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Test Sensitivity

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181. Patch testing and cross sensitivity study of adverse cutaneous drug reactions due to anticonvulsants: A preliminary report (PubMed)

Patch testing and cross sensitivity study of adverse cutaneous drug reactions due to anticonvulsants: A preliminary report To evaluate the utility of patch test and cross-sensitivity patterns in patients with adverse cutaneous drug reactions (ACDR) from common anticonvulsants.Twenty-four (M:F = 13:11) patients aged 18-75 years with ACDR from anticonvulsants were patch tested 3-27 mo after complete recovery using carbamazepine, phenytoin, phenobarbitone, lamotrigine, and sodium valproate in 10 (...) in 2 (8.3%), and lamotrigine in 1 (4.7%) patients, respectively. Twelve (50%) patients elicited positive reactions to implicated drugs; carbamazepine in 6 (50%), phenytoin alone in 4 (33.3%), phenobarbitone alone in 1 (8.3%), and both phenytoin and phenobarbitone in 1 (8.33%) patients, respectively. Cross-reactions occurred in 11 (92%) patients. Six patients with carbamazepine positive patch test reaction showed cross sensitivity with phenobarbitone, sodium valproate and/or lamotrigine. Three (75

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2017 World journal of methodology

182. An Appraisal of Methods Recently Recommended for Testing Salt Sensitivity of Blood Pressure (PubMed)

An Appraisal of Methods Recently Recommended for Testing Salt Sensitivity of Blood Pressure 28365569 2019 02 18 2019 02 19 2047-9980 6 4 2017 04 01 Journal of the American Heart Association J Am Heart Assoc An Appraisal of Methods Recently Recommended for Testing Salt Sensitivity of Blood Pressure. e005653 10.1161/JAHA.117.005653 Kurtz Theodore W TW Department of Laboratory Medicine, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA ted.kurtz@ucsf.edu. DiCarlo Stephen E SE Department (...) diagnosis etiology physiopathology Risk Factors Sodium Chloride, Dietary adverse effects hypertension salt intake salt sensitivity hypertension salt‐sensitive sodium 2017 4 3 6 0 2017 4 4 6 0 2019 2 20 6 0 epublish 28365569 JAHA.117.005653 10.1161/JAHA.117.005653 PMC5533040 Hypertension. 1996 Mar;27(3 Pt 2):481-90 8613190 Hypertension. 1986 Jun;8(6 Pt 2):II127-34 3522418 Am J Clin Nutr. 2010 Jul;92(1):77-82 20444953 Am J Med. 1978 Feb;64(2):193-8 629267 J Am Soc Hypertens. 2013 Sep-Oct;7(5):395-400

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2017 Journal of the American Heart Association: Cardiovascular and Cerebrovascular Disease

183. Evaluation of rapid post-mortem test kits for bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) screening in Japan: Their analytical sensitivity to atypical BSE prions (PubMed)

Evaluation of rapid post-mortem test kits for bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) screening in Japan: Their analytical sensitivity to atypical BSE prions A classical type of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (C-BSE), recognized in 1987, had a large impact on public health due to its zoonotic link to variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease by the human consumption of dietary products contaminated with the C-BSE prion. Thus, a number of countries implemented BSE surveillance using rapid post-mortem (...) of field cases of C-BSE and L-BSE, and an experimental case of H-BSE, we showed its comparable sensitivities to C, L-, and H-BSE prions, and satisfactory performance required by the European Food Safety Authority. In addition to NippiBL®, two kits (TeSeE® and FRELISA®) formerly used in Japan were effective for detection of the L-BSE prion, although the two kits were unable to be tested for the H-BSE prion due to the discontinuation of domestic sales during this study. These results indicate that BSE

