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Test Sensitivity

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61. First and second trimester serum tests with and without first trimester ultrasound tests for Down's syndrome screening. (PubMed)

, with or without first trimester ultrasound markers, compared with a reference standard, either chromosomal verification or macroscopic postnatal inspection.Data were extracted as test positive/test negative results for Down's and non-Down's pregnancies allowing estimation of detection rates (sensitivity) and false positive rates (1-specificity). We performed quality assessment according to QUADAS criteria. We used hierarchical summary ROC meta-analytical methods to analyse test performance and compare test (...) First and second trimester serum tests with and without first trimester ultrasound tests for Down's syndrome screening. Down's syndrome occurs when a person has three copies of chromosome 21 (or the specific area of chromosome 21 implicated in causing Down's syndrome) rather than two. It is the commonest congenital cause of mental disability. Non-invasive screening based on biochemical analysis of maternal serum or urine, or fetal ultrasound measurements, allows estimates of the risk

2017 Cochrane

62. Improved diagnosis of active Schistosoma infection in travellers and migrants using the ultra-sensitive in-house lateral flow test for detection of circulating anodic antigen (CAA) in serum (PubMed)

Improved diagnosis of active Schistosoma infection in travellers and migrants using the ultra-sensitive in-house lateral flow test for detection of circulating anodic antigen (CAA) in serum Schistosomiasis is a parasitic disease affecting over 250 million people in the tropics. In non-endemic regions, imported Schistosoma infections are commonly diagnosed by serology, but based on antibody detection an active infection cannot be distinguished from a cured infection and it may take more than 8 (...) serum samples originating from 81 serology-positive individuals. In nine individuals, serum could be collected before travel and an additional five provided samples before and after seroconversion occurred. Based on detectable CAA levels, an active infection was seen in 56/81 (69%) of the exposed individuals, while the 10 controls and the 9 sera collected before travel were tested negative for CAA. Positive CAA levels were observed starting 4 weeks after exposure and in four cases CAA was detected

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2018 European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases

63. Sensitivity of Single-Molecule Array Assays for Detection of Clostridium difficile Toxins in Comparison to Conventional Laboratory Testing Algorithms (PubMed)

Sensitivity of Single-Molecule Array Assays for Detection of Clostridium difficile Toxins in Comparison to Conventional Laboratory Testing Algorithms Guidelines recommend the use of an algorithm for the laboratory diagnosis of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI). Enzyme immunoassays (EIAs) detecting C. difficile toxins cannot be used as standalone tests due to suboptimal sensitivity, and molecular tests suffer from nonspecificity by detecting colonization. Sensitive immunoassays have recently (...) and a second cell cytotoxicity assay. The SIMOA toxin A and toxin B assays showed limits of detection of 0.6 and 2.9 pg/ml, respectively, and intra-assay coefficients of variation of less than 10%. The optimal clinical thresholds for the toxin A and toxin B assays were determined to be 22.1 and 18.8 pg/ml, respectively, with resultant sensitivities of 84.8 and 95.5%. In contrast, a high-performing EIA toxin test had a sensitivity of 71.2%. Thus, the SIMOA assays detected toxins in 24% more samples

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2018 Journal of clinical microbiology

64. The role of anxiety sensitivity-physical concerns in terms of quit day withdrawal symptoms and cravings: A pilot test among smokers with asthma. (PubMed)

The role of anxiety sensitivity-physical concerns in terms of quit day withdrawal symptoms and cravings: A pilot test among smokers with asthma. The aim of the current study was to conduct secondary analyses of data collected from a study examining a self-guided quit attempt of smokers with and without asthma in order to examine the unique predictive ability of precessation (i.e., baseline) anxiety sensitivity physical concerns in terms of quit day withdrawal symptoms and cravings among (...) abstinent smokers with asthma.Participants were 24 regular cigarette smokers with asthma (50% female, Mage = 37.63 years, SD = 12.20) who participated in a self-guided-quit attempt and were able to maintain abstinence on their quit day.After controlling for the effects of the cognitive and social concerns domains of anxiety sensitivity, anxiety sensitivity-physical concerns significantly predicted greater quit day withdrawal symptoms (20.8% unique variance) and urges to smoke (38.0% unique variance

