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Syrup of Ipecac

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101. Evaluation of a poison prevention lesson for kindergarten and third grade students Full Text available with Trip Pro

poisons, although fewer than 50% said they had syrup of ipecac in their homes.These results show that key concepts related to poison prevention can be communicated effectively to primary school students and parents report having homes safe from many poisons.

1998 Injury Prevention

102. Availability of antidotes at acute care hospitals in Ontario Full Text available with Trip Pro

immune Fab antibody fragments, a life-saving antidote for patients with severe digoxin toxicity, whereas most of the hospitals stocked sufficient supplies of ipecac syrup (88%) and flumazenil (92%), arguably the least crucial antidotes in the survey. Only 1 hospital stocked adequate amounts of all 10 antidotes. Certain hospital characteristics were associated with adequate antidote stocking (increased annual emergency department volume, teaching hospital status and designation as a trauma centre

2001 CMAJ: Canadian Medical Association Journal

103. Poisoning prevention knowledge and practices of parents after a childhood poisoning incident. (Abstract)

Poisoning prevention knowledge and practices of parents after a childhood poisoning incident. This study investigated the effectiveness of a poison center-initiated mailed intervention on improving the preventive practices of families whose preschool child had recently experienced a poisoning incident. A low-cost, mailed poisoning prevention packet consisting of telephone stickers, a +f41 coupon for syrup of ipecac, one slide-style cabinet lock, a nine-step checklist for "poison-proofing (...) " the home, pamphlets, and a cover letter was tested prospectively on a population of parents calling a poison center for advice about possible poisoning exposures involving their preschool children. Parents without ipecac 1 week after the incident were randomized so that half received the mailed intervention. A "blind" follow-up telephone interview was conducted 3 months later. Of the 336 original families enrolled in the study, 301 (90% retention) completed the follow-up interview. Those who had

1992 Pediatrics Controlled trial quality: uncertain

104. Plasma salicylate from methyl salicylate cream compared to oil of wintergreen. (Abstract)

Plasma salicylate from methyl salicylate cream compared to oil of wintergreen. Poison Control Centers follow the acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) treatment guideline to manage unintentional ingestions of topical methyl salicylate liniments. For example, one teaspoon of 30% methyl salicylate cream such as Ben Gay provides an "ASA equivalent dose" of 180 mg/kg for a 10 kg child. The ASA treatment guideline advises emesis with syrup of Ipecac and 24 h home followup for this dose. Both the ASA conversion

2003 Journal of toxicology. Clinical toxicology Controlled trial quality: uncertain

105. Validity of self reported home safety practices Full Text available with Trip Pro

' home safety practices of using smoke alarms and stair gates, and having syrup of ipecac. SETTING: Families from a pediatric continuity clinic in a large, urban teaching hospital with infants from birth to 6 months were enrolled in the study. METHODS: As part of a randomized controlled trial to promote home safety, parents' responses to personal interviews were compared to observations made in the respondents' homes two to four weeks after the interview. Positive and negative predictive values

2003 Injury prevention journal of the International Society for Child and Adolescent Injury Prevention Controlled trial quality: uncertain

106. Poison treatment in the home. American Academy of Pediatrics Committee on Injury, Violence, and Poison Prevention. (Abstract)

initiatives. A key AAP recommendation has been to keep a 1-oz bottle of syrup of ipecac in the home to be used only on the advice of a physician or poison control center. Recently, there has been interest regarding activated charcoal in the home as a poison treatment strategy. After reviewing the evidence, the AAP believes that ipecac should no longer be used routinely as a home treatment strategy, that existing ipecac in the home should be disposed of safely, and that it is premature to recommend

2003 Pediatrics

107. The effect of carbonated beverages on ipecac-induced emesis. (Abstract)

The effect of carbonated beverages on ipecac-induced emesis. To determine the effect of carbonated beverages on syrup of ipecac, 24 pediatric patients were randomly administered six ounces of water or a carbonated beverage with syrup of ipecac. Changes in the abdominal girth, the volume of emesis, and time of emesis were monitored in all patients. In the carbonated beverage group a significant difference (P less than 0.05) was observed between the baseline and 10-min post-ipecac administration (...) abdominal girth measurements. The time of emesis and volume of emesis were not significantly different in the water or carbonated beverage groups. We conclude that carbonated beverage administration does not alter the effectiveness of syrup of ipecac.

