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Taste Sensation

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1. Subjective and Objective Assessment of Taste and Smell Sensation in Advanced Cancer. (PubMed)

Subjective and Objective Assessment of Taste and Smell Sensation in Advanced Cancer. Taste and smell abnormalities (TSA) occur throughout the cancer trajectory regardless of cancer primary site and contribute to cancer-associated malnutrition. TSA etiology is poorly understood. Tumor-related inflammation is a possible cause.This study examined the prevalence, characteristics, and severity of TSA in advanced cancer and explored the relationship between TSA and nutritional status. No previous (...) study combined subjective and objective measures for both taste and smell assessment in this population.Consecutive advanced cancer hospice patients were recruited. A modified version of the "Taste and Smell Survey" assessed subjective TSA. Validated taste strips and "Sniffin' Sticks" were the objective measures. The abridged patient-generated subjective global assessment evaluated nutritional status.A 93% prevalence of TSA in 30 patients with advanced cancer was identified. When subjective

2019 American Journal of Hospice and Palliative Medicine

2. Pilot Study of Taste Sensations in Patients With End-stage Renal Disease on Hemodialysis

Pilot Study of Taste Sensations in Patients With End-stage Renal Disease on Hemodialysis Pilot Study of Taste Sensations in Patients With End-stage Renal Disease on Hemodialysis - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov Hide glossary Glossary Study record managers: refer to the if submitting registration or results information. Search for terms x × Study Record Detail Saved Studies Save this study Warning You have reached the maximum number of saved studies (100). Please remove one or more studies (...) before adding more. Pilot Study of Taste Sensations in Patients With End-stage Renal Disease on Hemodialysis The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study sponsor and investigators. Listing a study does not mean it has been evaluated by the U.S. Federal Government. Read our for details. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT03495271 Recruitment Status : Completed First Posted : April 11, 2018 Last Update Posted : April 18, 2018 Sponsor: Purdue University Information

2017 Clinical Trials

3. Biomimetic Sensors for the Senses: Towards Better Understanding of Taste and Odor Sensation (PubMed)

Biomimetic Sensors for the Senses: Towards Better Understanding of Taste and Odor Sensation Taste and smell are very important chemical senses that provide indispensable information on food quality, potential mates and potential danger. In recent decades, much progress has been achieved regarding the underlying molecular and cellular mechanisms of taste and odor senses. Recently, biosensors have been developed for detecting odorants and tastants as well as for studying ligand-receptor (...) interactions. This review summarizes the currently available biosensing approaches, which can be classified into two main categories: in vitro and in vivo approaches. The former is based on utilizing biological components such as taste and olfactory tissues, cells and receptors, as sensitive elements. The latter is dependent on signals recorded from animals' signaling pathways using implanted microelectrodes into living animals. Advantages and disadvantages of these two approaches, as well as differences

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2017 Sensors (Basel, Switzerland)

4. Taste, Fat Sensation and Texture Study

Taste, Fat Sensation and Texture Study Taste, Fat Sensation and Texture Study - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov Hide glossary Glossary Study record managers: refer to the if submitting registration or results information. Search for terms x × Study Record Detail Saved Studies Save this study Warning You have reached the maximum number of saved studies (100). Please remove one or more studies before adding more. Taste, Fat Sensation and Texture Study The safety and scientific validity (...) the perceived intensities of the 5 basic tastes, i.e. sweet, salt, sour, bitter and umami, as well as fat sensation and texture, in an array of about 1,000 often consumed Dutch and Malaysian foods. The investigators aim to do this with a trained sensory panel, which is a well-accepted way of assessing perception of sensory attributes. With the current study, the investigators aim to build a table, which is comparable to the food composition table, but contains data that describes foods and meals in terms

2017 Clinical Trials

5. Steviol glycosides enhance pancreatic beta-cell function and taste sensation by potentiation of TRPM5 channel activity (PubMed)