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2017 Prion

184. Increased Sensitization to Mold Allergens Measured by Intradermal Skin Testing following Hurricanes (PubMed)

Increased Sensitization to Mold Allergens Measured by Intradermal Skin Testing following Hurricanes Objective. To report on changes in sensitivity to mold allergens determined by changes in intradermal skin testing reactivity, after exposure to two severe hurricanes. Methods. A random, retrospective allergy charts review divided into 2 groups of 100 patients each: Group A, patients tested between 2003 and 2010 prior to hurricanes, and Group B, patients tested in 2014 and 2015 following (...) hurricanes. Reactivity to eighteen molds was determined by intradermal skin testing. Test results, age, and respiratory symptoms were recorded. Chi-square test determined reactivity/sensitivity differences between groups. Results. Posthurricane patients had 34.6 times more positive results (p < 0.0001) at weaker dilutions, all tested molds were found to be more reactive, and 95% had at least one positive test versus only 62% before the hurricanes (p < 0.0001); average mold reactivity was 55% versus 16

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2017 Journal of environmental and public health

185. Distance-based permutation of inter-meal differences as a sensitive test of temporomandibular joint nociception in rats (PubMed)

Distance-based permutation of inter-meal differences as a sensitive test of temporomandibular joint nociception in rats Compare non-parametric permutation method using intr-meal rate as endpoint to existing ANOVA method that uses average daily meal duration as an endpoint for detection of chronic pain in Sprague-Dawley rats.Nociception following bilateral temporomandibular joint (TMJ) injection of high-dose of Complete Freunds Adjuvant (CFA, 250 μg/50 μL per side) could be detected in young (...) of intra-meal feeding rate and lengthening of the meals in both high- and low-dose CFA-injected animals. The rate analysis also showed when the rats first started a meal they were experiencing the same level of nociception as at the end of the meal. This demonstrated that intra-meal chewing itself did not alter the level of nociception.These results suggest that permutation tests based on differences in intra-meal feeding rates can be used as a sensitive test to determine and study the temporal

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2017 Journal of applied biobehavioral research

186. Anxiety Sensitivity Predicts Increased Perceived Exertion during a 1-Mile Walk Test among Treatment-Seeking Smokers (PubMed)

Anxiety Sensitivity Predicts Increased Perceived Exertion during a 1-Mile Walk Test among Treatment-Seeking Smokers Smoking increases risk of early morbidity and mortality, and risk is compounded by physical inactivity. Anxiety sensitivity (fear of anxiety-relevant somatic sensations) is a cognitive factor that may amplify the subjective experience of exertion (effort) during exercise, subsequently resulting in lower engagement in physical activity. We examined the effect of anxiety sensitivity (...) on ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) and physiological arousal (heart rate) during a bout of exercise among low-active treatment-seeking smokers. Adult daily smokers (n = 157; M age  = 44.9, SD = 11.13; 69.4% female) completed the Rockport 1.0 mile submaximal treadmill walk test. RPE and heart rate were assessed during the walk test. Multi-level modeling was used to examine the interactive effect of anxiety sensitivity × time on RPE and on heart rate at five time points during the walk test. There were

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2017 Journal of behavioral medicine

187. Haplotype Counting for Sensitive Chimerism Testing: Potential for Early Leukemia Relapse Detection (PubMed)

Haplotype Counting for Sensitive Chimerism Testing: Potential for Early Leukemia Relapse Detection Fields of forensics, transplantation, and paternity rely on human identity testing. Currently, this is accomplished through amplification of microsatellites followed by capillary electrophoresis. An alternative and theoretically better approach uses multiple single-nucleotide polymorphisms located within a small region of DNA, a method we initially developed using HLA-A and called haplotype (...) a threshold (0.26% recipient) by examining seven patients who tested all donor and did not relapse. Although this initial threshold will need to be confirmed in a larger cohort, we detected increased recipient DNA above this threshold 90 to 145 days earlier than microsatellite positivity, and 127 to 142 days before clinical relapse in four of eight patients (50%). Haplotype counting using these novel loci may be useful for ultrasensitive detection in fields such as bone marrow transplantation, solid organ

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2017 The Journal of molecular diagnostics : JMD

188. Does Tobacco Abstinence Decrease Reward Sensitivity? A Human Laboratory Test (PubMed)

Does Tobacco Abstinence Decrease Reward Sensitivity? A Human Laboratory Test Animal studies report abstinence from nicotine makes rewards less rewarding; however, the results of human tests of the effects of cessation on reward sensitivity are mixed. The current study tested reward sensitivity in abstinent smokers using more rigorous methods than most prior studies.A human laboratory study compared outcomes for 1 week prior to quitting to those during 4 weeks postquit. The study used smokers (...) of reward sensitivity; however, it did not change the objective measure. The self-report effects were small.Animal research suggests that nicotine withdrawal decreases reward sensitivity. Replication tests of this in humans have produced inconsistent results. We report what we believe is a more rigorous test. We found smoking abstinence slightly decreases self-reports of reward sensitivity but does not do so for a behavioral measure of reward sensitivity.© The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University

