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Sudden Death in Athletes

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1. A systematic review to determine the rate of sudden cardiac arrest and death in athletes, and to determine the benefits and harms of the electrocardiogram screening of athletes

A systematic review to determine the rate of sudden cardiac arrest and death in athletes, and to determine the benefits and harms of the electrocardiogram screening of athletes Print | PDF PROSPERO This information has been provided by the named contact for this review. CRD has accepted this information in good faith and registered the review in PROSPERO. The registrant confirms that the information supplied for this submission is accurate and complete. CRD bears no responsibility or liability

2019 PROSPERO

2. A new consensus document on electrocardiographic interpretation in athletes: does it help to prevent sudden cardiac death in athletes? (PubMed)

A new consensus document on electrocardiographic interpretation in athletes: does it help to prevent sudden cardiac death in athletes? Sudden cardiac arrest or death (SCA/SCD) in athletes has a low event rate. Pre-participation or eligibility screening is a widely accepted method of primary prevention of SCA/SCD in athletes. Most European countries and international sports governing bodies perform ECG-inclusive screening. However, implementation of a resting 12-lead ECG in pre-participation (...) or eligibility cardiac screening is still a topic of debate. Recently, the 'International recommendations for electrocardiographic interpretation in athletes' was published in three leading international medical journals. These international ECG criteria are based on studies with detailed information on resting 12-lead ECG of Caucasian and Afro-Caribbean athletes or on consensus in case evidence was lacking. Normal, borderline and abnormal ECG findings in young athletes (age 12-35 years) are clearly

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2018 Netherlands Heart Journal

3. Sudden Cardiac Death in the Adolescent Athlete: History, Diagnosis, and Prevention. (PubMed)

Sudden Cardiac Death in the Adolescent Athlete: History, Diagnosis, and Prevention. Sudden cardiac death in young athletes is a devastating condition that occurs without warning. While most middle and high school athletes require preparticipation screening, many predisposing conditions go undiagnosed until they occur. The frequency of sudden cardiac death is often under-reported because there is no mandatory system for reporting sports-related death in high school sports. Additionally (...) , there is debate about the cost-effectiveness of more advanced screening tests, such as electrocardiogram, due to high false-positive rates. It is, however, accepted that participants with a family history of sudden cardiac death should undergo more in-depth screening. If sudden cardiac arrest occurs, it is important for the patient to undergo immediate defibrillation. Community outreach to ensure that automated external defibrillators are present at athletic events, as well as cardiopulmonary resuscitation

2019 American Journal of Medicine

4. The Role of Genetic Testing in the Identification of Young Athletes with Inherited Primitive Cardiac Disorders at Risk of Exercise Sudden Death (PubMed)

The Role of Genetic Testing in the Identification of Young Athletes with Inherited Primitive Cardiac Disorders at Risk of Exercise Sudden Death Although relatively rare, inherited primitive cardiac disorders (IPCDs) in athletes have a deep social impact since they often present as sudden cardiac death (SCD) of young and otherwise healthy persons. The diagnosis of these conditions is likely underestimated due to the lack of shared clinical criteria and to the existence of several borderline (...) clinical pictures. We will focus on the clinical and molecular diagnosis of the most common IPCDs, namely hypertrophic cardiomyopathies, long QT syndrome, arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy, and left ventricular non-compaction. Collectively, these conditions account for the majority of SCD episodes and/or cardiologic clinical problems in athletes. In addition to the clinical and instrumental tools for the diagnosis of IPCD, the viral technological advances in genetic testing have

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2016 Frontiers in cardiovascular medicine

5. Cardiac Screening of Young Athletes: a Practical Approach to Sudden Cardiac Death Prevention (PubMed)

Cardiac Screening of Young Athletes: a Practical Approach to Sudden Cardiac Death Prevention We aim to report on the current status of cardiovascular screening of athletes worldwide and review the up-to-date evidence for its efficacy in reducing sudden cardiac death in young athletes.A large proportion of sudden cardiac death in young individuals and athletes occurs during rest with sudden arrhythmic death syndrome being recognised as the leading cause. The international recommendations for ECG (...) interpretation have reduced the false-positive ECG rate to 3% and reduced the cost of screening by 25% without compromising the sensitivity to identify serious disease. There are some quality control issues that have been recently identified including the necessity for further training to guide physicians involved in screening young athletes. Improvements in our understanding of young sudden cardiac death and ECG interpretation guideline modification to further differentiate physiological ECG patterns from

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2018 Current Treatment Options in Cardiovascular Medicine

6. State-Level Implementation of Health and Safety Policies to Prevent Sudden Death and Catastrophic Injuries Within Secondary School Athletics: Response (PubMed)