2018 Journal of Asthma

65. Low sensitivity of a-defensin (Synovasure) test for intra-operative exclusion of prosthetic joint infection. (PubMed)

Low sensitivity of a-defensin (Synovasure) test for intra-operative exclusion of prosthetic joint infection. Background and purpose - The Synovasure lateral flow test was developed as a rapid test for the detection or exclusion of periprosthetic joint infection (PJI). 3 studies have reported promising results on its diagnostic value in total joint revision surgery. We aimed to assess the sensitivity and specificity of the Synovasure test to exclude infection in patients undergoing revision (...) days after primary arthroplasty) and cases with malpositioning, wear, or instability of the prosthesis. Results - 5 of the 37 patients were diagnosed with a PJI based on the intraoperative tissue cultures. In only 1 out of these 5 cases this was confirmed by the intraoperative Synovasure test. No tests were falsely positive. Interpretation - In this case series the Synovasure lateral flow test had a low sensitivity to exclude PJI in patients with suspected aseptic loosening. The role

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2018 Acta Orthopaedica

66. Low Sensitivity Urine Pregnancy Testing to Assess Medical Abortion Outcome: A Systematic Review. (PubMed)

Low Sensitivity Urine Pregnancy Testing to Assess Medical Abortion Outcome: A Systematic Review. The objective was to summarize data on the accuracy and acceptability of a strategy for identifying ongoing pregnancy after medical abortion treatment using a low-sensitivity pregnancy test (LSPT).We searched PubMed to identify studies that evaluated the use of a single posttreatment LSPT for detection of ongoing pregnancy after treatment with mifepristone and misoprostol. We extracted, assessed (...) and summarized data from each study.We found 10 studies that evaluated 6 LSPTs with human chorionic gonadotropin detection thresholds of 1000, 1500 or 2000 mIU/mL. The three earliest studies compared the pregnancy test strategy to standard assessment in the same women; the sensitivity of a positive or invalid LSPT result for detecting ongoing pregnancy ranged from 67% to 100%. Three randomized trials found no significant difference in detection of ongoing pregnancy between the LSPT strategy and routine

2018 Contraception

67. Cross-sectional study assessing the addition of contrast sensitivity to visual acuity when testing for fitness to drive. (PubMed)

Cross-sectional study assessing the addition of contrast sensitivity to visual acuity when testing for fitness to drive. The aim of this study is to quantify the importance of loss of contrast sensitivity (CS) and its relationship to loss of visual acuity (VA), driving restrictions and daytime, on-road driving evaluations in drivers aged 70+.A predictive cross-sectional study.Volunteer participants to a drivers' refresher course for adults aged 70+ delivered by the Swiss Automobile Club (...) in western Switzerland from 2011 to 2013.162 drivers, male and female, aged 70 years or older.We used a vision screener to estimate VA and the The Mars Letter Contrast Sensitivity Test to test CS.We asked drivers to report whether they found five driving restrictions useful for their condition; restrict driving to known roads, avoid driving on highways, avoid driving in the dark, avoid driving in dense traffic and avoid driving in fog. All participants also underwent a standardised on-road evaluation

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2018 BMJ open

68. Clinical Performance of the Histidine Rich Protein 2 (HRP2) Highly Sensitive Rapid Diagnostic Test (HS-RDT) for Malaria Diagnosis in Pregnant Women in Papua New Guinea

Clinical Performance of the Histidine Rich Protein 2 (HRP2) Highly Sensitive Rapid Diagnostic Test (HS-RDT) for Malaria Diagnosis in Pregnant Women in Papua New Guinea Clinical Performance of the Histidine Rich Protein 2 (HRP2) Highly Sensitive Rapid Diagnostic Test (HS-RDT) for Malaria Diagnosis in Pregnant Women in Papua New Guinea - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov Hide glossary Glossary Study record managers: refer to the if submitting registration or results information. Search (...) for terms x × Study Record Detail Saved Studies Save this study Warning You have reached the maximum number of saved studies (100). Please remove one or more studies before adding more. Clinical Performance of the Histidine Rich Protein 2 (HRP2) Highly Sensitive Rapid Diagnostic Test (HS-RDT) for Malaria Diagnosis in Pregnant Women in Papua New Guinea The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study sponsor and investigators. Listing a study does not mean it has been