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2017 Nicotine & Tobacco Research

189. Identification of precision treatment strategies for relapsed/refractory multiple myeloma by functional drug sensitivity testing (PubMed)

Identification of precision treatment strategies for relapsed/refractory multiple myeloma by functional drug sensitivity testing Novel agents have increased survival of multiple myeloma (MM) patients, however high-risk and relapsed/refractory patients remain challenging to treat and their outcome is poor. To identify novel therapies and aid treatment selection for MM, we assessed the ex vivo sensitivity of 50 MM patient samples to 308 approved and investigational drugs. With the results we i (...) ) positive samples were resistant to most drugs tested with the exception of histone deacetylase and BCL2 inhibitors. Samples positive for t(4;14) were highly sensitive to immunomodulatory drugs, proteasome inhibitors and several targeted drugs. Three patients treated based on the ex vivo results showed good response to the selected treatments. Our results demonstrate that ex vivo drug testing may potentially be applied to optimize treatment selection and achieve therapeutic benefit for relapsed

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2017 Oncotarget

190. Novel Algorithms for Improved Sensitivity in Non-Invasive Prenatal Testing (PubMed)

Novel Algorithms for Improved Sensitivity in Non-Invasive Prenatal Testing Non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT) of cell-free DNA in maternal plasma, which is a mixture of maternal DNA and a low percentage of fetal DNA, can detect fetal aneuploidies using massively parallel sequencing. Because of the low percentage of fetal DNA, methods with high sensitivity and precision are required. However, sequencing variation lowers sensitivity and hampers detection of trisomy samples. Therefore, we have (...) developed three algorithms to improve sensitivity and specificity: the chi-squared-based variation reduction (χ2VR), the regression-based Z-score (RBZ) and the Match QC score. The χ2VR reduces variability in sequence read counts per chromosome between samples, the RBZ allows for more precise trisomy prediction, and the Match QC score shows if the control group used is representative for a specific sample. We compared the performance of χ2VR to that of existing variation reduction algorithms (peak and GC

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2017 Scientific reports

191. Improved Serodiagnostic Sensitivity of Strip Test for Latent Tuberculosis (PubMed)

Improved Serodiagnostic Sensitivity of Strip Test for Latent Tuberculosis Diagnosis of Latent Tuberculosis Infection (LTBI) is difficult due to no clinical manifestations. Cases of LTBI are mostly sputum negative. The World Health Organization recommends the Tuberculin Skin Test (TST) as the current diagnostic standard for LTBI. Our previously developed serologic strip test for LTBI detection had suboptimal sensitivity. Additional Mycobacteriumtuberculosis (MTB) latency-associated antigens may (...) clinically diagnosed LTBI patients, strip test yielded a sensitivity of 75.0%. Among clinically diagnosed non-LTBI subjects, strip test yielded 88.1% specificity. The diagnostic positive and negative predictive values for strip test in reference to various clinical contexts were 77.4% and 86.7%, respectively.Addition of the six potential latency proteins could improve the diagnostic performance of existing strip test for LTBI. The use of suitable immunodominant antigens could maximize sensitivity

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2017 Journal of clinical and diagnostic research : JCDR

192. XtracTB Assay, a Mycobacterium tuberculosis molecular screening test with sensitivity approaching culture (PubMed)

XtracTB Assay, a Mycobacterium tuberculosis molecular screening test with sensitivity approaching culture Nucleic acid amplification tests are increasingly used to diagnose tuberculosis (TB) due to their speed and sensitivity compared to sputum smear microscopy. However, these tests fail to equal culture's sensitivity with sputum smear microscopy negative specimens and therefore cannot be used to rule out TB disease. For molecular tests to match culture's sensitivity, they must detect ≤10 (...) sample prep to reduce the co-extraction of qPCR inhibitors with the amplification of two MTB specific loci (IS6110 and senX3-regX3) to increase test sensitivity and minimize the likelihood of false negatives. The analytical sensitivity of the XtracTB Assay was 5 genomic copies/ml of sputum rivaling that of culture. Furthermore, 142 valid test results yield clinical sensitivity of 94.9% (95% CI: 90.1-99.9) and specificity of 100% (95% CI: 90.0-100.0).

