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Submandibular Gland

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1. Submandibular gland botulinum neurotoxin A injection for predicting the outcome of submandibular duct relocation in drooling: a retrospective cohort study. (PubMed)

Submandibular gland botulinum neurotoxin A injection for predicting the outcome of submandibular duct relocation in drooling: a retrospective cohort study. This study evaluated whether the effect of submandibular gland botulinum neurotoxin A (BoNT-A) injection can predict the outcome of submandibular duct relocation with sublingual gland excision (SMDR) in children with drooling. Furthermore, we compared the effectiveness of both procedures.A retrospective cohort study was performed in 42 (...) in drooling. Furthermore, SMDR has a larger and longer-lasting positive effect on drooling than BoNT-A injections.Submandibular botulinum neurotoxin A (BoNT-A) injection effect does not predict submandibular duct relocation with sublingual gland excision outcome. Submandibular duct relocation is more effective and more permanent than BoNT-A injection.© 2019 Mac Keith Press.

2019 Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology

2. Submandibular sialolithiasis with CT and scintigraphy: CT values and salivary gland excretion in the submandibular glands (PubMed)

Submandibular sialolithiasis with CT and scintigraphy: CT values and salivary gland excretion in the submandibular glands Sialolithiasis is one of the most prevalent large obstructive disorders of the submandibular glands. The aim of this study was to investigate submandibular sialolithiasis with computed tomography (CT) and scintigraphy, with a particular focus on the relationship between CT values of the submandibular glands and their excretion rate.Fifteen patients with submandibular (...) sialolithiasis who underwent CT and salivary gland scintigraphy were included in this study. The relationship between the CT values of submandibular glands with and without sialoliths and salivary gland excretion measured using salivary gland scintigraphy was statistically analyzed. Dynamic images were recorded on the computer at 1 frame per 20 seconds. The salivary gland excretion fraction was defined as A (before stimulation test [counts/frame]) / B(after stimulation test [counts/frame]) using time

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2017 Imaging Science in Dentistry

3. Comparison of treatment techniques for reduction in the submandibular gland dose: A retrospective study (PubMed)

Comparison of treatment techniques for reduction in the submandibular gland dose: A retrospective study Recent studies have suggested reducing the dose submandibular glands receive when patients undergo head and neck radiotherapy can play a crucial role in preventing xerostomia. However, they are traditionally not spared due to concern that target coverage may be compromised. We investigated the possibility of sparing the contralateral submandibular gland (cSM) by utilising modern planning (...) techniques.10 head and neck patients previously treated with conformal therapy at our centre were retrospectively planned using intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT), and volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT). Each patient was prescribed 70 Gy in 35 fractions to the primary volume, with 56 Gy delivered to the elective nodal areas. The primary objective was to spare the cSM gland using appropriate dose constraints.Mean dose to the cSM gland was reduced to an acceptable dose level (39 Gy) for all

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2017 Journal of medical radiation sciences

4. Long‐term oncologic and functional outcome in pleomorphic adenomas of the submandibular gland (PubMed)

Long‐term oncologic and functional outcome in pleomorphic adenomas of the submandibular gland The aim of the study was to evaluate the oncologic and functional long-term outcome after surgical therapy of pleomorphic adenomas of the submandibular gland.The medical charts of all patients treated for pleomorphic adenomas of the submandibular gland by means of submandibulectomy between 2000 and 2016 were studied retrospectively. Patients who had had revision after external primary surgery (...) paresis of the marginal mandibular branch of the facial nerve (House-Brackmann II) could be detected in the direct postoperative phase. All cases with facial palsy had recovered with normal facial nerve function (House-Brackmann I) in 3-6 months.Our study was able to show oncologic and consistently acceptable oncologic and functional outcomes after submandibulectomy for pleomorphic adenomas of the submandibular gland.4.

