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Test Sensitivity

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181. Protanopia (red color-blindness) in medaka: a simple system for producing color-blind fish and testing their spectral sensitivity Full Text available with Trip Pro

Protanopia (red color-blindness) in medaka: a simple system for producing color-blind fish and testing their spectral sensitivity Color perception is important for fish to survive and reproduce in nature. Visual pigments in the retinal photoreceptor cells are responsible for receiving light stimuli, but the function of the pigments in vivo has not been directly investigated in many animals due to the lack of color-blind lines and appropriate color-perception tests.In this study, we established (...) a system for producing color-blind fish and testing their spectral sensitivity. First, we disrupted long-wavelength-sensitive (LWS) opsins of medaka (Oryzias latipes) using the CRISPR/Cas9 system to make red-color-blind lines. Single guide RNAs were designed using the consensus sequences between the paralogous LWSa and LWSb genes to simultaneously introduce double-frameshift mutations. Next, we developed a non-invasive and no-prior-learning test for spectral sensitivity by applying an optomotor

2017 BMC genetics

182. Poor sensitivity of rapid tests for the detection of antibodies to the hepatitis B virus: implications for field studies Full Text available with Trip Pro

Poor sensitivity of rapid tests for the detection of antibodies to the hepatitis B virus: implications for field studies Rapid tests (RTs) can be used as an alternative method for the conventional diagnosis of hepatitis B virus (HBV). This study aims to evaluate antibodies to HBsAg (anti-HBs) and antibodies to HBeAg (anti-HBe) RTs under different Brazilian settings. The following three groups were included: GI: viral hepatitis outpatient services; GII: low resource areas; and GIII: crack users (...) and beauticians. Imuno-rápido anti-HBsAg™ and Imuno-rápido anti-HBeAg™ RTs were evaluated and showed specificities greater than 95% in all groups. The sensitivity values to anti-HBs were 50.38%, 51.05% and 46.73% and the sensitivity values to anti-HBe were 76.99%, 10.34% and 11.76% in the GI, GII and GIII groups, respectively. The assays had a low sensitivity and high specificity, which indicated their use for screening in regions endemic for HBV.

2017 Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz

183. A Low-Cost Smartphone-Based Platform for Highly Sensitive Point-of-Care Testing with Persistent Luminescent Phosphors Full Text available with Trip Pro

A Low-Cost Smartphone-Based Platform for Highly Sensitive Point-of-Care Testing with Persistent Luminescent Phosphors Through their computational power and connectivity, smartphones are poised to rapidly expand telemedicine and transform healthcare by enabling better personal health monitoring and rapid diagnostics. Recently, a variety of platforms have been developed to enable smartphone-based point-of-care testing using imaging-based readout with the smartphone camera as the detector (...) . Fluorescent reporters have been shown to improve the sensitivity of assays over colorimetric labels, but fluorescence readout necessitates incorporating optical hardware into the detection system, adding to the cost and complexity of the device. Here we present a simple, low-cost smartphone-based detection platform for highly sensitive luminescence imaging readout of point-of-care tests run with persistent luminescent phosphors as reporters. The extremely bright and long-lived emission of persistent

2017 Lab on a chip

184. Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization–Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry for Combined Species Identification and Drug Sensitivity Testing in Mycobacteria Full Text available with Trip Pro

Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization–Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry for Combined Species Identification and Drug Sensitivity Testing in Mycobacteria Species identification and drug susceptibility testing (DST) of mycobacteria are important yet complex processes traditionally reserved for reference laboratories. Recent technical improvements in matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) has started to facilitate routine mycobacterial (...) identifications in clinical laboratories. In this paper, we investigate the possibility of performing phenotypic MALDI-based DST in mycobacteriology using the recently described MALDI Biotyper antibiotic susceptibility test rapid assay (MBT-ASTRA). We randomly selected 72 clinical Mycobacterium tuberculosis and nontuberculous mycobacterial (NTM) strains, subjected them to MBT-ASTRA methodology, and compared its results to current gold-standard methods. Drug susceptibility was tested for rifampin, isoniazid

2017 Journal of clinical microbiology

185. SPARCS and Pelli–Robson contrast sensitivity testing in normal controls and patients with cataract Full Text available with Trip Pro

