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1. Effect of Sunscreen Application Under Maximal Use Conditions on Plasma Concentration of Sunscreen Active Ingredients: A Randomized Clinical Trial. (PubMed)

Effect of Sunscreen Application Under Maximal Use Conditions on Plasma Concentration of Sunscreen Active Ingredients: A Randomized Clinical Trial. The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has provided guidance that sunscreen active ingredients with systemic absorption greater than 0.5 ng/mL or with safety concerns should undergo nonclinical toxicology assessment including systemic carcinogenicity and additional developmental and reproductive studies.To determine whether the active ingredients (...) (avobenzone, oxybenzone, octocrylene, and ecamsule) of 4 commercially available sunscreens are absorbed into systemic circulation.Randomized clinical trial conducted at a phase 1 clinical pharmacology unit in the United States and enrolling 24 healthy volunteers. Enrollment started in July 2018 and ended in August 2018.Participants were randomized to 1 of 4 sunscreens: spray 1 (n = 6 participants), spray 2 (n = 6), a lotion (n = 6), and a cream (n = 6). Two milligrams of sunscreen per 1 cm2 was applied

2019 JAMA

2. Regular Sunscreen Use and Risk of Mortality: Long-Term Follow-up of a Skin Cancer Prevention Trial

Regular Sunscreen Use and Risk of Mortality: Long-Term Follow-up of a Skin Cancer Prevention Trial Sunscreen is widely used to protect the skin from harmful effects of sun exposure. However, there are concerns that sunscreens may negatively affect overall health. Evidence of the general safety of long-term regular sunscreen use is therefore needed.The effect of long-term sunscreen use on mortality was assessed over a 21-year period (1993-2014) among 1,621 Australian adults who had participated (...) in a randomized skin cancer prevention trial of regular versus discretionary sunscreen use (1992-1996). In 2018, an intention-to-treat analysis was conducted using Cox proportional hazards regression to compare death rates in people who were randomized to apply sunscreen daily for 4.5years, versus randomized to use sunscreen at their usual, discretionary level. All-cause mortality and deaths resulting from cardiovascular disease, cancer, and other causes were considered.In total, 160 deaths occurred

2019 EvidenceUpdates

3. Application of SPF moisturisers is inferior to sunscreens in coverage of facial and eyelid regions. (PubMed)

Application of SPF moisturisers is inferior to sunscreens in coverage of facial and eyelid regions. Many moisturisers contain sun protection factors (SPF) equivalent to those found in sunscreens. However, there is a lack of research into how SPF moisturiser application compares to sunscreens in terms of coverage achieved and protection afforded. Previously we demonstrated that users incompletely covered their eyelid regions during routine sunscreen application. Here, we aimed to determine (...) if SPF moisturiser users also displayed these tendencies. A study population of 84 participants (22 males, 62 females, age 18-57) were exposed to UV radiation and photographed using a tripod mounted UV sensitive DSLR camera on two separate visits. At visit one, images were acquired before and after applying either SPF30 sunscreen or moisturiser, then at visit two the study was repeated with the other formulation. Images were processed for facial landmark identification followed by segmentation

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2019 PLoS ONE

4. Photophysics of sunscreen molecules in the gas phase: a stepwise approach towards understanding and developing next-generation sunscreens (PubMed)

Photophysics of sunscreen molecules in the gas phase: a stepwise approach towards understanding and developing next-generation sunscreens The relationship between exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation and skin cancer urges the need for extra photoprotection, which is presently provided by widespread commercially available sunscreen lotions. Apart from having a large absorption cross section in the UVA and UVB regions of the electromagnetic spectrum, the chemical absorbers (...) in these photoprotective products should also be able to dissipate the excess energy in a safe way, i.e. without releasing photoproducts or inducing any further, harmful, photochemistry. While sunscreens are tested for both their photoprotective capability and dermatological compatibility, phenomena occurring at the molecular level upon absorption of UV radiation are largely overlooked. To date, there is only a limited amount of information regarding the photochemistry and photophysics of these sunscreen molecules

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2016 Proceedings. Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences

5. Sunscreen use optimized by two consecutive applications. (PubMed)

Sunscreen use optimized by two consecutive applications. Sunscreen users are often inadequately protected and become sunburned. This study aimed to investigate how much two consecutive sunscreen applications increased the quantity of sunscreen applied and decreased the skin area left without sunscreen (missed area) compared to a single application. Thirty-one healthy volunteers wearing swimwear were included and applied sunscreen two consecutive times in a laboratory environment. Participants (...) had pictures taken in black light before and after each application. As sunscreens absorb black light, the darkness of the skin increased with increasing amounts of sunscreen applied. We conducted a standard curve establishing a link between change in picture darkness and quantity of sunscreen. The quantity of sunscreen at selected skin sites as well as the percentage of missed area was determined after each application. Participants had missed a median of 20% of their available body surface after

