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Syrup of Ipecac

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81. Toxicity, Anticholinergic (Overview)

ipecac syrup. In patients with recent (< 1 hour), clinically significant ingestions that are anticipated to result in moderate-to-severe anticholinergic toxicity, single-dose activated charcoal may be administered to minimize absorption of the ingested medication. In patients with depressed level of consciousness or impaired airway reflexes, definitive control of the airway (endotracheal intubation with a cuffed endotracheal tube) should be obtained prior to adminstration of activated charcoal via

2014 eMedicine Emergency Medicine

82. Disk Battery Ingestion (Overview)

, no clinical evidence of mercury toxicity was observed. [ ] A spent cell, which no longer has enough power for the intended device, may still maintain considerable residual voltage. However, new cells are 3.2 times likely to be associated with clinically significant outcomes than spent cells. [ ] Retrograde movement of the battery from the stomach to the esophagus has been reported as a complication of use of ipecac syrup, necessitating emergent endoscopic removal. If the battery produces a mucosal burn

2014 eMedicine Emergency Medicine

83. Toxicity, Iron (Diagnosis)

Toxicol (Phila) . 2018 Dec 21. 55 (10):1-203. . . [Guideline] Höjer J, Troutman WG, Hoppu K, Erdman A, Benson BE, Mégarbane B, et al. Position paper update: ipecac syrup for gastrointestinal decontamination. Clin Toxicol (Phila) . 2013 Mar. 51(3):134-9. . Tenenbein M. Benefits of parenteral deferoxamine for acute iron poisoning. J Toxicol Clin Toxicol . 1996. 34(5):485-9. . Sankar J, Shukla A, Khurana R, Dubey N. Near fatal iron intoxication managed conservatively. BMJ Case Rep . 2013 Jan 31. 2013

2014 eMedicine Emergency Medicine

84. Toxicity of Weight Loss Agents Full Text available with Trip Pro

Toxicity of Weight Loss Agents With the rise of the obesity epidemic in the United States over the last several decades and the medical complications seen with it, weight loss and dieting have become a national public health concern.Because of their increased use and availability through internet sales, several different dieting agents were reviewed for potential toxicity. These included: syrup of ipecac, cathartics, human chorionic gonadotropin hormone, 2,4 Dinitrophenol, guar gum

2012 Journal of Medical Toxicology

85. Prevention of Poisoning Full Text available with Trip Pro

Prevention of Poisoning Education of the public in prevention of accidental poisoning has been unsuccessful. The use of child-resistant containers for prescription drugs, patent medicines and household products is the most promising approach to this problem. The value of Syrup of Ipecac is stressed to induce early emesis, following ingestion of poisons. Medication errors in hospital are another serious cause of accidental poisoning and various examples are discussed. Every physician must take

1974 Canadian Family Physician

86. Emergency treatment of petroleum distillate and turpentine ingestion Full Text available with Trip Pro

Emergency treatment of petroleum distillate and turpentine ingestion A comparative study was made of pulmonary complications following the use of ipecac syrup and gastric lavage for hydrocarbon ingestion. The selected 255 patients had chest radiography when first seen and again two to five days later. Of these patients 74 or 29% had been treated with ipecac syrup, 41 or 16% by gastric lavage. On follow-up radiographs 19% of the ipecac-treated group were unchanged or worsened, compared with 39 (...) % of the lavage group, suggesting that pneumonitis was significantly less severe in the ipecac-treated patients. Use of ipecac is preferred over gastric lavage for alert patients who have ingested an excessive amount of hydrocarbon.

1974 Canadian Medical Association Journal

87. Bulimia Nervosa

, the stomach ruptures or the esophagus is torn during a binge or purge episode, leading to life-threatening complications. Because substantial weight loss does not occur, the serious physical complications that often occur with anorexia nervosa are not present. However, cardiomyopathy may result from long-term abuse of syrup of ipecac if used to induce vomiting. Symptoms and Signs Patients with bulimia nervosa typically describe binge-purge behavior. Binges involve rapid consumption of an amount of food