2018 Clinical Trials

69. Direct Tumor Microinjection and FDG-PET in Testing Drug Sensitivity in Patients With Relapsed or Refractory Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma, Hodgkin Lymphoma, or Stage IV Breast Cancer

Direct Tumor Microinjection and FDG-PET in Testing Drug Sensitivity in Patients With Relapsed or Refractory Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma, Hodgkin Lymphoma, or Stage IV Breast Cancer Direct Tumor Microinjection and FDG-PET in Testing Drug Sensitivity in Patients With Relapsed or Refractory Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma, Hodgkin Lymphoma, or Stage IV Breast Cancer - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov Hide glossary Glossary Study record managers: refer to the if submitting registration or results information (...) . Search for terms x × Study Record Detail Saved Studies Save this study Warning You have reached the maximum number of saved studies (100). Please remove one or more studies before adding more. Direct Tumor Microinjection and FDG-PET in Testing Drug Sensitivity in Patients With Relapsed or Refractory Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma, Hodgkin Lymphoma, or Stage IV Breast Cancer The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study sponsor and investigators. Listing a study does

2018 Clinical Trials

70. Contact sensitization to hydroperoxides of limonene and linalool: Results of consecutive patch testing and clinical relevance. (PubMed)

Contact sensitization to hydroperoxides of limonene and linalool: Results of consecutive patch testing and clinical relevance. Hydroperoxides of limonene and linalool are potent sensitizers.To investigate the prevalence of contact allergy to both hydroperoxides of limonene and hydroperoxides of linalool, to report clinical relevance, and to investigate patient demographics.A total of 821 patients (35.6% male, mean age 42.4 years ± 17.8 years) were consecutively patch tested with our (...) departmental baseline series and our fragrance series, including hydroperoxides of limonene 0.3% pet. and hydroperoxides of linalool 1.0% pet. The clinical relevance was assessed for all positive reactions.Positive patch test reactions to hydroperoxides of limonene and to hydroperoxides of linalool were observed in 77 patients (9.4%, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 7.4%-11.4%) and in 96 patients (11.7%, 95%CI: 9.5%-13.9%), respectively; 38 of these patients (4.6%, 95%CI: 3.2%-6.0%) reacted to both. Most

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2018 Contact Dermatitis

71. Molecular classification of thyroid nodules with indeterminate cytology: development and validation of a highly sensitive and specific new miRNA-based classifier test using fine-needle aspiration smear slides. (PubMed)

Molecular classification of thyroid nodules with indeterminate cytology: development and validation of a highly sensitive and specific new miRNA-based classifier test using fine-needle aspiration smear slides. Thyroid nodules can be identified in up to 68% of the population. Fine-needle aspiration (FNA) cytopathology classifies 20%-30% of nodules as indeterminate, and these are often referred for surgery due to the risk of malignancy. However, histological postsurgical reports indicate that up (...) . For validation, an independent set of 58 benign/37 malignant FNA smear slides (also classified as indeterminate) was used.In the training set, with a 10-fold cross-validation using only 11 miRNAs, the mir-THYpe test reached 89.7% sensitivity, 92.3% specificity, 90.0% negative predictive value and 92.1% positive predictive value. In the FNA smear slide validation set, the mir-THYpe test reached 94.6% sensitivity, 81.0% specificity, 95.9% negative predictive value, and 76.1% positive predictive value. Bayes

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2018 Thyroid

72. Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell-Derived Engineered Heart Tissue as a Sensitive Test System for QT Prolongation and Arrhythmic Triggers. (PubMed)

Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell-Derived Engineered Heart Tissue as a Sensitive Test System for QT Prolongation and Arrhythmic Triggers. Cardiac repolarization abnormalities in drug-induced and genetic long-QT syndrome may lead to afterdepolarizations and life-threatening ventricular arrhythmias. Human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (hiPSC-CMs) should help to overcome the limitations of animal models based on species differences in repolarization reserve. Here, we (...) compared head-to-head the contribution of IKs (long QT1) and IKr (long QT2) on action potentials (APs) in human left ventricular (LV) tissue and hiPSC-CM-derived engineered heart tissue (EHT).APs were measured with sharp microelectrodes in EHT from 3 different control hiPSC-CM lines and in tissue preparations from failing LV.EHT from hiPSC-CMs showed spontaneous diastolic depolarization and AP generation that were sensitive to low concentrations of ivabradine. IKr block by E-4031 prolonged AP duration