1981 Annals of Emergency Medicine Controlled trial quality: uncertain

108. Superiority of activated charcoal alone compared with ipecac and activated charcoal in the treatment of acute toxic ingestions. (Abstract)

Superiority of activated charcoal alone compared with ipecac and activated charcoal in the treatment of acute toxic ingestions. A prospective, randomized clinical trial compared the clinical effectiveness of syrup of ipecac and activated charcoal to that of activated charcoal alone in the treatment of acute toxic ingestions. Two hundred adult patients with mild to moderate oral overdoses were entered into the trial. Patients receiving only activated charcoal were discharged from the emergency (...) department in significantly (P less than or equal to .05) less time than those receiving both syrup of ipecac and activated charcoal (6.0 +/- 0.3 vs 6.8 +/- 0.2 hours, respectively). The percentage of patients requiring nonpsychiatric hospitalizations was not significantly different between the two groups (11.2% vs 14.0%, respectively). For the hospitalized patients, the length of time spent in the ICU and in the hospital was not statistically different between the two groups. A complication rate of 5.4

1989 Annals of Emergency Medicine Controlled trial quality: uncertain

109. Pediatric ingestions: charcoal alone versus ipecac and charcoal. (Abstract)

Pediatric ingestions: charcoal alone versus ipecac and charcoal. To determine the effect of syrup of ipecac (SOI) on time to receive and retention of activated charcoal (AC) and on total ED time.During a two-year period, patients were enrolled in a prospective, randomized, unblinded, controlled trial.All patients were recruited and studied in a pediatric emergency department.Seventy children less than 6 years old (mean age, 2.4 +/- 0.2 years) who presented with mild-to-moderate acute oral (...) less than .05).Ipecac delays the administration of AC, hinders its retention, and prolongs ED time in pediatric ingestion patients. These data support the recommendation that AC alone should be the gastrointestinal decontamination method of choice for the mild-to-moderate pediatric ingestion patient presenting to an ED.

1991 Annals of Emergency Medicine Controlled trial quality: uncertain

110. Efficacy of charcoal cathartic versus ipecac in reducing serum acetaminophen in a simulated overdose. (Abstract)

therapy with ipecac with therapy with activated charcoal-cathartic in a simulated acetaminophen overdosage. Ten healthy volunteers participated in a randomized, crossover trial. Subjects ingested 3.0 g acetaminophen, followed by either no intervention, 30 mL syrup of ipecac, or 50 g activated charcoal-sorbitol solution at one hour. Serial acetaminophen levels were determined at intervals over eight hours. Both interventions significantly reduced the area under the curve compared with control (P less (...) Efficacy of charcoal cathartic versus ipecac in reducing serum acetaminophen in a simulated overdose. The traditional role of gastric emptying as the initial step in the management of the poisoned patient has recently been questioned; immediate activated charcoal administration has been recommended by some. In the setting of acetaminophen overdose, ipecac-induced emesis may interfere with subsequent oral antidotal therapy. Therefore, we conducted a study to compare the efficacy of initial

1989 Annals of Emergency Medicine Controlled trial quality: uncertain

111. Effect of zatosetron on ipecac-induced emesis in dogs and healthy men. (Abstract)

evaluated the effect of ipecac administration on serotonin release and metabolism by measuring urinary 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) excretion in healthy men. In separate randomized, placebo-controlled trials, 20 dogs received zatosetron intravenously and eight healthy men received zatosetron (50 mg) orally, followed by ipecac syrup. In both trials, emetic response to ipecac was recorded, including the number and time of vomits and retches. Zatosetron treatment inhibited and delayed ipecac-induced (...) Effect of zatosetron on ipecac-induced emesis in dogs and healthy men. Serotonin receptor (5-HT3) antagonists provide effective antiemetic therapy in cancer patients receiving emetogenic chemotherapy, such as cisplatin. Animal studies have shown that 5-HT3 receptor antagonists also have antiemetic activity in ipecac-induced emesis. The authors investigated the antiemetic activity of zatosetron maleate, a 5-HT3 receptor antagonist, on ipecac-induced emesis in dogs and healthy men. They also

1994 Journal of clinical pharmacology Controlled trial quality: uncertain

112. Efficacy of ipecac during the first hour after drug ingestion in human volunteers. (Abstract)

Efficacy of ipecac during the first hour after drug ingestion in human volunteers. To determine the decrease of drug absorption when syrup of ipecac is administered at various times within one hour of drug ingestion.Ten healthy human volunteers were recruited for a four-limbed randomized crossover study. The three experimental limbs consisted of administration of 30 mL syrup of ipecac, at 5, 30, or 60 minutes after ingestion of 3900 mg acetaminophen as 12 x 325 mg tablets with 250 mL room (...) . This corresponds to decreases in bioavailability of 67, 11, and 21%. Only the 5-minute group differed significantly from control (p < 0.05). Sedation was observed as a significant adverse effect of ipecac administration.Our data do not support benefit from ipecac administration at 30 minutes and beyond. Our data suggest that benefit is lost at some point between 5 and 30 minutes. The sedative effect of ipecac may confound the observation of patients who have ingested sedative hypnotic agents.