Steviol glycosides enhance pancreatic beta-cell function and taste sensation by potentiation of TRPM5 channel activity Steviol glycosides (SGs), such as stevioside and rebaudioside A, are natural, non-caloric sweet-tasting organic molecules, present in extracts of the scrub plant Stevia rebaudiana, which are widely used as sweeteners in consumer foods and beverages. TRPM5 is a Ca2+-activated cation channel expressed in type II taste receptor cells and pancreatic β-cells. Here we show (...) that stevioside, rebaudioside A and their aglycon steviol potentiate the activity of TRPM5. We find that SGs potentiate perception of bitter, sweet and umami taste, and enhance glucose-induced insulin secretion in a Trpm5-dependent manner. Daily consumption of stevioside prevents development of high-fat-diet-induced diabetic hyperglycaemia in wild-type mice, but not in Trpm5-/- mice. These results elucidate a molecular mechanism of action of SGs and identify TRPM5 as a potential target to prevent and treat

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2017 Nature communications

6. Fat Sensation: Fatty Acid Taste and Olfaction Sensitivity and the Link with Disinhibited Eating Behaviour (PubMed)

Fat Sensation: Fatty Acid Taste and Olfaction Sensitivity and the Link with Disinhibited Eating Behaviour Perception of fat taste, aroma, and texture are proposed to influence food preferences, thus shaping dietary intake and eating behaviour and consequently long-term health. In this study, we investigated associations between fatty acid taste, olfaction, mouthfeel of fat, dietary intake, eating behaviour, and body mass index (BMI). Fifty women attended three sessions to assess oleic acid (...) taste and olfaction thresholds, the olfactory threshold for n-butanol and subjective mouthfeel ratings of custard samples. Dietary intake and eating behaviour were evaluated using a Food Frequency and Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire, respectively. Binomial regression analysis was used to model fat taste and olfaction data. Taste and olfactory detection for oleic acid were positively correlated (r = 0.325; p < 0.02). Oleic acid taste hypersensitive women had significantly increased n-butanol

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2017 Nutrients

7. Effects of aroma and taste, independently or in combination, on appetite sensation and subsequent food intake (PubMed)

Effects of aroma and taste, independently or in combination, on appetite sensation and subsequent food intake Food flavour is important in appetite control. The effects of aroma and taste, independently or in combination, on appetite sensation and subsequent food intake, were studied. Twenty-six females (24 ± 4 years, 20.9 ± 1.9 kg⋅m-2) consumed, over 15 min period, one of four sample drinks as a preload, followed by an ad libitum consumption of a pasta meal (after 65 min). Sample drinks were (...) : water (S1, 0 kcal), water with strawberry aroma (S2, 0 kcal), water with sucrose and citric acid (S3, 48 kcal) and water with strawberry aroma, sucrose and citric acid (S4, 48 kcal). Appetite sensation did not differ between the S1 (water), S2 (aroma) and S3 (taste) conditions. Compared with S1 (water), S2 (aroma) and S3 (taste), S4 (aroma + taste) suppressed hunger sensation over the 15 min sample drink consumption period (satiation) (p < 0.05). S4 (aroma + taste) further reduced hunger sensation

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2017 Appetite

8. Mental Reactivation and Pleasantness Judgment of Experience Related to Vision, Hearing, Skin Sensations, Taste and Olfaction (PubMed)

Mental Reactivation and Pleasantness Judgment of Experience Related to Vision, Hearing, Skin Sensations, Taste and Olfaction Language acquisition is based on our knowledge about the world and forms through multiple sensory-motor interactions with the environment. We link the properties of individual experience formed at different stages of ontogeny with the phased development of sensory modalities and with the acquisition of words describing the appropriate forms of sensitivity. To test whether (...) early-formed experience related to skin sensations, olfaction and taste differs from later-formed experience related to vision and hearing, we asked Russian-speaking participants to categorize or to assess the pleasantness of experience mentally reactivated by sense-related adjectives found in common dictionaries. It was found that categorizing adjectives in relation to vision, hearing and skin sensations took longer than categorizing adjectives in relation to olfaction and taste. In addition