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2017 Laryngoscope investigative otolaryngology

5. A gland of diverse pathology and unpredictable behaviour: our experience of primary submandibular gland malignancies. (PubMed)

A gland of diverse pathology and unpredictable behaviour: our experience of primary submandibular gland malignancies. Submandibular gland tumours are relatively uncommon tumours and demonstrate diverse histological types and a variable prognosis. The aim of this study was to analyze our experience with submandibular malignancies over a period of 6 years (January 2009 to December 2015). Patient data from the 6-year period were reviewed retrospectively and 51 patients with submandibular

2018 International Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery

6. Submandibular gland invasion and feasibility of gland-sparing neck dissection in oral cavity carcinoma. (PubMed)

Submandibular gland invasion and feasibility of gland-sparing neck dissection in oral cavity carcinoma. This study investigated the incidence and routes of submandibular gland involvement in oral cavity carcinoma to determine the feasibility of submandibular gland sparing neck dissection.The records of 155 patients diagnosed with oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma, with a total of 183 neck specimens, including those involving level I, were reviewed retrospectively.Submandibular gland (...) involvement, via direct invasion from the anatomical proximity of T4a tumours, was evident in two patients. The floor of mouth location, either primarily or as an extension of the primary tumour, was the only risk factor for submandibular gland involvement in oral cavity carcinoma (p = 0.042). Tumour location, clinical and pathological tumour (T) and nodal (N) stages, and radiological suspicion of mandible invasion, were not found to be statistically relevant (p > 0.05).The results suggest the feasibility

2018 Journal of Laryngology & Otology

7. Endoscope-assisted submandibular sialadenectomy: a new minimally invasive approach to the submandibular gland. (PubMed)

Endoscope-assisted submandibular sialadenectomy: a new minimally invasive approach to the submandibular gland. Although submandibular sialadenectomy with a minimal incision improves overall cosmetic outcomes, visualization of the surgical field exposure is relatively limited as compared with that in the conventional procedure. To overcome this limitation, we applied the endoscope system to submandibular sialadenectomy. The aim of this study was to evaluate the technical feasibility (...) and potential role of our endoscope-assisted submandibular sialadenectomy (EASS).We performed EASS on 5 patients, 3 of whom had intraparenchymal sialolithiasis and 2 of whom had pleomorphic adenomas. The dissection was carried out by bipolar dissection with a 4-mm nasal endoscope system.The procedure achieved successful results for all 5 patients except for 1 who had severe adhesion to the adjacent tissues; this patient suffered from postoperative lingual nerve paresthesia. All the patients achieved good

2017 American Journal of Otolaryngology

8. Functional characterization and genomic studies of a novel murine submandibular gland epithelial cell line. (PubMed)

Functional characterization and genomic studies of a novel murine submandibular gland epithelial cell line. A better understanding of the normal and diseased biology of salivary glands (SG) has been hampered, in part, due to difficulties in cultivating and maintaining salivary epithelial cells. Towards this end, we have generated a mouse salivary gland epithelial cell (mSGc) culture system that is well-suited for the molecular characterization of SG cells and their differentiation program. We (...) demonstrate that mSGc can be maintained for multiple passages without a loss of proliferation potential, readily form 3D-spheroids and importantly express a panel of well-established salivary gland epithelial cell markers. Moreover, mSGc 3D-spheroids also exhibit functional maturation as evident by robust agonist-induced intracellular calcium signaling. Finally, transcriptomic characterization of mSGc by RNA-seq and hierarchical clustering analysis with adult organ RNA-seq datasets reveal that mSGc retain

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2018 PLoS ONE

9. Mesenchymal Stem Cell Therapy in Submandibular Salivary Gland Allotransplantation: Experimental Study. (PubMed)

Mesenchymal Stem Cell Therapy in Submandibular Salivary Gland Allotransplantation: Experimental Study. Allotransplantation of submandibular salivary glands (SMGs) could be an alternative treatment option for severe keratoconjunctivitis sicca in non-candidates for autologous submandibular salivary gland transplantation. This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of allogeneic mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) therapy on the survival of allotransplanted SMGs.Thirty-six SMG allotransplantations (n (...) = 6 per group) were performed in New Zealand white (NZW) rabbits and randomly divided into the following groups: Allograft control (Allo-Ctrl), low dose FK506 (FK506-L), high dose FK506 (FK506-H), allogeneic MSCs, MSCs+FK506-L, and MSCs+FK506-H. Rabbits were closely observed for two weeks. Gland viability and rejection were assessed by monitoring interleukin-2 (IL-2) levels by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), sialoscintigraphy, M3-muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (M3 receptor