1997 Journal of toxicology. Clinical toxicology Controlled trial quality: uncertain

113. Low-volume whole bowel irrigation and salicylate absorption: a comparison with ipecac-charcoal. (Abstract)

Low-volume whole bowel irrigation and salicylate absorption: a comparison with ipecac-charcoal. To evaluate two methods of gastrointestinal decontamination, low-volume whole bowel irrigation (WBI) and activated charcoal, for their ability to prevent absorption of salicylate.Randomized, two-phase crossover study.A clinical research unit in a university-based teaching hospital.Six healthy, volunteer men.Subjects were assigned to receive 3000 ml WBI or syrup of ipecac 30 ml followed by activated (...) charcoal 50 g in sorbitol, and were crossed over to the other treatment phase after 1 week. All treatments began 30 minutes after ingestion of 3.25 g aspirin. Urine was collected over 24 hours for analysis of total urinary excretion of salicylate. Serial blood samples were collected for salicylate determination and were subjected to pharmacokinetic analysis.Mean +/- SD recovery of salicylate were WBI 48.6 +/- 5.4% and ipecac-charcoal 37.0 +/- 2.6% from urine (p < 0.01).Ipecac-charcoal produced

1993 Pharmacotherapy Controlled trial quality: uncertain

114. Should home ipecac-induced emesis be routinely recommended in the management of toxic berry ingestions? (Abstract)

Should home ipecac-induced emesis be routinely recommended in the management of toxic berry ingestions? Poison center (PC) management of toxic berry ingestions may include recommendations to administer syrup of ipecac (SI) regardless of the number of berries ingested. We investigated whether the routine use of SI in the home management of asymptomatic single or few (< 6) berry ingestions may be unnecessary. A prospective, randomized clinical trial compared SI + home observation (HO) to HO alone

1999 Veterinary and human toxicology Controlled trial quality: uncertain

115. Activated charcoal and syrup of ipecac in prevention of cimetidine and pindolol absorption in man after administration of metoclopramide as an antiemetic agent. (Abstract)

Activated charcoal and syrup of ipecac in prevention of cimetidine and pindolol absorption in man after administration of metoclopramide as an antiemetic agent. The effects of activated charcoal and ipecac syrup by mouth on cimetidine and pindolol absorption were studied in seven subjects, who had ingested 20 mg metoclopramide 1 h earlier, and compared with the adsorption capacity of charcoal in vitro. Activated charcoal, 50 g, given 5 min after 400 mg cimetidine + 10 mg pindolol, reduced (...) their absorption by 99% or more, based on AUC0-48h and the 48-h urinary excretion of the drugs. Syrup of ipecac caused emesis on each occasion. On the average, ipecac reduced the absorption of cimetidine and pindolol by 75% and 60%, respectively. Based on studies in vitro it seems probable that the adsorbing capacity of charcoal for cimetidine but not for pindolol will be saturated if 50 g charcoal is given after an overdose of about 100 fold the therapeutic dose. Because the use of ipecac allowed

1984 Journal of toxicology. Clinical toxicology Controlled trial quality: uncertain

116. Comparison of activated charcoal and ipecac syrup in prevention of drug absorption. (Abstract)

Comparison of activated charcoal and ipecac syrup in prevention of drug absorption. The efficacy of activated charcoal and ipecac syrup in the prevention of drug absorption was studied in 6 healthy adult volunteers, using a randomized, cross-over design. Paracetamol 1000 mg, tetracycline 500 mg and aminophylline 350 mg were ingested on an empty stomach with 100 ml water. Then, after 5 or 30 min, the subjects ingested, either activated charcoal suspension (50 g charcoal), syrup of ipecac (...) , or, only after 5 min, water 300 ml. Activated charcoal, given either after 5 or 30 min, significantly (p less than 0.01 or less 0.05) reduced the absorption of these 3 drugs measured, for example as AUC0-24 h. Syrup of ipecac caused emesis on each occasion, with a mean delay of 15 min. When ipecac was given 5 min after the drugs, its effect on absorption was significant, but when it was given after 30 min only the absorption of tetracycline was reduced. Activated charcoal was significantly (p less than