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2017 Scientific reports

193. Rapid antibiotic sensitivity testing in microwell arrays (PubMed)

Rapid antibiotic sensitivity testing in microwell arrays The widespread bacterial resistance to a broad range of antibiotics necessitates rapid antibiotic susceptibility testing before effective treatment could start in the clinic. Among resistant bacteria, Staphylococcus aureus is one of the most important, and Methicillin-resistant (MRSA) strains are a common cause of life threatening infections. However, standard susceptibility testing for S. aureus is time consuming and thus the start (...) of effective antibiotic treatment is often delayed. To circumvent the limitations of current susceptibility testing systems, we designed an assay that enables measurements of bacterial growth with higher spatial and temporal resolution than standard techniques. The assay consists of arrays of microwells that confine small number of bacteria in small spaces, where their growth is monitored with high precision. These devices enabled us to investigate the effect of different antibiotics on S. aureus growth

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2017 Technology

194. Effects of Contrast Sensitivity on Colour Vision Testing (PubMed)

Effects of Contrast Sensitivity on Colour Vision Testing This study analyses how contrast sensitivity loss affects colour vision (CV) testing. Eleven participants were scored while cycling through randomly arranged pictures of CV tests with varying levels of contrast changes applied. Hardy-Rand-Rittler (HRR) scores declined significantly at each successive decrease in contrast level after the highest setting (p < 0.004). HRR scores were also lower than those for Ishihara and Farnsworth D-15 (...) tests at two contrast settings (p < 0.01). Contrast changes had the greatest impact on HRR scores, indicating that this test may not be an accurate reflection of CV in patients with contrast sensitivity loss.

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2017 Neuro-Ophthalmology

195. SiMa Cells for a Serotype Specific and Sensitive Cell-Based Neutralization Test for Botulinum Toxin A and E (PubMed)

SiMa Cells for a Serotype Specific and Sensitive Cell-Based Neutralization Test for Botulinum Toxin A and E Botulinum toxins (BoNTs), of which there are seven serotypes, are among the most potent neurotoxins, with serotypes A, B and E causing human botulism. Antitoxins form the first line of treatment for botulism, and functional, highly sensitive in vitro methods for toxin neutralization are needed to replace the current in vivo methods used for determination of antitoxin potency (...) . In this preliminary proof of concept study, we report the development of a neutralization test using the neuroblastoma SiMa cell line. The assay is serotype specific for either BoNT/A or BoNT/E, which both cleave unique sequences on SNAP-25 within SiMa cells. The end point is simple immunodetection of cleaved SNAP-25 from cell lysates with antibodies detecting only the newly exposed sequence on SNAP-25. Neutralizing antibodies prevent the toxin-induced cleavage of SNAP-25. The toxin neutralization assay

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2017 Toxins

196. High Sensitivity and Specificity of the Cepheid Xpert® HIV-1 Qualitative Point-of-Care Test among Newborns in Botswana (PubMed)

High Sensitivity and Specificity of the Cepheid Xpert® HIV-1 Qualitative Point-of-Care Test among Newborns in Botswana HIV point-of-care (POC) testing allows for early infant HIV diagnosis and treatment, but POC accuracy at birth and in the setting of antiretroviral prophylaxis for the prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission is unknown.We evaluated the Cepheid Xpert HIV-1 Qual POC test against the Roche Taqman HIV-1 DNA polymerase chain reaction (PCR) platform using dried blood spots (...) from 15 HIV-infected and 75 HIV-exposed uninfected newborns. These infants were screened for HIV at <96 hours of life at 5 hospital maternity wards in Botswana; all infants received postexposure antiretroviral prophylaxis with single-dose nevirapine and zidovudine, and most mothers received 3-drug antiretroviral therapy in pregnancy and at delivery.Fourteen of the 15 PCR positive samples tested positive by Cepheid POC, yielding a sensitivity of 93.3% (95% confidence interval: 68.1 to 99.8

