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Substance Abuse in Pregnancy

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1. Supporting healthy pregnancies: Examining variations in nutrition, weight management and substance abuse advice provision by prenatal care providers in Alberta, Canada. A study using the All Our Families cohort. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Supporting healthy pregnancies: Examining variations in nutrition, weight management and substance abuse advice provision by prenatal care providers in Alberta, Canada. A study using the All Our Families cohort. Pregnancy is a critical time for fetal development, and education of women regarding healthy lifestyle choices is an important function for prenatal care providers, those that provide care to women during pregnancy. Within Canada, women choose to receive pregnancy care from one (...) of a variety of publicly funded care providers. This study examines the association between the type of care provider(s) seen during pregnancy and the provision of advice related to nutrition, weight management and substance abuse.Using data from the Alberta-based All Our Families prospective pregnancy cohort, we conducted bivariate and multivariate analyses to determine the likelihood of receiving advice related to nutrition, weight management, and substance abuse across provider(s) seen.Of 3341 women

2019 PLoS ONE

2. CRACKCast E186 – Substance Abuse

CRACKCast E186 – Substance Abuse CRACKCast E186 - Substance Abuse - CanadiEM CRACKCast E186 – Substance Abuse In , by Chris Lipp June 14, 2018 This episode of CRACKCast covers Rosen’s Chapter 140 (9th Edition), Substance Abuse. This chapter gives a brief overview regarding the burden of substance abuse from adolescent to elderly patients. An important consideration in the emergency department is self-awareness and advocacy for these patients that often are challenging to interact with and can (...) provoke countertransference. Shownotes – Key Concepts Substance abuse can affect people from all socioeconomic groups and all ages. For the majority of patients with toxin-induced violent behavior, intramuscular butyrophenones (such as, haloperidol) are safe and rapidly effective sedating agents. With suspected sympathomimetic (eg, cocaine and amphetamines) intoxication, benzodiazepines (such as, lorazepam) should be used. Presentation to an ED with a complication of substance abuse may be a “teaching

2018 CandiEM

3. A Prenatal Mentalization-focused 4D Ultrasound and a Pregnancy Diary Intervention for Substance-abusing Women

pregnancy diary intervention with substance-abusing pregnant women. Method: Pregnant women referred to the hospital maternity outpatient clinic from primary health care due to substance abuse were recruited to participate in a randomized and controlled study. At admission, a psychiatric nurse offered all eligible women an opportunity for participation. A written informed consent was obtained from all participants included in the study. The participants were randomized into the intervention and control (...) : No Criteria Inclusion Criteria: Pregnant women referred to the hospital maternity outpatient clinic from primary health care due to substance abuse were recruited to participate in a randomized and controlled study. The subjects were referred from primary health care due to: documented or self-reported illicit drug use, misuse of prescription medication or alcohol within three years prior to or during this pregnancy, and/or sum score ≥ 3 points on TWEAK alcohol screening (Russell, 1994). The inclusion

2018 Clinical Trials

4. Substance use disorders in pregnancy: clinical, ethical, and research imperatives of the opioid epidemic Full Text available with Trip Pro

future research. It is hoped that this workshop will provide the first step toward the development of comprehensive, evidence-based guidelines that focus on the unique needs of pregnant and postpartum women with OUD and will create an opportunity for education that dispels myths surrounding care and management and leads to the creation of validated and workable solutions for this population. Screening and testing for substance abuse, including opioid use, in pregnancy Definitions: screening vs (...) on OUD in particular; to draft preliminary recommendations regarding screening, pain management, and medication-assisted therapy (MAT) for OUD during pregnancy; and to delineate research gaps. Epidemiology of opioid use in pregnancy Epidemiologic evidence that was presented at the workshop demonstrated that rates of substance use in pregnancy have increased significantly in the past decade and that rates of OUD in pregnant and postpartum women have increased in parallel: • One study reported