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2018 PLoS ONE

6. Skin cancer prevention: a review of current topical options complementary to sunscreens. (PubMed)

Skin cancer prevention: a review of current topical options complementary to sunscreens. The incidence of non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) is dramatically increasing worldwide, despite the increased use of improved sunscreens. In 2014, the Surgeon General estimated that 2.2-5.0 million people were treated annually for NMSC. As the number of newly diagnosed skin cancers continues to rise, there is a need for additional preventative measures beyond sunscreens. Several newer topical products

2019 Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology

7. The effect of sunscreen on vitamin D: a review. (PubMed)

The effect of sunscreen on vitamin D: a review. Sunscreen use can prevent skin cancer, but there are concerns that it may increase the risk of vitamin D deficiency.We aimed to review the literature to investigate associations between sunscreen use and vitamin D3 or 25 hydroxy vitamin D (25(OH)D) concentration.We systematically reviewed the literature following the MOOSE guidelines. We identified manuscripts published in English between 1970 and 21 November 2017. Eligible studies were (...) . In the experimental studies sunscreen use considerably abrogated the vitamin D3 or 25(OH)D production induced by exposure to artificially generated ultraviolet radiation. The randomised controlled field trials found no effect of daily sunscreen application, but the sunscreens used had moderate protection (sun protection factor ~16). The observational studies mostly found no association or that self-reported sunscreen use was associated with higher 25(OH)D concentration.There is little evidence that sunscreen

2019 British Journal of Dermatology

8. UV detection stickers can assist people to reapply sunscreen. (PubMed)

UV detection stickers can assist people to reapply sunscreen. Sunscreen when applied at the recommended concentration (2 mg/cm2) has been shown to block the harmful molecular effects of ultraviolet radiation (UVR) in vivo. In real world conditions, however, sunscreen is often not applied/reapplied sufficiently to yield protection. This field study tested the effectiveness of UV detection stickers to prevent sunburn and improve reapplication of sunscreen. During the Ashes Cricket Test match (...) event (November 2017) in Brisbane, Australia interested spectators were recruited into the control group on DAY-1 and during subsequent days (DAY-2, DAY-3, DAY-4) new participants were recruited into the UV-Sticker group. Participants in both groups were provided with free sunscreen and participants in the UV-Sticker group were additionally provided with a UV detection sticker. Primary outcomes were self-reported sunburns and reapplication of sunscreen. Secondary endpoints included satisfaction

2019 Preventive Medicine

9. Machine learning for the prediction of sunscreen sun protection factor and protection grade of UVA. (PubMed)

Machine learning for the prediction of sunscreen sun protection factor and protection grade of UVA. We report a prediction model for sunscreen sun protection factor (SPF) and protection grade of ultraviolet (UV) A (PA) based on machine learning. We illustrate with real clinical test results of UV protection ability of sunscreen for SPF and PA. With approximately 2200 individual clinical results for both SPF and PA level detection, individually, we were able to see that active ingredient

2019 Experimental Dermatology

10. Optimal sunscreen use, during a sun holiday with a very high ultraviolet index, allows vitamin D synthesis without sunburn. (PubMed)

Optimal sunscreen use, during a sun holiday with a very high ultraviolet index, allows vitamin D synthesis without sunburn. Sunlight contains ultraviolet (UV)A and UVB radiation. UVB is essential for vitamin D synthesis but is the main cause of sunburn and skin cancer. Sunscreen use is advocated to reduce the sun's adverse effects but may compromise vitamin D status.To assess the ability of two intervention sunscreens to inhibit vitamin D synthesis during a week-long sun holiday.The impact (...) of sunscreens on vitamin D status was studied during a 1-week sun holiday in Tenerife (28° N). Comparisons were made between two formulations, each with a sun protection factor (SPF) of 15. The UVA-protection factor (PF) was low in one case and high in the other. Healthy Polish volunteers (n = 20 per group) were given the sunscreens and advised on the correct application. Comparisons were also made with discretionary sunscreen use (n = 22) and nonholiday groups (51·8° N, n = 17). Sunscreen use

2019 British Journal of Dermatology

11. Sunscreen photoprotection and vitamin D status. (PubMed)

Sunscreen photoprotection and vitamin D status. Global concern about vitamin D deficiency has fuelled debates on photoprotection and the importance of solar exposure to meet vitamin D requirements.To review the published evidence to reach a consensus on the influence of photoprotection by sunscreens on vitamin D status, considering other relevant factors.An international panel of 13 experts in endocrinology, dermatology, photobiology, epidemiology and biological anthropology reviewed (...) the literature prior to a 1-day meeting in June 2017, during which the evidence was discussed. Methods of assessment and determining factors of vitamin D status, and public health perspectives were examined and consequences of sun exposure and the effects of photoprotection were assessed.A serum level of ≥ 50 nmol L-1 25(OH)D is a target for all individuals. Broad-spectrum sunscreens that prevent erythema are unlikely to compromise vitamin D status in healthy populations. Vitamin D screening should