1983 European journal of clinical pharmacology Controlled trial quality: uncertain

117. Preserving the emetic effect of syrup of ipecac with concurrent activated charcoal administration: a preliminary study. (Abstract)

Preserving the emetic effect of syrup of ipecac with concurrent activated charcoal administration: a preliminary study. Activated charcoal is reported to block the emetic effect of syrup of ipecac. Therefore, activated charcoal administration is commonly delayed until syrup of ipecac induced emesis is complete. The advantages of early administration of activated charcoal have been well documented. Preservation of the emetic effect of syrup of ipecac in the presence of activated charcoal may (...) produce a synergistic effect by enhancing toxin elimination. A study was conducted in ten human volunteers to determine if activated charcoal prevents the emetic effect of syrup of ipecac when a temporal separation exists between administration of the two substances. Syrup of ipecac 60 ml plus water 480 ml was administered via an 18 French nasogastric tube followed by an aqueous slurry of activated charcoal 50 g five minutes later. Eight (80%) of the subjects had emesis in a mean time of 20.25 minutes

1986 Journal of toxicology. Clinical toxicology Controlled trial quality: uncertain

118. Myopathy due to ipecac syrup poisoning in a patient with anorexia nervosa. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Myopathy due to ipecac syrup poisoning in a patient with anorexia nervosa. 6116535 1981 12 21 2018 11 13 0008-4409 125 5 1981 Sep 01 Canadian Medical Association journal Can Med Assoc J Myopathy due to ipecac syrup poisoning in a patient with anorexia nervosa. 453-4 Brotman M C MC Forbath N N Garfinkel P E PE Humphrey J G JG eng Case Reports Journal Article Canada Can Med Assoc J 0414110 0008-4409 8012-96-2 Ipecac AIM IM Adolescent Anorexia Nervosa complications Cardiomyopathies chemically (...) induced Female Humans Ipecac poisoning Muscular Diseases chemically induced 1981 9 1 1981 9 1 0 1 1981 9 1 0 0 ppublish 6116535 PMC1862452 Acta Sociomed Scand. 1971;3(1):17-26 5134873 Br Heart J. 1974 Jul;36(7):719-23 4413202 Br J Psychiatry. 1976 Jun;128:549-54 1276563 Adv Cardiol. 1977;19:280-2 835430 Clin Toxicol. 1977;10(2):221-42 15766 Cardiology. 1978;63(1):1-4 618586 Am J Psychiatry. 1980 Mar;137(3):377-8 7356072 JAMA. 1980 May 16;243(19):1927-8 6102612 Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1980 Sep;37(9):1036

1981 Canadian Medical Association Journal

119. Antiemetic efficacy of smoked marijuana: subjective and behavioral effects on nausea induced by syrup of ipecac. (Abstract)

Antiemetic efficacy of smoked marijuana: subjective and behavioral effects on nausea induced by syrup of ipecac. Although the public debate about the legalization of marijuana has continued for as long as 25 years, few controlled studies have been conducted to assess its potential medical benefits. The present study examined the antiemetic effect of smoked marijuana cigarettes (8.4 and 16.9 mg Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol [THC]) compared to a highly potent antiemetic drug, ondansetron (8 mg (...) ) in 13 healthy volunteers. Nausea and emesis were induced by syrup of ipecac. Marijuana significantly reduced ratings of "queasiness" and slightly reduced the incidence of vomiting compared to placebo. Ondansetron completely eliminated the emetic effects of ipecac. These findings support and extend previous results, indicating that smoked marijuana reduces feelings of nausea and also reduces emesis in this model. However, its effects are very modest relative to ondansetron, and the psychoactive

2001 Pharmacology, biochemistry, and behavior Controlled trial quality: uncertain

120. Home syrup of ipecac use does not reduce emergency department use or improve outcome. (Abstract)

Home syrup of ipecac use does not reduce emergency department use or improve outcome. The usefulness of syrup of ipecac as a home treatment for poisoning and the need to keep it in the home has been increasingly challenged. Many poison centers do not recommend any use of syrup of ipecac.To determine if use of syrup of ipecac in children at home is associated with reduced utilization of emergency department (ED) resources or improved outcome after unintended exposure to a pharmaceutical.Cohort (...) comparison.American Association of Poison Control Centers' Toxic Exposure Surveillance System Database.Blinded data for each of the 64 US poison centers included ED referral recommendation rate, actual rate of ED use, actual home use of syrup of ipecac, and outcome. These data were derived from cases in 2000 and 2001 involving children <6 years of age who unintentionally ingested a pharmaceutical agent and in which the call to a poison center came from home (752 602 children).Correlation between rate of home use

2003 Pediatrics

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