SPARCS and Pelli–Robson contrast sensitivity testing in normal controls and patients with cataract PurposeTo determine the ability of the newly developed internet-based Spaeth/Richman Contrast Sensitivity (SPARCS) test to assess contrast sensitivity centrally and peripherally in cataract subjects and controls, in comparison with the Pelli-Robson (PR) test.MethodsIn this prospective cross-sectional study, cataract subjects and age-matched normal controls were evaluated using the SPARCS and PR (...) tests. Contrast sensitivity testing was performed in each eye twice in a standardized testing environment in randomized order. SPARCS scores were obtained for central, right upper (RUQ), right lower (RLQ), left upper (LUQ), and left lower quadrants (LLQ). PR scores were obtained for central contrast sensitivity. PR and SPARCS scores in cataract subjects were compared with controls. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) and Bland Altman analysis were used to determine test-retest reliability

2017 Eye

186. Increased Sensitization to Mold Allergens Measured by Intradermal Skin Testing following Hurricanes Full Text available with Trip Pro

Increased Sensitization to Mold Allergens Measured by Intradermal Skin Testing following Hurricanes Objective. To report on changes in sensitivity to mold allergens determined by changes in intradermal skin testing reactivity, after exposure to two severe hurricanes. Methods. A random, retrospective allergy charts review divided into 2 groups of 100 patients each: Group A, patients tested between 2003 and 2010 prior to hurricanes, and Group B, patients tested in 2014 and 2015 following (...) hurricanes. Reactivity to eighteen molds was determined by intradermal skin testing. Test results, age, and respiratory symptoms were recorded. Chi-square test determined reactivity/sensitivity differences between groups. Results. Posthurricane patients had 34.6 times more positive results (p < 0.0001) at weaker dilutions, all tested molds were found to be more reactive, and 95% had at least one positive test versus only 62% before the hurricanes (p < 0.0001); average mold reactivity was 55% versus 16

2017 Journal of environmental and public health

187. Evaluation of rapid post-mortem test kits for bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) screening in Japan: Their analytical sensitivity to atypical BSE prions Full Text available with Trip Pro

Evaluation of rapid post-mortem test kits for bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) screening in Japan: Their analytical sensitivity to atypical BSE prions A classical type of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (C-BSE), recognized in 1987, had a large impact on public health due to its zoonotic link to variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease by the human consumption of dietary products contaminated with the C-BSE prion. Thus, a number of countries implemented BSE surveillance using rapid post-mortem (...) of field cases of C-BSE and L-BSE, and an experimental case of H-BSE, we showed its comparable sensitivities to C, L-, and H-BSE prions, and satisfactory performance required by the European Food Safety Authority. In addition to NippiBL®, two kits (TeSeE® and FRELISA®) formerly used in Japan were effective for detection of the L-BSE prion, although the two kits were unable to be tested for the H-BSE prion due to the discontinuation of domestic sales during this study. These results indicate that BSE

2017 Prion

188. Assessment of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein tests for the diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma in patients with hepatitis B-associated liver cirrhosis Full Text available with Trip Pro

Assessment of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein tests for the diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma in patients with hepatitis B-associated liver cirrhosis Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a common malignant tumor worldwide, with high morbidity and mortality. Chronic infection with hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a major risk factor for the development of hepatocellular carcinoma and the majority (~80%) of hepatocellular carcinoma patients in China exhibit co-morbidity with HBV-associated liver (...) cirrhosis. The goal of reliable early diagnostic and prognostic techniques for HBV-associated HCC remains unrealized. The aim of the present study was to explore the efficacy of serum high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) tests in the early diagnosis of HCC in patients with HBV-associated liver cirrhosis. A cohort of 493 patients with HBV-associated liver disease was divided into three groups: Chronic HBV (CHB) group; liver cirrhosis without HCC (LC) group; and liver cirrhosis with HCC (HCC

2017 Oncology letters

189. Patch testing and cross sensitivity study of adverse cutaneous drug reactions due to anticonvulsants: A preliminary report Full Text available with Trip Pro