2019 British Journal of Dermatology

12. The Role of Dispensing Device and Label Warnings on Dosing for Sunscreen Application: A Randomized Trial. (PubMed)

The Role of Dispensing Device and Label Warnings on Dosing for Sunscreen Application: A Randomized Trial. Drug manufacturers are expected to provide labeling information needed to yield safe and effective product use. However, it is not clear that consumers dose sunscreen, an over-the-counter drug, appropriately; in fact, existing evidence suggests underdosing as a common phenomenon. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of dispensing device and labeling on self-administered (...) doses of sunscreen in young adults. To investigate those effects, a 2 × 2 factorial laboratory experiment crossing dispensing device (two levels) with labeling treatment (two levels) was conducted. Participants applied sunscreen from each of the four treatments; dosing concentration, measured in mg/cm2, served as the response variable. Participants (n = 94) were recruited on the campuses of Michigan State University (East Lansing, MI) and California Polytechnic State University (San Luis Obispo, CA

2019 Health Education & Behavior

13. Association Between Perceived Skin Cancer Risk Reduction and Sunscreen Use. (PubMed)

Association Between Perceived Skin Cancer Risk Reduction and Sunscreen Use. Understanding factors that influence people to use sunscreen would allow clinicians to counsel patients in a way that is influential. Perceived efficacy of sunscreen has been associated with sunscreen use, but it is unclear whether the degree of efficacy is important.To determine whether larger perceived efficacy of sunscreen (larger skin cancer risk reduction) is associated with increased sunscreen use.A cohort of 131 (...) patients with a history of skin cancer visiting a Mohs micrographic surgery center were surveyed.Participants believed sunscreen would reduce their risk of basal cell carcinoma (BCC) by 61.1% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 56.4-65.9), squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) by 59.4% (95% CI = 54.6-64.2), and melanoma by 59.5% (95% CI = 54.8-64.3). Perceived magnitude of risk reduction of BCC, SCC, and melanoma was significant independent predictors of sunscreen use (BCC: odds ratio [OR] 3.5, 95% CI 1.1-11.2, p

2019 Dermatologic Surgery

14. Greater efficacy of SPF 100+ sunscreen compared to SPF 50+ in sunburn prevention during five consecutive days of sunlight exposure: A Randomized, Double-Blind Clinical Trial. (PubMed)

Greater efficacy of SPF 100+ sunscreen compared to SPF 50+ in sunburn prevention during five consecutive days of sunlight exposure: A Randomized, Double-Blind Clinical Trial. Beach vacations are high-risk settings for overexposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation.To compare the sunburn protective efficacy of SPF 50+ and SPF 100+ sunscreens under actual use at the beach METHODS: A prospective, randomized, double-blind, single-center, split body/face study of 55 healthy subjects. Each subject (...) applied both sunscreens to randomized side of the face/body for up to 5 consecutive days. Blinded clinical evaluation of erythema by a single grader and objective instrumental assessments, colorimetry and diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, were performed the morning following each sun-exposure.After five days, 31 (56%) subjects had more sunburn on the SPF 50+ side and 4 (7%) on the SPF 100+ side. Overall, mean erythema intensity demonstrated statistically significantly less erythema on the SPF 100

2019 Journal of American Academy of Dermatology

15. Sunscreen for skin cancer prevention

Sunscreen for skin cancer prevention RACGP - Sunscreen for skin cancer prevention Search Become a student member today for free and be part of the RACGP community A career in general practice Starting the GP journey Enrolments for the 2019.1 OSCE FRACGP exams closing 29 March 2019 Fellowship FRACGP exams Research Practice Experience Program is a self-directed education program designed to support non vocationally registered doctors on their pathway to RACGP Fellowship Fellowship International (...) Media Releases 2013 Media Releases 2012 Media Releases Search Sunscreen for skin cancer prevention Sunscreen for skin cancer prevention Introduction Australia has one of the highest incidences of skin cancer in the world – two out of every three Australians are likely to be diagnosed with skin cancer before they reach age 70 years. Intervention Regular, daily, SPF30+ or higher, broad-spectrum sunscreen application. Indication Adults at risk of nonmelanoma squamous cell carcinoma and melanoma