2019 Society for Maternal-Fetal Medicine

5. Pregnancy Outcomes in Maternal Neuropsychiatric Illness and Substance Abuse Full Text available with Trip Pro

Pregnancy Outcomes in Maternal Neuropsychiatric Illness and Substance Abuse Worldwide the prevalence of neuropsychiatric illness among women of reproductive age is higher than ever before. This study investigates the influences of maternal substance abuse/dependence and neuropsychiatric illness on pregnancy and neonatal outcomes.Using a retrospective study design 185 pregnancies in women with neuropsychiatric illnesses or substance abuse were identified at a single centre over a period of 3.25 (...) years and compared to 4907 pregnancies in healthy women without mental illness. Differences in pre-, peri- and postnatal pregnancy parameters were studied.Numbers of previous abortions on obstetric history were significantly higher in cases compared to controls, women with depression being especially affected. The number of antenatal visits was also higher among cases, especially in women with depression. The caesarean section rate was significantly higher in cases compared to controls. Children

2017 Geburtshilfe Und Frauenheilkunde

6. Yoga for the Treatment of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder, Generalized Anxiety Disorder, Depression, and Substance Abuse

Yoga for the Treatment of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder, Generalized Anxiety Disorder, Depression, and Substance Abuse TITLE: Yoga for the Treatment of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder, Generalized Anxiety Disorder, Depression, and Substance Abuse: A Review of the Clinical Effectiveness and Guidelines DATE: 22 June 2015 CONTEXT AND POLICY ISSUES Post-traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD), Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD), depression and substance abuse (SA) are mental health disorders that can lead (...) to considerable impairments in the functioning of individuals worldwide. In Canada, the lifetime prevalence rate of PTSD, GAD, depression and substance abuse is 8%, 1 9%, 2 11%(major depressive episode) 2 and 22%(substance use disorder). 2 The first-line treatment for mental health disorders is often a combination of pharmacological and psychological therapies such as antidepressants and/or cognitive behavioural therapy. 3,4 Not all patients have adequate responses to pharmacological treatment. Patients may

2015 Canadian Agency for Drugs and Technologies in Health - Rapid Review

7. Substance Abuse in Pregnancy

Substance Abuse in Pregnancy Substance Abuse in Pregnancy Toggle navigation Brain Head & Neck Chest Endocrine Abdomen Musculoskeletal Skin Infectious Disease Hematology & Oncology Cohorts Diagnostics Emergency Findings Procedures Prevention & Management Pharmacy Resuscitation Trauma Emergency Procedures Ultrasound Cardiovascular Emergencies Lung Emergencies Infectious Disease Pediatrics Neurologic Emergencies Skin Exposure Miscellaneous Abuse Cancer Administration 4 Substance Abuse in Pregnancy (...) Substance Abuse in Pregnancy Aka: Substance Abuse in Pregnancy , Chemical Dependency in Pregnancy II. Risk Factors: Child Abuse Associations Substantial increase in risk of maltreatment Risk of change in primary caregiver before age 2 years exposure to illicit substance Deliberate with illicit substance Passive inhalation of illicit substance of illicit substance Physical or Sexual abuse Household or neighborhood III. Management: Preterm Recommendations for Obstetric Visits Every 2 weeks until 30 weeks

2018 FP Notebook

8. Child Abuse, Elder Abuse, and Intimate Partner Violence

concerns based on their experience that may not be supported by evidence. A careful and well-documented history is an essential component of the evaluation for physical abuse. A number of developed guidelines provide consensus on elements of concern learned from the history. 1,2 Historical clues of concern include the following: z Social factors such as a family member history of substance use or abuse, mental health disorders (e.g., depression or psychosis), arrests or incarcerations, and intimate (...) Child Abuse, Elder Abuse, and Intimate Partner Violence ACS TRAUMA QUALITY PROGRAMS BEST PRACTICES GUIDELINES FOR TRAUMA CENTER RECOGNITION OF Child Abuse, Elder Abuse, and Intimate Partner Violence Released November 2019Table of Contents Introduction 4 Best Practices Guidelines for Trauma Center Recognition: Child Abuse 5 1. Overview 6 2. Assessment 9 a. Clinical Screening 9 b. History 14 c. Bruising and Oral Injuries 16 d. Burns 20 e. Abusive Head Trauma 22 f. Eye Findings in Abusive Head