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2016 PloS one

9. The Miracle Fruit: An Undergraduate Laboratory Exercise in Taste Sensation and Perception (PubMed)

The Miracle Fruit: An Undergraduate Laboratory Exercise in Taste Sensation and Perception "Miracle Fruit" is a taste-altering berry that causes sour foods to be perceived as sweet. The present paper describes a laboratory exercise that uses Miracle Fruit to educate students about the sensation and perception of taste. This laboratory exercise reinforces course material pertaining to the function of sweet taste receptors covered in a Sensation and Perception course at Christopher Newport (...) University. Here we provide a step-by-step explanation of the methodology, and an example of data collected and analyzed by one group of students who participated in this laboratory exercise. The origins of the Miracle Fruit, the structure and the physiological function of miraculin (the glycoprotein responsible for the taste-modifying effect found in the pulp of the Miracle Fruit) were discussed before the laboratory exercise. Students then sampled foods known to target different types of tastes (i.e

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2016 Journal of Undergraduate Neuroscience Education

10. Taste Sensation

Taste Sensation Taste Sensation Toggle navigation Brain Head & Neck Chest Endocrine Abdomen Musculoskeletal Skin Infectious Disease Hematology & Oncology Cohorts Diagnostics Emergency Findings Procedures Prevention & Management Pharmacy Resuscitation Trauma Emergency Procedures Ultrasound Cardiovascular Emergencies Lung Emergencies Infectious Disease Pediatrics Neurologic Emergencies Skin Exposure Miscellaneous Abuse Cancer Administration 4 Taste Sensation Taste Sensation Aka: Taste Sensation (...) , Sense of Taste , Gustatory Sensation II. Physiology differentiates only bitter, salt, sour, sweet Taste-related substances dissolve in s (on , , , epiglottis) is primary trigger for Taste Sensation III. Anatomy: Taste Innervation Innervation (parasympathetic fibers) Anterior two thirds of : Lingual nerve ( branch of or ) Posterior one third of : Greater superficial petrosal nerve Pharynx and Adjunctive sensation of , stinging and sharpness Images: Related links to external sites (from Bing

2018 FP Notebook

11. Sensation of smell and taste during intravenous injection of iodinated contrast media in CT examinations (PubMed)

Sensation of smell and taste during intravenous injection of iodinated contrast media in CT examinations To assess the incidence and types of sensation of smell and taste during i.v. injection of five kinds of contrast media (CM) in CT examinations.735 patients who underwent contrast-enhanced CT (CE-CT) between 14 March 2016 and 5 April 2016 were enrolled. Medical staff asked patients whether they felt heat sensation and sensation of smell and taste during i.v. injection of CM (one (...) of the following: iopromide, iomeprol, iopamidol, iohexol and ioversol) after their CE-CT. If the patients stated having felt the sensation of smell or taste, they were also asked what kind of smell or taste they sensed. Next, 30 ml of each CM was poured into high-purity pet cups for radiological technologists to smell directly. Radiological technologists were asked whether or not each CM had any smell.The sensations of smell and taste incidence for iopromide were 24.3% and 18.9%, respectively, which were

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2016 The British journal of radiology

12. Assessment of taste disorders

the abnormal taste reported when not eating. These may be reported as taste phantoms. It is important to distinguish the nature of the complaint. In contrast to what was thought for almost a century, it is now recognised that humans have at least 5 basic taste qualities that can be distinguished by taste receptors. Lewis D, Dandy WE. The course of the nerve fibers transmitting sensation of taste. Arch Surg. 1930;21:249-288. In contrast to the previous theory that distinct areas on the tongue (...) of taste. Saliva is the natural oral solvent that dissolves food components to reach the taste receptors. Taste is also influenced by salivary composition, as a specific quality must be above normal saliva concentration in order to be perceived. Epidermal growth factor and nerve growth factor in saliva in taste function may play a role. Thus, both saliva quantity and quality can influence gustatory sensation. Bardow A, Nyvad B, Nauntofte B. Relationships between medication intake, complaints of dry

