blood test and rapid urease testing of gastric biopsies.The urea blood test accurately identified (...) The 13C-urea blood test accurately detects active Helicobacter pylori infection: a United States, multicenter trial. Current nonendoscopic tests for Helicobacter pylori include antibody tests and the urea breath test. After the administration of 13C-urea, serum bicarbonate measurement can identify those infected with H. pylori. In this study, our aims were to determine the accuracy of the urea blood test, and to compare the accuracy of the urea blood test with that of rapid urease testing

1999 The American journal of gastroenterology

171214. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing of Helicobacter pylori in a large multicenter trial: the MACH 2 study. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Antimicrobial susceptibility testing of Helicobacter pylori in a large multicenter trial: the MACH 2 study. Culture and susceptibility testing of Helicobacter pylori strains was performed in a large multinational, multicenter randomized clinical trial. Culture was carried out on gastric biopsy samples obtained from 516 patients at entry and had a sensitivity of 99% when the [(13)C]urea breath test was used as a reference. Susceptibility testing was performed for clarithromycin and metronidazole (...) on 485 strains by an agar dilution method and the epsilometer test (Etest) and for amoxicillin by an agar dilution method only. Resistance to clarithromycin (>1 microgram/ml) was found in 3% of the H. pylori strains, with a perfect correlation between Etest and agar dilution methods. Resistance to metronidazole (>8 microliter/ml) was found in 27% of the strains by agar dilution, but there were important discrepancies between it and the Etest method. No resistance to amoxicillin was found

1999 Antimicrobial agents and chemotherapy Controlled trial quality: uncertain

171215. Comparison of the BTA stat test with voided urine cytology and bladder wash cytology in the diagnosis and monitoring of bladder cancer. (Abstract)

and cytology in the 124 subjects without BC were 64 and 99%, respectively. In the subjects with a history of BC (n = 74), the specificities of BTA stat and cytology were 72 and 99%, respectively. The specificity of BTA stat was lower in subjects with benign or malignant genitourinary disease other than BC (46%) than in subjects without genitourinary disease (71%).The BTA stat test is considerably more sensitive than cytology in the detection of BC and can replace cytology as an adjunct to cystoscopy (...) Comparison of the BTA stat test with voided urine cytology and bladder wash cytology in the diagnosis and monitoring of bladder cancer. To compare the BTA stat test (BTA stat), a new one-step immunochromatographic assay that can be performed in the urologist's office or in the laboratory, to voided urine cytology and bladder wash cytology (cytology) in the diagnosis and monitoring of cancer of the bladder (BC).BTA stat and cytology were performed in a double-blinded, prospective, clinical study

1999 European urology Controlled trial quality: uncertain

171216. The utility of entoptic perimetry as a screening test for cytomegalovirus retinitis. (Abstract)

The utility of entoptic perimetry as a screening test for cytomegalovirus retinitis. To determine the sensitivity and specificity of entoptic perimetry as a noninvasive test for detecting retinal damage due to peripheral cytomegalovirus (CMV) retinitis.A masked study comparing entoptic perimetry with fundus photography under 4 experimental conditions (determined by increasing pixel sizes) on 2 separate testing sessions.Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome Ocular Research Unit at the University (...) of California, San Diego.Twenty-four human immunodeficiency virus-positive and 8 human immunodeficiency virus-negative subjects; 21 eyes with documented CMV retinitis, and 26 eyes that were retinitis free.For each testing session, screening method, and condition, the presence of CMV retinitis was determined for each meridian (i.e., clock hour), each quadrant (consisting of 3 meridians), and each eye (consisting of all meridians); the amount of retinitis was defined as the percentage of meridians