2013 Merck Manual (19th Edition)

88. Cough in Adults

). Dextromethorphan , a congener of the opioid levorphanol , is effective as a tablet or syrup at a dose of 15 to 30 mg po 1 to 4 times/day for adults or 0.25 mg/kg po qid for children. Codeine has antitussive, analgesic, and sedative effects, but dependence is a potential problem, and nausea, vomiting, constipation, and tolerance are common adverse effects. Usual doses are 10 to 20 mg po q 4 to 6 h as needed for adults and 0.25 to 0.5 mg/kg po qid for children. Other opioids (hydrocodone, hydromorphone (...) , methadone , morphine ) have antitussive properties but are avoided because of high potential for dependence and abuse. Benzonatate , a congener of tetracaine that is available in liquid-filled capsules, is effective at a dose of 100 to 200 mg po tid. Expectorants are thought to decrease viscosity and facilitate expectoration (coughing up) of secretions but are of limited, if any, benefit in most circumstances. Guaifenesin (200 to 400 mg po q 4 h in syrup or tablet form) is most commonly used because

2013 Merck Manual (19th Edition)

89. General Principles of Poisoning

and, if a caustic substance has been ingested, is contraindicated (see ). If gastric emptying is used, gastric lavage is the preferred method. Gastric lavage may cause complications such as epistaxis, aspiration, or, rarely, oropharyngeal or esophageal injury. Syrup of ipecac has unpredictable effects, often causes prolonged vomiting, and may not remove substantial amounts of poison from the stomach. Syrup of ipecac may be warranted if the ingested agent is highly toxic and transport time to the emergency

2013 Merck Manual (19th Edition)

90. Paracetamol toxicity Full Text available with Trip Pro

charcoal. Inducing vomiting with has no role in paracetamol overdose because the vomiting it induces delays the effective administration of activated charcoal and oral acetylcysteine. Liver injury is extremely rare after acute accidental ingestion in children under 6 years of age. Children with accidental exposures do not require gastrointestinal decontamination with either gastric lavage, activated charcoal, or syrup of ipecac. Acetylcysteine [ ] is the antidote for paracetamol toxicity , also called

2012 Wikipedia

91. Guidelines for the management of paracetamol poisoning in Australia and New Zealand - explanation and elaboration Full Text available with Trip Pro

with potential accidental paracetamol intoxication, gastrointestinal decontamination with syrup of ipecac, activated charcoal or gastric lavage is not indicated. In adults, activated charcoal administered within 1–2 hours of ingestion reduces the absorbed paracetamol dose and the likelihood that N -acetylcysteine will subsequently be required. Nevertheless, if activated charcoal cannot be administered, treatment with N -acetylcysteine within 8 hours guarantees survival in any case. Therefore, activated

2008 MJA Clinical Guidelines

92. Comparative efficacy of maropitant and selected drugs in preventing emesis induced by centrally or peripherally acting emetogens in dogs. (Abstract)

Comparative efficacy of maropitant and selected drugs in preventing emesis induced by centrally or peripherally acting emetogens in dogs. Maropitant (Cerenia; a novel, selective neurokinin(1) receptor antagonist), chlorpromazine, metoclopramide and ondansetron were compared in two randomized, placebo-controlled studies for efficacy in preventing emesis induced by emetogens acting centrally (apomorphine; Study 1) or peripherally (syrup of ipecac; Study 2) in dogs. In each study, ten male and ten (...) female beagles were treated in a five-treatment, five-period crossover design. The five treatments were 0.9% saline (0.1 mL/kg), maropitant (1 mg/kg), metoclopramide (0.5 mg/kg), or chlorpromazine (0.5 mg/kg) all administered subcutaneously, or ondansetron (0.5 mg/kg) administered intravenously. One hour posttreatment dogs were challenged with apomorphine at 0.1 mg/kg intravenously (Study 1) or syrup of ipecac at 0.5 mL/kg orally (Study 2). Following emetogen challenge, dogs were observed for 30 min

2008 Journal of veterinary pharmacology and therapeutics

93. Evaluation of kiosk-based tailoring to promote household safety behaviors in an urban pediatric primary care practice. (Abstract)

control (n = 74) and intervention parents completed a telephone interview. Safety knowledge, beliefs, and practices were compared at follow-up. Compared to control group parents, intervention group parents were more knowledgeable about the inappropriateness of young children riding in the front seat of a car (16% versus 5%, p < 0.05), less likely to believe that teaching a child to mind you is the best way to prevent injuries (64% versus 86%, p < 0.05), and more likely to report that they "have syrup (...) of ipecac" (34% versus 9%, p < 0.001) and "know how to use" it (24% versus 4%, p < 0.002). This study provides further support for the use of tailored communication to address the prevention of injuries to young children but calls for continued investigation in the area.

2005 Patient education and counseling Controlled trial quality: uncertain

94. Gastrointestinal decontamination of the poisoned patient. (Abstract)

of syrup of ipecac-induced emesis, orogastric lavage, single-dose-activated charcoal, cathartics, and whole-bowel irrigation.