Patch testing and cross sensitivity study of adverse cutaneous drug reactions due to anticonvulsants: A preliminary report To evaluate the utility of patch test and cross-sensitivity patterns in patients with adverse cutaneous drug reactions (ACDR) from common anticonvulsants.Twenty-four (M:F = 13:11) patients aged 18-75 years with ACDR from anticonvulsants were patch tested 3-27 mo after complete recovery using carbamazepine, phenytoin, phenobarbitone, lamotrigine, and sodium valproate in 10 (...) in 2 (8.3%), and lamotrigine in 1 (4.7%) patients, respectively. Twelve (50%) patients elicited positive reactions to implicated drugs; carbamazepine in 6 (50%), phenytoin alone in 4 (33.3%), phenobarbitone alone in 1 (8.3%), and both phenytoin and phenobarbitone in 1 (8.33%) patients, respectively. Cross-reactions occurred in 11 (92%) patients. Six patients with carbamazepine positive patch test reaction showed cross sensitivity with phenobarbitone, sodium valproate and/or lamotrigine. Three (75

2017 World journal of methodology

190. Demonstration of the test-retest reliability and sensitivity of the Lower Limb Functional Index-10 as a measure of functional recovery post burn injury: a cross-sectional repeated measures study design Full Text available with Trip Pro

Demonstration of the test-retest reliability and sensitivity of the Lower Limb Functional Index-10 as a measure of functional recovery post burn injury: a cross-sectional repeated measures study design Lower limb burns can significantly delay recovery of function. Measuring lower limb functional outcomes is challenging in the unique burn patient population and necessitates the use of reliable and valid tools. The aims of this study were to examine the test-retest reliability, sensitivity (...) , and internal consistency of Sections 1 and 3 of the Lower Limb Functional Index-10 (LLFI-10) questionnaire for measuring functional ability in patients with lower limb burns over time.Twenty-nine adult patients who had sustained a lower limb burn injury in the previous 12 months completed the test-retest procedure of the study. In addition, the minimal detectable change (MDC) was calculated for Section 1 and 3 of the LLFI-10. Section 1 is focused on the activity limitations experienced by patients

2016 Burns & trauma

191. Diagnosis of Zollinger–Ellison syndrome in the era of PPIs, faulty gastrin assays, sensitive imaging and limited access to acid secretory testing Full Text available with Trip Pro

Diagnosis of Zollinger–Ellison syndrome in the era of PPIs, faulty gastrin assays, sensitive imaging and limited access to acid secretory testing In recent years the diagnosis of Zollinger-Ellison syndrome (ZES) has become increasingly controversial with several new approaches and criteria proposed, differing from the classical biochemical criterion of inappropriate hypergastrinemia (i.e., hypergastrinemia in the presence of hyperchlorhydria) (Table 1). These changes have come about because (...) of the difficulty and potential dangers of stopping proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) for gastric acid analysis; the recognition than many of the current assays used to assess gastrin concentrations are unreliable; the development of sensitive imaging modalities that detect neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) including an increasing number of the primary gastrinomas; the increased use of percutaneous or endoscopic ultrasound (EUS)-directed biopsies/cytology and the general lack of availability of acid secretory testing

2017 International journal of endocrine oncology

192. Evaluation of a Method for Determining Binaural Sensitivity to Temporal Fine Structure (TFS-AF Test) for Older Listeners With Normal and Impaired Low-Frequency Hearing Full Text available with Trip Pro

Evaluation of a Method for Determining Binaural Sensitivity to Temporal Fine Structure (TFS-AF Test) for Older Listeners With Normal and Impaired Low-Frequency Hearing The ability to process binaural temporal fine structure (TFS) information was assessed using the TFS-AF test (where AF stands for adaptive frequency) for 26 listeners aged 60 years or more with normal or elevated low-frequency audiometric thresholds. The test estimates the highest frequency at which a fixed interaural phase (...) was fairly consistent across values of ϕ. Thresholds decreased (worsened) with decreasing ϕ and were lower than for a group of young listeners tested in an earlier study. There were weak to moderate, negative correlations between TFS-AF thresholds and audiometric thresholds at low frequencies (125-1000 Hz) but not at high frequencies (4000-8000 Hz). In conclusion, the TFS-AF test yielded a graded measure of binaural TFS sensitivity for all listeners. This contrasts with the TFS-LF (low-frequency) test

2017 Trends in hearing

193. The sensitivity and specificity of a urine based Rapid Diagnostic Test for the diagnosis of plasmodium falciparum in a malaria endemic area in Odisha, India Full Text available with Trip Pro