1999 Archives of ophthalmology Controlled trial quality: uncertain

171217. Clinical and economic assessment of the omeprazole test in patients with symptoms suggestive of gastroesophageal reflux disease. (Abstract)

center.Symptom response to the omeprazole test vs placebo in GERD-positive and GERD-negative patients; sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of the omeprazole test; and cost per correct diagnosis achieved with the omeprazole test compared with traditional diagnostic strategies.Of 42 patients (98%) who completed the study, 35 (83%) were classified as GERD positive and 7 (17%) as GERD negative. Twenty-eight GERD-positive and 3 GERD-negative patients responded to the omeprazole (...) test, providing a sensitivity of 80.0% (95% confidence interval, 66.7%-93.3%) and a specificity of 57.1% (95% confidence interval, 20.5%-93.8%). Economic analysis revealed that the omeprazole test saves $348 per average patient evaluated, and results in a 64% reduction in the number of upper endoscopies performed and a 53% reduction in the use of pH testing.The omeprazole test is sensitive and fairly specific for diagnosing GERD in patients with typical GERD symptoms. This strategy could result

1999 Archives of internal medicine Controlled trial quality: predicted high

171218. Selection of the optimal stress test for the diagnosis of coronary artery disease. Full Text available with Trip Pro

or absence of coronary artery disease was confirmed by coronary angiography.Two tertiary care and university centres.102 consecutive patients with chest pain and no previous history of coronary artery disease. Ten patients with left bundle branch block were excluded for further analysis of exercise testing and scintigraphy results.MIBI-SPECT was the most sensitive (87%) but the least specific test (70%). Exercise stress testing had a sensitivity of 66%, which increased to 80% when patients (...) with inconclusive results were excluded. Dipyridamole and dobutamine echocardiography had similar sensitivity (81%, 78%) and specificity (94%, 88%). All four tests had similar accuracy and positive and negative predictive values. Agreement between the echocardiographic techniques was excellent (detection of coronary artery disease 87%, kappa = 0.72; regional analysis 93%, kappa = 0.72; diagnosis of the "culprit" vessel 95%, kappa = 0.92), and it was good between echocardiographic techniques and MIBI-SPECT

1998 Heart

171219. Efficacy of xanomeline in Alzheimer disease: cognitive improvement measured using the Computerized Neuropsychological Test Battery (CNTB). (Abstract)

Efficacy of xanomeline in Alzheimer disease: cognitive improvement measured using the Computerized Neuropsychological Test Battery (CNTB). The cognitive efficacy of the M1-selective muscarinic agonist xanomeline in mild-to-moderate Alzheimer disease (AD) was measured using the Computerized Neuropsychological Test Battery (CNTB) and the Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale-Cognitive Subscale (ADAS-cog) in this 17-center, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Three hundred forty-three patients (...) < or = 0.05) between-group comparison favoring 75 mg t.i.d. over placebo for the CNTB summary score but not for the ADAS-cog. In the completer analysis, however, the ADAS-cog showed a significant (p < or = 0.05) dose-response trend and between-group comparison, whereas the CNTB Summary Score did not. The ADAS-cog was less sensitive to treatment effects in mildly impaired patients (ADAS-cog < 21) than in moderately impaired patients (ADAS-cog > or = 21), whereas the CNTB was sensitive in the entire study

1998 Alzheimer disease and associated disorders Controlled trial quality: predicted high

171220. Comparing two different protocols for tilt table testing: sublingual glyceryl trinitrate versus isoprenaline infusion. Full Text available with Trip Pro

of the protocols were 55% and 94.7%, respectively, for glyceryl trinitrate v 58% and 89.4% for isoprenaline. Owing to discordant responses in 75% of the cases, the sequential use of the tests (if one was negative) would increase the sensitivity to 84% while decreasing the specificity slightly (to 84%). Side effects were less frequent with glyceryl trinitrate.Sublingual glyceryl trinitrate tilt testing is an effective and safe alternative to the isoprenaline infusion test and can be used as a complementary test. (...) Comparing two different protocols for tilt table testing: sublingual glyceryl trinitrate versus isoprenaline infusion. To assess the diagnostic value and safety of sublingual glyceryl trinitrate tilt testing compared with isoprenaline infusion in patients with unexplained syncope.Glyceryl trinitrate and isoprenaline tilt tests were performed in two successive days on a random basis in cases and controls.Outpatient cases with syncope referred to Shahid Rajaii Heart Hospital.65 consecutive

1999 Heart Controlled trial quality: uncertain

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