2013 Handbook of Non-Drug interventions (HANDI)

16. UV imaging reveals facial areas that are prone to skin cancer are disproportionately missed during sunscreen application. (PubMed)

UV imaging reveals facial areas that are prone to skin cancer are disproportionately missed during sunscreen application. Application of sunscreen is a widely used mechanism for protecting skin from the harmful effects of UV light. However, protection can only be achieved through effective application, and areas that are routinely missed are likely at increased risk of UV damage. Here we sought to determine if specific areas of the face are missed during routine sunscreen application (...) , and whether provision of public health information is sufficient to improve coverage. To investigate this, 57 participants were imaged with a UV sensitive camera before and after sunscreen application: first visit; minimal pre-instruction, second visit; provided with a public health information statement. Images were scored using a custom automated image analysis process designed to identify areas of high UV reflectance, i.e. missed during sunscreen application, and analysed for 5% significance. Analyses

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2017 PLoS ONE

17. Realistic Sunscreen Durability: A Randomized, Double-blinded, Controlled Clinical Study. (PubMed)

Realistic Sunscreen Durability: A Randomized, Double-blinded, Controlled Clinical Study. Studies show that sunscreen under real-life conditions is often not reapplied and/or applied insufficiently. This study investigated the durability of 2 current sunscreens with different SPF protection over an 8-hour period under simulated real-life conditions.Participants (n=24) were randomized into two study groups utilizing either 2 mg/cm2 (FDA testing concentration) or 1 mg/cm2 (real-life application (...) levels) of sunscreen. Two current SPF 15 and 70 sunscreens were applied to test spots on each participant's back. SPF values were obtained at baseline, 3.5, and 8 hours after initial application, during which subjects completed 30 minutes of moderate exercise followed by 80 minutes of water exposure.Participants in both dose study groups revealed only a 15-40% overall decrease in their SPF protection 8 hours after application. The study group that received half the FDA test concentration of sunscreen

2018 Journal of drugs in dermatology : JDD

18. Sunscreen formulations do not interfere with sweat cooling during exercise. (PubMed)

Sunscreen formulations do not interfere with sweat cooling during exercise. Sweating plays a critical role in maintaining thermal balance and keeping skin cool during exercise. People often wear sunscreens on hot summer days for sun protection. Most recreational sunscreens are designed to be water- and sweat-resistant, so that sweating will not remove or compromise the protection. The objective of this study was to determine whether wearing sweat-resistant sunscreen might impede natural (...) sweating, potentially interfering with thermal regulation and resulting in the elevation of skin temperature.We conducted a controlled, randomized, split-face and split-arm clinical study with 24 female subjects wearing an SPF 70 lotion sunscreen on half of the face and an SPF 70 spray sunscreen on one of the forearms at a dosage of 2 mg cm-2 . Following sunscreen application, subjects participated in two sessions of indoor exercise to induce clearly visible sweating.We found that both skin

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2018 International journal of cosmetic science

19. Improving compliance of daily sunscreen application by changing accessibility. (PubMed)

Improving compliance of daily sunscreen application by changing accessibility. 28039899 2018 09 05 2018 09 05 1600-0781 33 2 2017 03 Photodermatology, photoimmunology & photomedicine Photodermatol Photoimmunol Photomed Improving compliance of daily sunscreen application by changing accessibility. 112-113 10.1111/phpp.12292 Wang Steven Q SQ Dermatology Service, Department of Medicine, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY, USA. Xu Haoming H 0000-0002-5151-0727 Dermatology Service (...) , Department of Medicine, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY, USA. Dusza Stephen W SW Dermatology Service, Department of Medicine, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY, USA. Hu Judy J Global Health Research LLC, Chatham, NJ, USA. Stanfield Joseph J CRL Suncare, Winston Salem, NC, USA. eng Letter Randomized Controlled Trial 2017 02 09 England Photodermatol Photoimmunol Photomed 9013641 0905-4383 0 Sunscreening Agents 0 Toothpastes IM Adult Drug Storage Female Health

2018 Photodermatology, photoimmunology & photomedicine

20. Widespread regular sunscreen application deemed not useful in the United States. (PubMed)

Widespread regular sunscreen application deemed not useful in the United States. 29676434 2018 08 24 1365-2133 179 2 2018 Aug The British journal of dermatology Br. J. Dermatol. Widespread regular sunscreen application deemed not useful in the U.S.A. 542-543 10.1111/bjd.16682 Grant W B WB http://orcid.org/0000-0002-1439-3285 Sunlight, Nutrition, and Health Research Center, P.O. Box 641603, San Francisco, CA, 94164-1603, U.S.A. eng Letter 2018 06 06 England Br J Dermatol 0004041 0007-0963 2018 4

2018 British Journal of Dermatology

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