State-Level Implementation of Health and Safety Policies to Prevent Sudden Death and Catastrophic Injuries Within Secondary School Athletics: Response 29511699 2018 11 14 2325-9671 6 2 2018 Feb Orthopaedic journal of sports medicine Orthop J Sports Med State-Level Implementation of Health and Safety Policies to Prevent Sudden Death and Catastrophic Injuries Within Secondary School Athletics: Response. 2325967117752129 10.1177/2325967117752129 Adams William M WM Greensboro, North Carolina, USA (...) , and Wolters Kluwer Health; has received payment from the Technical Advisory Board of Body Biolytics, LLC, for writing a paper; and is employed by the Korey Stringer Institute. S.E.S. is employed by the Korey Stringer Institute. D.J.C. has served as an expert witness on many legal cases related to sudden death in sport; has received publishing royalties from Jones & Bartlett Learning, UpToDate, Springer, and Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; is on the board of Clif Bar & Company; and is the current CEO

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2018 Orthopaedic journal of sports medicine

7. State-Level Implementation of Health and Safety Policies to Prevent Sudden Death and Catastrophic Injuries Within Secondary School Athletics: Letter to the Editor (PubMed)

State-Level Implementation of Health and Safety Policies to Prevent Sudden Death and Catastrophic Injuries Within Secondary School Athletics: Letter to the Editor 29511698 2018 11 14 2325-9671 6 2 2018 Feb Orthopaedic journal of sports medicine Orthop J Sports Med State-Level Implementation of Health and Safety Policies to Prevent Sudden Death and Catastrophic Injuries Within Secondary School Athletics: Letter to the Editor. 2325967117752128 10.1177/2325967117752128 Koester Michael C MC Eugene

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2018 Orthopaedic journal of sports medicine

8. Sudden cardiac death in athletes and the value of cardiovascular magnetic resonance. (PubMed)

Sudden cardiac death in athletes and the value of cardiovascular magnetic resonance. Sudden cardiac death (SCD) is the nontraumatic death, due to loss of heart function that occurs suddenly and unexpectedly within 6 hours of a previously normal state of health. It is related to intense competitive sports promoting ventricular tachycardia (VT)/ventricular fibrillation (VF) in the presence of underlying abnormal substrate. A serial evaluation of cardiac physiologic changes taking place during (...) training will allow the better understanding of athlete's heart and will facilitate its discrimination from other grey-zone cardiomyopathies. According to the ESC recommendations, a pre-participation evaluation should include medical history, physical examination as well as a 12-lead electrocardiogram (ECG). Additional tests, such as echocardiography, 24-hours Holter monitoring, stress testing and cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) should be requested upon positive findings at the initial

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2018 European journal of clinical investigation

9. Primary Care Corner with Geoffrey Modest MD: Sudden Cardiac Death in Young Athletes in the U.S.

Primary Care Corner with Geoffrey Modest MD: Sudden Cardiac Death in Young Athletes in the U.S. Primary Care Corner with Geoffrey Modest MD: Sudden Cardiac Death in Young Athletes in the U.S. | BMJ EBM Spotlight by By Dr. Geoffrey Modest A recent article looked at the demographics and epidemiology of sudden death in young athletes from the United States National Registry from 1982-2011 (see Maron BJ. Am J Med (2016) 129, 1170). Details: 2406 athlete deaths were reported to the registry, of whom (...) , respectively; p <0.001) Cause of sudden death: Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM): 302 athletes (292 males, 10 females), 36% of cases. 152 in African-American/138 in white Congenital coronary anomalies: 158 athletes (127 males, 31 females), 19% of cases. 77 in African-American/72 in white Indeterminate cause with left ventricular hypertrophy/possible HCM (autopsy finding abnormal hearts with increased heart weight and mild left ventricular thickening): 77 athletes (73 males, 4 females), 9% of cases. 31

2016 Evidence-Based Medicine blog

10. Sudden cardiac death in young athletes

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2017 Howard J. Luks, MD blog

11. Sudden death in athletes. (PubMed)

Sudden death in athletes. Competitive sports activity is associated with an increased risk of sudden cardiovascular death (SCD) in adolescents and young adults with clinically silent cardiovascular disorders. While in middle-aged/senior athletes atherosclerotic coronary artery disease accounts for the vast majority of SCDs, in young athletes the spectrum of substrates is wider and includes inherited (cardiomyopathies) and congenital (anomalous origin of coronary arteries) structural heart (...) diseases. Inherited ion channel diseases have been implicated in SCDs occurring with an apparently normal heart at autopsy. Screening including the ECG allows identification of athletes affected by heart muscle diseases at a pre-symptomatic stage and may lead to reduction of the risk of SCD during sports. The use of modern criteria for interpretation of the ECG in the athlete offers the potential to improve the screening accuracy by reducing the number of false positives. Screening with exercise