2019 American College of Surgeons

9. Substance Abuse in Canada: The Effects of Cannabis Use during Adolescence (Report)

health and substance abuse problems, examining the interconnections between addiction and mental illness, the costs concurrent disorders place on the healthcare system, and why treating these complex cases requires new and innovative approaches. The fourth in the series, Licit and Illicit Drug Use during Pregnancy, addressed the medical and obstetrical consequences of drug abuse and dependency in pregnant women, as well as the short- and long-term effects that prenatal exposure to drugs can have (...) Substance Abuse in Canada: The Effects of Cannabis Use during Adolescence (Report) 2015 The Effects of Cannabis Use during Adolescence SUBSTANCE ABUSE IN CANADAThis document was published by the Canadian Centre on Substance Abuse (CCSA). CCSA activities and products are made possible through a financial contribution from Health Canada. The views of CCSA do not necessarily represent the views of the Government of Canada. The subjects in the photographs used throughout this publication are models

2015 Canadian Centre on Substance Abuse

10. Alcohol Abuse and Other Substance Use Disorders: Ethical Issues in Obstetric and Gynecologic Practice

, this appears to permit arrest for the use of all controlled substances during pregnancy, including those prescribed to the pregnant woman ( ). In addition, prosecutors have relied on existing criminal laws, such as general child abuse laws, to punish pregnant women for using a criminalized drug ( ). State civil commitment laws may permit commitment of pregnant women who expose their fetuses to alcohol or other substances of abuse ( ). States vary in the specific substances triggering such actions, as well (...) interventions on pregnant women in the United States, 1973–2005: implications for women’s legal status and public health. J Health Polit Policy Law 2013;38:299–343. [ ] [ ] Jurisdiction over unborn children in need of protection or services and the expectant mothers of those unborn children. Wis. Stat. Ann. § 48.133 (2015). Substance abuse reporting and pregnancy: the role of the obstetrician–gynecologist. Committee Opinion No. 473. American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. Obstet Gynecol

2015 American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists

11. Intimate Partner Violence, Elder Abuse, and Abuse of Vulnerable Adults: Screening

, there are other health consequences, many with long-term effects, including development of mental health conditions such as depression, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), anxiety disorders, substance abuse, and suicidal behavior; sexually transmitted infections; unintended pregnancy; and chronic pain and other disabilities. , Violence during pregnancy is associated with preterm birth and low birth weight and adverse effects on maternal and infant health, including postpartum mental health problems (...) mistreatment in dental and medical clinics. Gerodontology . 2012;29(2):96-105. 46. Tiwari A, Leung WC, Leung TW, Humphreys J, Parker B, Ho PC. A randomised controlled trial of empowerment training for Chinese abused pregnant women in Hong Kong. BJOG . 2005;112(9):1249-1256. 47. Kiely M, El-Mohandes AA, El-Khorazaty MN, Blake SM, Gantz MG. An integrated intervention to reduce intimate partner violence in pregnancy: a randomized controlled trial [published correction appears in Obstet Gynecol . 2011;117(5

2018 U.S. Preventive Services Task Force

12. The Effects of Alcohol and Drugs of Abuse on Maternal Nutritional Profile during Pregnancy Full Text available with Trip Pro

The Effects of Alcohol and Drugs of Abuse on Maternal Nutritional Profile during Pregnancy The consumption of alcohol and drugs of abuse among pregnant women has experienced a significant increase in the last decades. Suitable maternal nutritional status is crucial to maintain the optimal environment for fetal development but if consumption of alcohol or drugs of abuse disrupt the intake of nutrients, the potential teratogenic effects of these substances increase. Despite evidence (...) of the importance of nutrition in addicted pregnant women, there is a lack of information on the effects of alcohol and drugs of abuse on maternal nutritional status; so, the focus of this review was to provide an overview on the nutritional status of addicted mothers and fetuses. Alcohol and drugs consumption can interfere with the absorption of nutrients, impairing the quality and quantity of proper nutrient and energy intake, resulting in malnutrition especially of micronutrients (vitamins, omega⁻3, folic