2018 BMJ Best Practice

13. Taste of breath: the temporal order of taste and smell synchronized with breathing as a determinant for taste and olfactory integration (PubMed)

in various combinations of odor routes, immediately before and immediately after drinking. The results showed that a retronasal odor after drinking enhanced taste, but an orthonasal odor before drinking did not. The retronasal odor before drinking and the orthonasal odor after drinking did not enhance the sweet taste. These results show that congruency with the natural order of stimulus and kinetic sensation is a determining factor for odor-induced taste enhancement. (...) Taste of breath: the temporal order of taste and smell synchronized with breathing as a determinant for taste and olfactory integration Many studies have reported that subjective taste intensity is enhanced by odors which are congruent, for example a sweet taste and a vanilla odor. Some reports have suggested that subjective taste is more strongly enhanced by retronasal than by orthonasal odors; others have suggested that taste enhancements by both odor routes are identical. Differences between

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2017 Scientific reports

14. A Matter of Taste: Lineage-Specific Loss of Function of Taste Receptor Genes in Vertebrates (PubMed)

receptors that recognize ligands triggering taste sensations has helped to reconstruct several evolutionary adaptations to dietary changes. In addition, an increasing number of studies have focused on pseudogenes, genomic DNA sequences that have traditionally been considered defunct relatives of functional genes mostly because of the presence of deleterious mutations interrupting their open reading frames. The study of taste receptor pseudogenes has helped to shed light on how the evolutionary history (...) A Matter of Taste: Lineage-Specific Loss of Function of Taste Receptor Genes in Vertebrates Vertebrates can perceive at least five different taste qualities, each of which is thought to have a specific role in the evolution of different species. The avoidance of potentially poisonous foods, which are generally bitter or sour tasting, and the search for more nutritious ones, those with high-fat and high-sugar content, are two of the most well-known examples. The study of taste genes encoding

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2017 Frontiers in Molecular Biosciences

15. Genomic evidence of bitter taste in snakes and phylogenetic analysis of bitter taste receptor genes in reptiles (PubMed)

Genomic evidence of bitter taste in snakes and phylogenetic analysis of bitter taste receptor genes in reptiles As nontraditional model organisms with extreme physiological and morphological phenotypes, snakes are believed to possess an inferior taste system. However, the bitter taste sensation is essential to distinguish the nutritious and poisonous food resources and the genomic evidence of bitter taste in snakes is largely scarce. To explore the genetic basis of the bitter taste of snakes (...) and four large clades. Evolutionary changes (birth and death) of intact Tas2r genes in reptiles were determined by reconciliation analysis. Additionally, the taste signaling pathway calcium homeostasis modulator 1 (Calhm1) gene of snakes was putatively functional, suggesting that snakes still possess bitter taste sensation. Furthermore, Phylogenetically Independent Contrasts (PIC) analyses reviewed a significant correlation between the number of Tas2r genes and the amount of potential toxins

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2017 PeerJ

16. Conditioned taste aversions (PubMed)

the taste again, individuals will show aversive reactions such as expressions of loathing, will experience mimicked illness sensations such as nausea, and subsequently, will avoid further exposure to the taste. The ability to acquire CTA occurs across species and across ages within a species. In the rat animal model, however, age differences exist in the capability of acquiring CTAs when increasingly longer intervals are imposed between consumption of a novel sweet solution and onset of illness. Pups (...) Conditioned taste aversions When one becomes ill after consuming a meal, there is a propensity to target a particular taste as the cause of the illness. The qualities of the taste most likely targeted include more novel, less preferred, and higher protein content. This association between a particular taste and illness is a form of learning that is termed conditioned taste aversion (CTA). A consequence of the learned association is that the taste will become aversive. When experiencing