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2017 Journal of acquired immune deficiency syndromes (1999)

197. Collagen gel droplet-embedded culture drug sensitivity testing in hard palate cancer-predicted antitumor efficacy of cetuximab: A case report (PubMed)

Collagen gel droplet-embedded culture drug sensitivity testing in hard palate cancer-predicted antitumor efficacy of cetuximab: A case report In vitro anticancer drug sensitivity assessments have been performed for various types of cancer, and an association with clinical response has been observed. The collagen gel droplet-embedded culture drug sensitivity test (CD-DST) is an in vitro anticancer drug sensitivity test that has recently reported to be useful in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC (...) ). CD-DST allows for the analysis of a smaller number of cells compared with other anticancer drug sensitivity tests. The present study reported a successful analysis of anticancer drug sensitivity using CD-DST on cervical lymph node tissue dissected following neoadjuvant chemotherapy from a 55-year-old man with advanced hard palate cancer. Tumor resection and bilateral neck dissection were performed following neoadjuvant chemotherapy (docetaxel + cisplatin + 5-fluorouracil; TPF) for hard palate

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2017 Molecular and clinical oncology

198. Relationship Between β‐cell Response and Insulin Sensitivity in Horses based on the Oral Sugar Test and the Euglycemic Hyperinsulinemic Clamp (PubMed)

Relationship Between β‐cell Response and Insulin Sensitivity in Horses based on the Oral Sugar Test and the Euglycemic Hyperinsulinemic Clamp A hyperbolic relationship between β-cell response and insulin sensitivity (IS) has been described in several species including rodents, dogs, and humans. This relationship has not been elucidated in the horse.To determine whether the hyperbolic relationship between β-cell response and IS exists in horses by using indices of β-cell response from (...) the oral sugar test (OST) and IS measurements from the euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp (EHC). A second aim was to compare how well IS estimates from the OST and EHC correlate.Forty-nine horses with different degrees of insulin regulation (normal-to-severe insulin dysregulation).Cross-sectional study. Horses were examined with an OST and an EHC.Decreased IS was associated with increased β-cell response in the horses. Nine of 12 comparisons between indices of β-cell response and IS measures fulfilled

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2017 Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine

199. Prenatal Programming of Postnatal Plasticity for Externalizing Behavior: Testing an Integrated Developmental Model of Genetic and Temperamental Sensitivity to the Environment (PubMed)

Prenatal Programming of Postnatal Plasticity for Externalizing Behavior: Testing an Integrated Developmental Model of Genetic and Temperamental Sensitivity to the Environment Although both gene- and temperament-environment interactions contribute to the development of youth externalizing problems, it is unclear how these factors jointly affect environmental sensitivity over time. In a 7-year longitudinal study of 232 children (aged 5-10) with and without ADHD, we employed moderated mediation (...) to test a developmentally sensitive mechanistic model of genetic and temperamental sensitivity to prenatal and postnatal environmental factors. Birth weight, a global measure of the prenatal environment, moderated predictions of child negative emotionality from a composite of dopaminergic polymorphisms (i.e., DRD4 and DAT1), such that birth weight inversely predicted negative emotionality only for children with genetic plasticity. Negative emotionality, in turn, predicted externalizing behavior 4-5

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2017 Developmental psychobiology

200. Methodologic approaches to evaluating new highly sensitive diagnostic tests: avoiding overdiagnosis (PubMed)

Methodologic approaches to evaluating new highly sensitive diagnostic tests: avoiding overdiagnosis 27378465 2018 11 13 1488-2329 189 2 2017 Jan 16 CMAJ : Canadian Medical Association journal = journal de l'Association medicale canadienne CMAJ Methodologic approaches to evaluating new highly sensitive diagnostic tests: avoiding overdiagnosis. E64-E68 10.1503/cmaj.150999 de Groot Joris A H JAH Julius Center for Health Sciences and Primary Care, Utrecht, the Netherlands j.degroot-17@umcutrecht.nl

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2017 CMAJ : Canadian Medical Association Journal

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