2018 Nutrients

13. What is substance abuse? And should we screen all pregnant women for substance abuse? (Abstract)

What is substance abuse? And should we screen all pregnant women for substance abuse? 25753320 2015 06 22 2018 12 02 1600-0412 94 5 2015 May Acta obstetricia et gynecologica Scandinavica Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand What is substance abuse? And should we screen all pregnant women for substance abuse? 451-2 10.1111/aogs.12627 Kesmodel Ulrik S US Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus, Denmark. eng Journal Article Comment 2015 04 01 United States Acta Obstet (...) Gynecol Scand 0370343 0001-6349 IM Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 2015 Feb;94(2):215-9 25366294 Female Humans Pregnancy Pregnancy Complications epidemiology Substance-Related Disorders epidemiology Substance abuse cannabis opioids urine screening 2015 02 24 2015 02 27 2015 3 11 6 0 2015 3 11 6 0 2015 6 24 6 0 ppublish 25753320 10.1111/aogs.12627

2015 Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica

14. Neuroendocrine and immune pathways from pre- and perinatal stress to substance abuse Full Text available with Trip Pro

Neuroendocrine and immune pathways from pre- and perinatal stress to substance abuse Early life adversity is a documented risk factor for substance abuse and addiction. The pre- and perinatal period (i.e., from implantation, through pregnancy, to 6 months of age) is a critical period marked by high biological plasticity and vulnerability, making perinatal stress a particularly robust form of adversity. The neuroendocrine and immune systems are key mechanisms implicated in the transmission (...) of addiction risk. We review animal and human studies that provide preliminary evidence for links between perinatal stress, neuroendocrine and immune dysregulation, and risk for substance abuse and addiction. A translational neuroscience perspective is employed to elucidate pre- and perinatally-induced biological mechanisms linked to addiction and discuss implications for prevention and intervention efforts. Significant evidence supports associations between pre- and perinatal stress and dysregulation

2018 Neurobiology of stress

15. Child abuse and neglect

interventions for addressing child abuse and neglect in the UK 54 10 Interventions with fathers and male carers 55 11 Interventions with male foster carers and adoptive parents 55 12 Effectiveness of home visiting following child abuse or neglect 55 13 Effective interventions for parents or carers with substance misuse problems 56 14 Effectiveness of web-based parenting programmes 56 15 Relative effectiveness of interventions to support foster carers 56 16 Peer support for children and young people who have (...) likelihood of being involved in antisocial behaviour (Child abuse and neglect in the UK today NSPCC) increased likelihood of suicidal thoughts and attempts during adolescence. Child abuse and neglect (NG76) © NICE 2019. All rights reserved. Subject to Notice of rights (https://www.nice.org.uk/terms-and- conditions#notice-of-rights). Page 7 of 58These negative consequences can persist into adulthood. Adult survivors of childhood abuse are more likely to misuse substances and to experience mental health

2017 National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence - Clinical Guidelines

16. Guidelines for identification and management of substance use and substance use disorders in pregnancy

Guidelines for identification and management of substance use and substance use disorders in pregnancy The harmful use of alcohol and illicit drugs is the third leading risk factor for premature deaths and disabilities in the world. It is estimated that 2.5 million people worldwide died of alcohol- related causes in 2004, including 320 000 young people between 15 and 29 years of age. Contact Management of Substance Abuse Department of Mental Health and Substance Abuse 20, Avenue Appia 1211 (...) collection and analysis 183 Main results 188 Annex 3: Screening instruments for substance use in prenatal or pregnant women 198 Annex 4: Composition of guideline groups 200 WHO Steering Group 200 Guideline Development Group (GDG) 201 External reviewers 202 Annex 5: Declarations of interest 203 GDG members 203 Consultants supporting GDG 203 External reviewers 204 iiiii ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS These guidelines were produced by the WHO Department of Mental Health and Substance Abuse (Management of Substance Abuse