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2018 Circulation. Arrhythmia and electrophysiology

73. How has the Zimbabwe mycobacterial culture and drug sensitivity testing system among re-treatment tuberculosis patients functioned during the scale-up of the Xpert MTB/RIF assay? (PubMed)

How has the Zimbabwe mycobacterial culture and drug sensitivity testing system among re-treatment tuberculosis patients functioned during the scale-up of the Xpert MTB/RIF assay? In Zimbabwe, while the Xpert MTB/RIF assay is being used for diagnosing tuberculosis and rifampicin-resistance, re-treatment tuberculosis (TB) patients are still expected to have culture and drug sensitivity testing (CDST) performed at national reference laboratories for confirmation. The study aim was to document (...) the Xpert MTB/RIF assay scale-up and assess how the CDST system functioned for re-treatment TB patients.We performed an ecologic study using national aggregate data.Use of the Xpert MTB/RIF assay increased from 11 829 to 68 153 between 2012 and 2016. Xpert assays worked well, with successful tests in more than 90% of cases, TB detection rates at 15-17% and rifampicin resistance in <10%. During Xpert scale-up, the number of sputum specimens from re-treatment TB patients reaching national reference

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2018 Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine & Hygiene

74. A retrospective study on titanium sensitivity: Patch test materials and manifestations. (PubMed)

A retrospective study on titanium sensitivity: Patch test materials and manifestations. Titanium is being increasingly used. Although it is considered to be a non-allergenic material, allergic reactions to it have been reported. Titanium dioxide has been found to be an unreliable patch test material. Few studies to date have profiled titanium allergy, and it therefore remains difficult to distinguish its manifestations.To evaluate alternatives for titanium dioxide as a patch test preparation (...) %) patients, the test result had partial or full clinical relevance.No titanium-specific risk factors and clinical picture could be identified. Titanium dioxide is not adequately sensitive for identifying titanium allergy. The titanium salts seem to be possible superior patch test preparations, but appear to be unsuitable if used singly. The patient's medical history and clinical picture remain crucial in the diagnostic work-up.© 2018 The Authors. Contact Dermatitis published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

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2018 Contact Dermatitis

75. Poor Sensitivity of Commercial Rapid Diagnostic Tests for Hepatitis B e Antigen in Senegal, West Africa. (PubMed)

Poor Sensitivity of Commercial Rapid Diagnostic Tests for Hepatitis B e Antigen in Senegal, West Africa. Limited access to nucleic acid tests for hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA is a significant barrier to the effective management of chronic HBV infection in resource-poor countries. Alternatively, HBV e antigen (HBeAg) may accurately indicate high viral replication. We assessed the diagnostic performance of three commercially available rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) for HBeAg (SD Bioline, Insight (...) and OneStep) against a quantitative chemiluminescent immunoassay (CLIA, Architect). Using stored sera from adults with chronic HBV infection, we tested RDTs in three groups in Senegal (48 HBeAg-positive, 196 HBeAg-negative, and 117 cases with high HBV DNA (≥ 106 IU/mL)) and one group in France (17 HBeAg-positive East Asians). In Senegal, the sensitivity and specificity for HBeAg detection were 29.8% and 100% for SD Bioline, 31.1% and 100% for Insight, and 42.5% and 98.4% for OneStep, respectively

2018 American Journal of Tropical Medicine & Hygiene

76. Sensitivity of the Saline Load Test for Traumatic Arthrotomy of the Ankle With Ankle Arthroscopy Simulation. (PubMed)

Sensitivity of the Saline Load Test for Traumatic Arthrotomy of the Ankle With Ankle Arthroscopy Simulation. The saline load test has been used to evaluate for traumatic arthrotomy in orthopedics. The purpose of this study was to determine the volume of saline required to detect traumatic arthrotomy of the ankle.Forty-two patients undergoing elective ankle arthroscopy were prospectively enrolled. For each patient, a standard 4-mm anteromedial portal was established. Next, an 18-gauge needle (...) was required to achieve 90% sensitivity, 55.0 mL to achieve 95% sensitivity, and 60.0 mL to achieve 99% sensitivity.The previously recommended 30 mL of saline required to reliably detect traumatic arthrotomy of the ankle may be too small a volume.The present study suggests that clinicians should attempt to inject 60 mL of saline to effectively rule out a traumatic arthrotomy injury. Because of the study's methods involving an anteromedial arthrotomy with anterolateral saline injection, these findings may