2008 Pediatric Emergency Care

95. Quality improvement process in the adherence to gastric decontamination guidelines for poison exposures as recommended by a poison control center. (Abstract)

Quality improvement process in the adherence to gastric decontamination guidelines for poison exposures as recommended by a poison control center. Adherence to new guidelines for the use of ipecac syrup, gastric lavage, cathartics, and activated charcoal by a poison control center was studied with a quality improvement framework.The rates of gastric decontamination were monitored through an electronic case record system. In February 2002, a revised guideline that narrowed the use of gastric (...) decontamination was implemented with a performance improvement process. The rates of recommendation and utilization during 12 months following implementation of the new guidelines were compared with those during 12 previous months.Recommendations for the use of ipecac syrup declined from 1.50% to 0.02% (OR; 95% CI = 0.02; 0.01, 0.03), single-dose-activated charcoal declined from 5.39% to 1.38% (0.25; 0.22, 0.28), gastric lavage declined from 4.19% to 0.22% (0.05; 0.04, 0.06), and a cathartic declined from

2006 Quality Management in Health Care

96. Sildenafil citrate ingestion in a pediatric patient. (Abstract)

(Viagra) 2 hours prior to arrival at an emergency room. Ipecac syrup had been given at home with one episode of vomiting. Activated charcoal was considered but withheld due to the delayed presentation to the hospital. The patient was observed in the hospital for 17.5 hours. Observed clinical effects included facial flushing, transient penile engorgement, bilateral rhonchi, and diarrhea. No significant cardiovascular effects were seen. A bronchodilator was given with resolution of rhonchi. No other (...) and diarrhea were related since neither has been described following sildenafil exposure. Significant cardiovascular symptoms were not seen. Early administration of ipecac syrup did not prevent symptoms from developing.

2004 Pediatric Emergency Care

97. Management of acutely poisoned patients without gastric emptying. (Abstract)

Management of acutely poisoned patients without gastric emptying. During an 18-month period, 592 acute oral drug overdose patients were studied prospectively in a controlled, randomized fashion to determine the efficacy of gastric emptying procedures in altering clinical outcome. Patients presenting on even-numbered days had no gastric emptying procedures performed, and they were compared to patients presenting on odd-numbered days who received either syrup of ipecac or gastric lavage. Patients (...) were carefully followed for evidence of subsequent clinical improvement or deterioration after initial management. Syrup of ipecac did not significantly alter the clinical outcome of patients who were awake and alert on presentation to the emergency department (ED). Gastric lavage in obtunded patients led to a more satisfactory clinical outcome (P less than .05) only if performed within one hour of ingestion. Gastric emptying procedures in the ED for initial treatment of drug overdose are generally

1985 Annals of Emergency Medicine Controlled trial quality: uncertain

98. Prevention of childhood poisoning: efficacy of an educational program carried out in an emergency clinic. (Abstract)

clinic, can introduce the topic of poisoning prevention to families and can encourage the storage of syrup of ipecac in the home. (...) of the Massachusetts Poison Center, (2) to ensure that parents have ipecac for use in an emergency, and (3) to counsel parents on how to use ipecac. Of 403 families recruited from the emergency clinic and divided randomly into intervention and nonintervention groups, 262 families completed the follow-up interview 6 months later (65%). Results showed that 68% of intervention families compared with 42% of control families reported ipecac storage at follow-up (chi 2 = 7.65, P = .005) and that 40% of intervention

1987 Pediatrics Controlled trial quality: uncertain

99. A review of the management of oral drug overdose in the Accident and Emergency Department of the Royal Brisbane Hospital. Full Text available with Trip Pro

method of preventing further absorption of an ingested drug. The use of syrup of ipecac was not encouraged and orogastric lavage was used in only specific situations. The morbidity and mortality of these patients when compared with other studies, was not adversely affected by this protocol which dramatically reduced the indications for the use of orogastric lavage and syrup of ipecac.

1991 Archives of Emergency Medicine

100. Evaluation of a community based childhood injury prevention program. Full Text available with Trip Pro

and drawers, and syrup of ipecac in the home.A community based childhood injury prevention program providing education and safety supplies to clients significantly reduced four home hazards for which safety supplies were provided. Education and promotion of the proper use of child restraint systems in automobiles significantly reduced a fifth hazard, children riding unbuckled in auto travel. This program appears to reduce the prevalence of home hazards and, therefore, to increase home safety.

1997 Injury Prevention

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