2017 International journal of cardiology

12. Incidence and Etiology of Sudden Cardiac Death: New Updates for Athletic Departments (PubMed)

Incidence and Etiology of Sudden Cardiac Death: New Updates for Athletic Departments Sudden cardiac death (SCD) in a young athlete is a tragic event and is the leading medical cause of death in this population. The precise incidence of SCD in young athletes has been subject of debate, with studies reporting drastically different rates (1:917,000 athlete-years (AYs) to 1:3000 AYs) depending on the methodological design of the investigation or the targeted population.A literature search (...) was performed in PubMed using the terms: incidence, sudden cardiac death, sudden death, sudden cardiac arrest, etiology, pathology, registry, athlete, young, children, and adolescents. Articles were reviewed for relevance and included if they contained information on the incidence of SCD in athletes or young persons up to the age of 35 years.Clinical review.Level 5.Studies of high quality and rigor consistently yield an incidence of 1:50,000 AYs in college athletes and between 1:50,000 and 1:80,000 AYs

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2017 Sports health

13. State-Level Implementation of Health and Safety Policies to Prevent Sudden Death and Catastrophic Injuries Within Secondary School Athletics (PubMed)

State-Level Implementation of Health and Safety Policies to Prevent Sudden Death and Catastrophic Injuries Within Secondary School Athletics Sudden death and catastrophic injuries during sport can be attenuated with the implementation of evidence-based health and safety policies. However, the extent of the implementation of these policies within secondary school athletics is unknown.To provide an assessment of the implementation of health and safety policies pertaining to the leading causes (...) of sudden death and catastrophic injuries in sport within secondary school athletics in the United States.Descriptive epidemiology study.A rubric for evidence-based practices for preventing the leading causes of death and catastrophic injuries in sport was created. The rubric comprised 5 equally weighted sections for sudden cardiac arrest, head injuries, exertional heat stroke, appropriate medical coverage, and emergency preparedness. State high school athletic association (SHSAA) policies, enacted

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2017 Orthopaedic journal of sports medicine

14. Comparison of the Frequency of Sudden Cardiovascular Deaths in Young Competitive Athletes Versus Nonathletes: Should We Really Screen Only Athletes? (PubMed)

Comparison of the Frequency of Sudden Cardiovascular Deaths in Young Competitive Athletes Versus Nonathletes: Should We Really Screen Only Athletes? The issue of sudden death in young athletes and consideration for the most practical and optimal strategy to identify those genetic and/or congenital heart diseases responsible for these tragic events continues to be debated. However, proponents of broad-based and mandatory national preparticipation screening, including with 12-lead (...) as athletes. To substantiate this hypothesis, we accessed the forensic Hennepin County, Minnesota registry in which cardiovascular sudden deaths were 8-fold more common in nonathletes (n = 24) than athletes (n = 3) and threefold more frequent in terms of incidence. The most common diseases responsible for sudden death were hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (n = 6) and arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy (n = 4). These data raise ethical considerations inherent in limiting systematic screening

2016 American Journal of Cardiology

15. 2017 AHA/ACC/HRS Guideline for Management of Patients With Ventricular Arrhythmias and the Prevention of Sudden Cardiac Death: Executive Summary: A Report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Clinical Practice Gui

of sudden cardiac death AHA 2016 Optimal implantable cardioverter defibrillator programming and testing HRS/EHRA/APHRS/SOLAECE 2016 Treatment of cardiac arrest: current status and future directions: strategies to improve cardiac arrest survival IOM 2015 Eligibility and disqualification recommendations for competitive athletes with cardiovascular abnormalities ACC/AHA 2015 Ventricular arrhythmias EHRA/HRS/APHRS 2014 Arrhythmias in adult congenital heart disease PACES/HRS 2014 Implantable cardioverter (...) 2017 AHA/ACC/HRS Guideline for Management of Patients With Ventricular Arrhythmias and the Prevention of Sudden Cardiac Death: Executive Summary: A Report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Clinical Practice Gui 2017 AHA/ACC/HRS Guideline for Management of Patients With Ventricular Arrhythmias and the Prevention of Sudden Cardiac Death: Executive Summary | Circulation Search Hello Guest! Login to your account Email Password Keep me logged in Search

2017 American Heart Association

16. 2017 AHA/ACC/HRS Guideline for Management of Patients With Ventricular Arrhythmias and the Prevention of Sudden Cardiac Death: A Report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Clinical Practice Guidelines and the Hea

2017 AHA/ACC/HRS Guideline for Management of Patients With Ventricular Arrhythmias and the Prevention of Sudden Cardiac Death: A Report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Clinical Practice Guidelines and the Hea 2017 AHA/ACC/HRS Guideline for Management of Patients With Ventricular Arrhythmias and the Prevention of Sudden Cardiac Death | Circulation Search Hello Guest! Login to your account Email Password Keep me logged in Search March 2019 March 2019 (...) March 2019 March 2019 March 2019 February 2019 February 2019 February 2019 February 2019 January 2019 January 2019 January 2019 January 2019 January 2019 This site uses cookies. By continuing to browse this site you are agreeing to our use of cookies. Free Access article Share on Jump to Free Access article 2017 AHA/ACC/HRS Guideline for Management of Patients With Ventricular Arrhythmias and the Prevention of Sudden Cardiac Death A Report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart

2017 American Heart Association

17. Incidence and Etiology of Sudden Cardiac Arrest and Death in High School Athletes in the United States. (PubMed)

Incidence and Etiology of Sudden Cardiac Arrest and Death in High School Athletes in the United States. To determine the incidence and etiology of sudden cardiac arrest and death (SCA/D) in US high school athletes.A prospective media database of SCA/D was queried for cases aged 14 to 18 years from 7 states over 6 school years (September 1, 2007, to August 30, 2013). Event details were investigated to determine participation on a high school athletic team, sex, sport, and occurrence during (...) school-sponsored activity or exertion. National sports participation numbers were used and a conversion factor was applied to account for multisport athletes. Autopsy reports were reviewed and cause of death was adjudicated by an expert panel.A total of 16,390,409 million athlete-seasons representing 6,974,640 athlete-years (AY) were examined, encompassing 36% of the total US high school athlete population. A total of 104 cases of SCA/D were identified (35 SCA with survival and 69 sudden cardiac

2016 Mayo Clinic Proceedings

18. Sudden Death in Athletes

Sudden Death in Athletes Sudden Death in Athletes Toggle navigation Brain Head & Neck Chest Endocrine Abdomen Musculoskeletal Skin Infectious Disease Hematology & Oncology Cohorts Diagnostics Emergency Findings Procedures Prevention & Management Pharmacy Resuscitation Trauma Emergency Procedures Ultrasound Cardiovascular Emergencies Lung Emergencies Infectious Disease Pediatrics Neurologic Emergencies Skin Exposure Miscellaneous Abuse Cancer Administration 4 Sudden Death in Athletes Sudden (...) Death in Athletes Aka: Sudden Death in Athletes II. Epidemiology Less common than death from other medical conditions High School and College Athletes Sudden death : 1 in 200,000 Adult Athletes Sudden death : 1 in 50,000 Conditions predisposing to sudden death : 1 in 20,000 athletes Sudden death is 5 fold higher in young men than women Sudden death risk is increased with : 27 times risk of african american males : 40 times risk of caucasian males III. Evaluation: Screening See for cardiac red flags

2018 FP Notebook

19. Nonischemic Left Ventricular Scar as a Substrate of Life-Threatening Ventricular Arrhythmias and Sudden Cardiac Death in Competitive Athletes. (PubMed)

Nonischemic Left Ventricular Scar as a Substrate of Life-Threatening Ventricular Arrhythmias and Sudden Cardiac Death in Competitive Athletes. The clinical profile and arrhythmic outcome of competitive athletes with isolated nonischemic left ventricular (LV) scar as evidenced by contrast-enhanced cardiac magnetic resonance remain to be elucidated.We compared 35 athletes (80% men, age: 14-48 years) with ventricular arrhythmias and isolated LV subepicardial/midmyocardial late gadolinium (...) %) athletes with stria pattern experienced malignant arrhythmic events such as appropriate implantable cardiac defibrillator shock (n=4), sustained ventricular tachycardia (n=1), or sudden death (n=1), compared with none of athletes with no or LGE spotty pattern and controls.Isolated nonischemic LV LGE with a stria pattern may be associated with life-threatening arrhythmias and sudden death in the athlete. Because of its subepicardial/midmyocardial location, LV scar is often not detected

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2016 Circulation. Arrhythmia and electrophysiology

20. Demographics and Epidemiology of Sudden Deaths in Young Competitive Athletes: From the U.S. National Registry. (PubMed)

Demographics and Epidemiology of Sudden Deaths in Young Competitive Athletes: From the U.S. National Registry. Sudden deaths in young competitive athletes are tragic events, with high public visibility. The importance of race and gender with respect to sport and the diagnosis and causes of sudden death in athletes has generated substantial interest.The US National Registry of Sudden Death in Athletes, 1980-2011, was accessed to define the epidemiology and causes of sudden deaths in competitive (...) athletes. A total of 2406 deaths were identified in young athletes aged 19 ± 6 years engaged in 29 diverse sports.Among the 842 athletes with autopsy-confirmed cardiovascular diagnoses, the incidence in males exceeded that in females by 6.5-fold (1:121; 691 vs 1:787,392 athlete-years; P ≤.001). Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy was the single most common cause of sudden death, occurring in 302 of 842 athletes (36%) and accounting for 39% of male sudden deaths, almost 4-fold more common than among females (11

2016 American Journal of Medicine

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