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2018 World journal of otorhinolaryngology - head and neck surgery

17. Taste receptors in the upper airway (PubMed)

Taste receptors in the upper airway Taste receptors were named for their originally-identified expression on the tongue and role in the sensation of taste (gustation). They are now known to be involved in many chemosensory processes outside the tongue. Expression of the receptors for bitter, sweet, and umami was recently identified in many organs, including the brain, airway, gastrointestinal tract, and reproductive systems. We do not yet know the full roles of these receptors in all (...) of these tissues, nor do we know all of the endogenous ligands that activate them. However, taste receptors are emerging as potentially important therapeutic targets. Moreover, they may mediate some off target effects of drugs, as many medications in common clinical use are known to be bitter. The focus of this review is on recent basic and clinical data describing the expression of bitter (T2R) and sweet (T1R) receptors in the airway and their activation by secreted bacterial compounds. These receptors play

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2018 World journal of otorhinolaryngology - head and neck surgery

18. Interventions for the management of taste disturbances. (PubMed)

% CI 0.23 to 0.65; moderate quality evidence). Two other trials described the results as taste acuity improvement and we conducted subgroup analyses due to clinical heterogeneity. One trial described the results as taste recognition improvement for each taste sensation and we analysed this separately. We also analysed one cross-over trial separately using the first half of the results. None of the zinc trials tested taste discrimination. Only one trial tested taste discrimination using acupuncture (...) Interventions for the management of taste disturbances. The sense of taste is very much essential to the overall health of the individual. It is a necessary component to enjoying one's food, which in turn provides nutrition to an individual. Any disturbance in taste perception can hamper the quality of life in such patients by influencing their appetite, body weight and psychological well-being. Taste disorders have been treated using different modalities of treatment and there is no consensus

2014 Cochrane

19. Repeated Exposure to Umami Taste on Taste Perception, Hedonics, and Satiety

) ] Subjects consume a test meal and rate appetite sensations on a visual analog scale throughout the test meal before and after a month-long dietary supplementation. A satiety quotient will be derived from these values with the formula: Satiety Quotient = (rating pre-eating episode−rating post-eating episode) / (intake of eating episode) to determine how satiety changes with repeated exposure to umami taste Other Outcome Measures: Height [ Time Frame: 1 month (at baseline and post intervention) ] Body (...) Repeated Exposure to Umami Taste on Taste Perception, Hedonics, and Satiety Repeated Exposure to Umami Taste on Taste Perception, Hedonics, and Satiety - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov Hide glossary Glossary Study record managers: refer to the if submitting registration or results information. Search for terms x × Study Record Detail Saved Studies Save this study Warning You have reached the maximum number of saved studies (100). Please remove one or more studies before adding more

2016 Clinical Trials

20. Meal composition influences postprandial sensations independently of valence and gustation. (PubMed)

Meal composition influences postprandial sensations independently of valence and gustation. Palatability of meals with identical composition has been shown to influence postprandial sensations. Our aim was to determine to what extent meal composition influences postprandial sensations independently of palatability.Randomized, crossover, double-blind trial comparing the postprandial responses to a low-fat vs a high-fat test meal, with the same physical and organoleptic characteristics (taste (...) , smell, texture, color, and temperature). The test meal consisted in 150 g hummus containing either 17.7 g fat (low-fat) or 22.3 g fat (high-fat), 19.8 g toasts, 120 mL water and 50 g apple puree. In 12 non-obese healthy men, palatability, homeostatic sensations (hunger/satiety, fullness) and hedonic sensations (digestive well-being, mood) were measured on 10 cm scales before and during the 60-min postprandial period. Comparisons between meals were performed with a two-way repeated measures ANCOVA

2018 Neurogastroenterology and motility : the official journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society

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