The sensitivity and specificity of a urine based Rapid Diagnostic Test for the diagnosis of plasmodium falciparum in a malaria endemic area in Odisha, India Rapid and accurate diagnosis is crucial in the treatment of malaria. Rapid Diagnostic Tests (RDTs) using blood have been recommended by the WHO as an acceptable method for the diagnosis of malaria. RDTs provide results quickly, is simple to use and easy to interpret. However, its use requires collection of blood by skin puncture. Hence (...) the aim of the pilot study is to explore the sensitivity and specificity of RDTs using urine (collected non-invasively) for diagnosis of Plasmodium falciparum malaria and to assess the relation between parasite density in blood with HRP-2 Ag detection in urine.All fever cases admitted to Ispat General Hospital (IGH) Rourkela, India, during June 2012-March 2013 with a clinical diagnosis of malaria were examined for the presence of asexual forms of P. falciparum in peripheral blood smears. All smear

2017 Pathogens and global health

194. Clinical study on collagen gel droplet-embedded culture drug sensitivity test for multidrug combination chemotherapy and super selective intra-arterial infusion chemoradiotherapy in oral squamous cell carcinoma Full Text available with Trip Pro

Clinical study on collagen gel droplet-embedded culture drug sensitivity test for multidrug combination chemotherapy and super selective intra-arterial infusion chemoradiotherapy in oral squamous cell carcinoma Using trace three-dimensional culture, the collagen gel droplet-embedded culture drug sensitivity test (CD-DST) can be tested even in cases with a small number of cells, including oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC), and evaluation of the antitumor effect with a drug concentration close (...) with clinical efficacy, which was judged based on measurable lesions on imaging. For TPF therapy, the sensitivity test of the IACRT had a positive predictive value of 90.9% (10 of 11 cases) and a negative predictive value of 100% (3 of 3 cases); the accuracy of the susceptibility test for the anticancer agents was 92.8% (13 of 14 cases). The CD-DST may be useful in selecting multidrug combination chemotherapy and IACRT for OSCC, however, accumulation of further clinical data is required in the future.

2017 Molecular and clinical oncology

195. Reactivity and sensitivity of commercially available influenza rapid diagnostic tests in Japan Full Text available with Trip Pro

Reactivity and sensitivity of commercially available influenza rapid diagnostic tests in Japan Seasonal influenza virus routinely causes epidemic infections throughout the world. Sporadic infections by H5N1, H5N6, and H7N9 viruses are also reported. To treat patients suffering from such viral infections, broadly reactive and highly sensitive influenza rapid diagnostic tests (IRDTs) are required. Here, we examined the reactivity and sensitivity of 25 IRDTs available in Japan for the detection (...) of seasonal H1N1pdm09, H3N2, and type B viruses, as well as highly pathogenic H5 and H7 viruses. All of the IRDTs tested detected the seasonal viruses and H5 and H7 viruses albeit with different sensitivities. Several IRDTs detected the H5 and H7 viruses and the seasonal viruses with similar (high) sensitivity.

2017 Scientific reports

196. Collagen gel droplet-embedded culture drug sensitivity testing in hard palate cancer-predicted antitumor efficacy of cetuximab: A case report Full Text available with Trip Pro

Collagen gel droplet-embedded culture drug sensitivity testing in hard palate cancer-predicted antitumor efficacy of cetuximab: A case report In vitro anticancer drug sensitivity assessments have been performed for various types of cancer, and an association with clinical response has been observed. The collagen gel droplet-embedded culture drug sensitivity test (CD-DST) is an in vitro anticancer drug sensitivity test that has recently reported to be useful in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC (...) ). CD-DST allows for the analysis of a smaller number of cells compared with other anticancer drug sensitivity tests. The present study reported a successful analysis of anticancer drug sensitivity using CD-DST on cervical lymph node tissue dissected following neoadjuvant chemotherapy from a 55-year-old man with advanced hard palate cancer. Tumor resection and bilateral neck dissection were performed following neoadjuvant chemotherapy (docetaxel + cisplatin + 5-fluorouracil; TPF) for hard palate