2014 World Health Organisation Guidelines

17. Guided Self-Change for Mixed Substance Abuse/Dependence

-exposed pregnancies: A randomized controlled trial. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 32, (1), 1-10. Sobell, M. B. & Sobell, L. C. (2005). Guided Self-Change treatment for substance abusers. Journal of Cognitive Psychotherapy, 19, 199-210. Sobell, M. B., Sobell, L. C., & Gavin, D. (1995). Portraying alcohol treatment outcomes: Different yardsticks of success. Behavior Therapy, 26, 643-669. Andréasson, S., Hansagi, H., & Oesterlund, B. (2002). Short-term treatment for alcohol-related problems (...) Guided Self-Change for Mixed Substance Abuse/Dependence Guided Self-Change for Mixed Substance Abuse/Dependence – Society of Clinical Psychology Description Guided Self-Change (GSC) Treatment for substance use disorders integrates cognitive-behavioral, motivational interviewing, and relapse prevention techniques to help individuals functionally analyze their alcohol or other drug problems and develop their own plans for changing. It can be delivered in individual or group formats, and has been

2014 Society of Clinical Psychology

18. Consumption of Substances of Abuse during Pregnancy Increases Consumption in Offspring: Possible Underlying Mechanisms Full Text available with Trip Pro

Consumption of Substances of Abuse during Pregnancy Increases Consumption in Offspring: Possible Underlying Mechanisms Correlative human observational studies on substances of abuse have been highly dependent on the use of rodent models to determine the neuronal and molecular mechanisms that control behavioral outcomes. This is particularly true for gestational exposure to non-illicit substances of abuse, such as excessive dietary fat, ethanol, and nicotine, which are commonly consumed in our (...) society. Exposure to these substances during the prenatal period has been shown in offspring to increase their intake of these substances, induce other behavioral changes, and affect neurochemical systems in several brain areas that are known to control behavior. More importantly, emerging studies are linking the function of the immune system to these neurochemicals and ingestion of these abused substances. This review article will summarize the prenatal rodent models used to study developmental

2016 Frontiers in nutrition

19. Prevalence of prenatal exposure to substances of abuse: questionnaire versus biomarkers Full Text available with Trip Pro

, and seven of them about drugs of abuse. Women who admitted consumption during pregnancy by questionnaire varied from 0 to 37% for alcohol, from 0 to 4.3% for cocaine, and 2.9% for tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). Positive biomarkers results ranged from 16 to 44% for alcohol, 15.4% for cocaine, and from 4 to 12.4% for THC. Biomarkers should always complement questionnaires, as it has been shown that self-report may underestimate prenatal exposure to substances of abuse. (...) Prevalence of prenatal exposure to substances of abuse: questionnaire versus biomarkers Alcohol and drugs of abuse consumption in young adults, including women of childbearing age, has experienced significant increase over the past two decades. The use of questionnaires as the only measure to investigate prenatal alcohol and drugs of abuse exposure underestimates the real prevalence of exposure and could mislead to wrong conclusions. Therefore, the aim of this article was to compare reported

2017 Reproductive health

20. Comparison and validation of screening tools for substance use in pregnancy: a cross-sectional study conducted in Maryland prenatal clinics. Full Text available with Trip Pro

problematic drug use during pregnancy is screening; however, no specific substance-use screener has been universally recommended for use with pregnant women to identify illicit or prescription-drug use. This study compares and validates three existing substance-use screeners for pregnancy-4 P's Plus, National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) Quick Screen/Alcohol, Smoking, and Substance Involvement Screening Test (ASSIST) and the Substance Use Risk Profile-Pregnancy (SURP-P) scale.This is a cross-sectional (...) Comparison and validation of screening tools for substance use in pregnancy: a cross-sectional study conducted in Maryland prenatal clinics. Prescription-drug use in the USA has increased by more than 60% in the last three decades. Prevalence of prescription-drug use among pregnant women is currently estimated around 50%. Prevalence of illicit drug use in the USA is 14.6% among pregnant adolescents, 8.6% among pregnant young adults and 3.2% among pregnant adults. The first step in identifying

2018 BMJ open

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