2018 Foot & Ankle International

77. Elevated High Sensitive Troponin-T in Negative Stress Test Individuals. (PubMed)

Elevated High Sensitive Troponin-T in Negative Stress Test Individuals. The exercise ECG stress test (EST) is still the first step of work-up in intermediate risk patients in many clinical scenarios. High-sensitive cardiac troponin T (hs-cTnT) elevation is related to future cardiovascular events in the general population and in patients with ischaemic heart disease. The relation between these 2 tests is not well described.A total of 2780 participants from the Tel-Aviv Medical Center

2018 European journal of clinical investigation

78. Performance of an ultra-sensitive Plasmodium falciparum HRP2-based rapid diagnostic test with recombinant HRP2, culture parasites, and archived whole blood samples. (PubMed)

Performance of an ultra-sensitive Plasmodium falciparum HRP2-based rapid diagnostic test with recombinant HRP2, culture parasites, and archived whole blood samples. As malaria endemic countries shift from control to elimination, the proportion of low density Plasmodium falciparum infections increases. Current field diagnostic tools, such as microscopy and rapid diagnostic tests (RDT), with detection limits of approximately 100-200 parasites/µL (p/µL) and 800-1000 pg/mL histidine-rich protein 2 (...) (HRP2), respectively, are unable to detect these infections. A novel ultra-sensitive HRP2-based Alere™ Malaria Ag P.f RDT (uRDT) was evaluated in laboratory conditions to define the test's performance against recombinant HRP2 and native cultured parasites.The uRDT detected dilutions of P. falciparum recombinant GST-W2 and FliS-W2, as well as cultured W2 and ITG, diluted in whole blood down to 10-40 pg/mL HRP2, depending on the protein tested. uRDT specificity was 100% against 123 archived frozen

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2018 Malaria journal

79. Individual Test Point Fluctuations of Macular Sensitivity in Healthy Eyes and Eyes With Age-Related Macular Degeneration Measured With Microperimetry (PubMed)

Individual Test Point Fluctuations of Macular Sensitivity in Healthy Eyes and Eyes With Age-Related Macular Degeneration Measured With Microperimetry To establish fluctuation limits, it was considered that not only overall macular sensitivity but also fluctuations of individual test points in the macula might have clinical value.Three repeated measurements of microperimetry were performed using the Standard Expert test of Macular Integrity Assessment (MAIA) in healthy subjects (N = 12, age (...) = 23.8 ± 1.5 years old) and in patients with age-related macular degeneration (AMD) (N = 11, age = 68.5 ± 7.4 years old). A total of 37 macular points arranged in four concentric rings and in four quadrants were analyzed individually and in groups.The data show low fluctuation of macular sensitivity of individual test points in healthy subjects (average = 1.38 ± 0.28 dB) and AMD patients (average = 2.12 ± 0.60 dB). Lower sensitivity points are more related to higher fluctuation than to the distance

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2018 Translational vision science & technology

80. The Evaluation of Contact Sensitivity with Standard and Cosmetic Patch Test Series in Rosacea Patients (PubMed)

The Evaluation of Contact Sensitivity with Standard and Cosmetic Patch Test Series in Rosacea Patients Rosacea is a common dermatosis characterized by erythema, telangiectasia, papules and pustules.We aimed to evaluate contact sensitivity in the rosacea patients.We included 65 rosacea patients and 60 healthy volunteers in the study. The patient and control groups were patch tested with European baseline series and cosmetic series.A positive reaction to at least 1 allergen in the European (...) and disease duration. There were more symptoms in patients with a positive reaction to allergens (p<0.001).Contact sensitivity was detected more common in rosacea patients. Patch testing may be useful in the treatment and follow up of rosacea patients especially if symptoms such as itching, burning and stinging are present.

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2018 Annals of dermatology

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