2017 Molecular and clinical oncology

197. Relationship Between β‐cell Response and Insulin Sensitivity in Horses based on the Oral Sugar Test and the Euglycemic Hyperinsulinemic Clamp Full Text available with Trip Pro

Relationship Between β‐cell Response and Insulin Sensitivity in Horses based on the Oral Sugar Test and the Euglycemic Hyperinsulinemic Clamp A hyperbolic relationship between β-cell response and insulin sensitivity (IS) has been described in several species including rodents, dogs, and humans. This relationship has not been elucidated in the horse.To determine whether the hyperbolic relationship between β-cell response and IS exists in horses by using indices of β-cell response from (...) the oral sugar test (OST) and IS measurements from the euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp (EHC). A second aim was to compare how well IS estimates from the OST and EHC correlate.Forty-nine horses with different degrees of insulin regulation (normal-to-severe insulin dysregulation).Cross-sectional study. Horses were examined with an OST and an EHC.Decreased IS was associated with increased β-cell response in the horses. Nine of 12 comparisons between indices of β-cell response and IS measures fulfilled

2017 Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine

198. High Sensitivity and Specificity of the Cepheid Xpert® HIV-1 Qualitative Point-of-Care Test among Newborns in Botswana Full Text available with Trip Pro

High Sensitivity and Specificity of the Cepheid Xpert® HIV-1 Qualitative Point-of-Care Test among Newborns in Botswana HIV point-of-care (POC) testing allows for early infant HIV diagnosis and treatment, but POC accuracy at birth and in the setting of antiretroviral prophylaxis for the prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission is unknown.We evaluated the Cepheid Xpert HIV-1 Qual POC test against the Roche Taqman HIV-1 DNA polymerase chain reaction (PCR) platform using dried blood spots (...) from 15 HIV-infected and 75 HIV-exposed uninfected newborns. These infants were screened for HIV at <96 hours of life at 5 hospital maternity wards in Botswana; all infants received postexposure antiretroviral prophylaxis with single-dose nevirapine and zidovudine, and most mothers received 3-drug antiretroviral therapy in pregnancy and at delivery.Fourteen of the 15 PCR positive samples tested positive by Cepheid POC, yielding a sensitivity of 93.3% (95% confidence interval: 68.1 to 99.8

2017 Journal of acquired immune deficiency syndromes (1999)

199. Prenatal Programming of Postnatal Plasticity for Externalizing Behavior: Testing an Integrated Developmental Model of Genetic and Temperamental Sensitivity to the Environment Full Text available with Trip Pro

Prenatal Programming of Postnatal Plasticity for Externalizing Behavior: Testing an Integrated Developmental Model of Genetic and Temperamental Sensitivity to the Environment Although both gene- and temperament-environment interactions contribute to the development of youth externalizing problems, it is unclear how these factors jointly affect environmental sensitivity over time. In a 7-year longitudinal study of 232 children (aged 5-10) with and without ADHD, we employed moderated mediation (...) to test a developmentally sensitive mechanistic model of genetic and temperamental sensitivity to prenatal and postnatal environmental factors. Birth weight, a global measure of the prenatal environment, moderated predictions of child negative emotionality from a composite of dopaminergic polymorphisms (i.e., DRD4 and DAT1), such that birth weight inversely predicted negative emotionality only for children with genetic plasticity. Negative emotionality, in turn, predicted externalizing behavior 4-5

2017 Developmental psychobiology

200. Advanced Nanoindentation Testing for Studying Strain-Rate Sensitivity and Activation Volume Full Text available with Trip Pro

Advanced Nanoindentation Testing for Studying Strain-Rate Sensitivity and Activation Volume Nanoindentation became a versatile tool for testing local mechanical properties beyond hardness and modulus. By adapting standard nanoindentation test methods, simple protocols capable of probing thermally activated deformation processes can be accomplished. Abrupt strain-rate changes within one indentation allow determining the strain-rate dependency of hardness at various indentation depths (...) . For probing lower strain-rates and excluding thermal drift influences, long-term creep experiments can be performed by using the dynamic contact stiffness for determining the true contact area. From both procedures hardness and strain-rate, and consequently strain-rate sensitivity and activation volume can be reliably deducted within one indentation, permitting information on the locally acting thermally activated deformation mechanism. This review will first discuss various testing protocols including

2017 JOM (Warrendale, Pa. : 1989)

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