2019 Transplantation

10. Phenylephrine Alleviates <sup>131</sup>I Radiation Damage in Submandibular Gland through Maintaining Mitochondrial Homeostasis. (PubMed)

Phenylephrine Alleviates 131I Radiation Damage in Submandibular Gland through Maintaining Mitochondrial Homeostasis. The impairment of the salivary glands is a permanent side effect of 131I ablation therapy for patients with differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC). Effective and safe treatments for protecting the salivary glands against 131I are currently not available. Mitochondria are susceptible to ionizing radiation, but its alterations after 131I exposure are unknown. Here we (...) investigated the mechanisms of 131I damage in submandibular glands (SMGs) and evaluated the cytoprotective effect of phenylephrine (PE) on the mitochondrial radiation damage.Rats were randomly divided into four groups: control, PE alone, 131I alone, and 131I with PE pretreatment. The mitochondrial structure of SMGs was observed under TEM. Apoptosis was detected using TUNEL. Cytochrome c, cleaved-caspase 3, SIRT1, NAMPT, and PGC-1α protein levels were determined with Western blot and immunohistochemistry

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2019 Biology and Physics

11. Submandibular gland flap for reconstruction after parotidectomy. (PubMed)

Submandibular gland flap for reconstruction after parotidectomy. Description of a novel use of a submandibular gland (SMG) flap pedicled on the facial vessels to restore facial volume after parotidectomy, and comparison of clinical outcomes with alternative modes of reconstruction.Retrospective chart review.The surgical technique for a SMG flap is described. Retrospective chart review of cases of parotidectomy at a single tertiary medical center was conducted (n = 43). Cases were grouped

2019 Laryngoscope

12. Functional outcomes of the modified submandibular gland transfer procedure. (PubMed)

Functional outcomes of the modified submandibular gland transfer procedure. Treatment for advanced head and neck cancers typically includes surgery followed by radiation therapy (RT). Radiation-induced xerostomia is a common sequela of these treatments. The modified submandibular gland transfer (M-SGT) procedure was developed to decrease xerostomia in the treatment of oral cavity cancer by sparing one submandibular gland (SMG) from radiation. This study's objectives were to: 1) elucidate (...) the radiation-sparing capacity of the M-SGT, and 2) study the xerostomia-reducing potential of the M-SGT based on the University of Washington Quality-of-Life Questionnaire (UW-QOL).Radiation therapy treatment plans were reviewed for all patients treated with surgery and RT who had a M-SGT at the University of Alberta Hospital during the study period. Outcomes included: 1) radiation dose received by the transferred SMG within the periparotid area compared to the submandibular triangle (ST), and 2) patient

2019 Laryngoscope

13. Unsuccessful submandibular duct surgery for anterior drooling: Surgical failure or parotid gland salivation? (PubMed)

Unsuccessful submandibular duct surgery for anterior drooling: Surgical failure or parotid gland salivation? To evaluate if drooling recurrence after surgery of the submandibular ducts is due to surgical failure or other variables.Historic cohort with prospective collected data of all patients with severe drooling who underwent unsuccessful submandibular duct surgery with subsequent re-intervention between 2003 and 2018. A reference cohort was used for comparison of clinical variables.Six males (...) and 4 females were included (cerebral palsy n = 8, neurodevelopmental disorders n = 2). All patients underwent submandibular gland surgery as a primary intervention (duct ligation n = 8, submandibular duct relocation n = 2) followed by re-intervention (submandibular gland excision n = 7, parotid duct ligation n = 3). One patient underwent tertiary surgery (parotid duct ligation after re-intervention by submandibular gland excision). Three patients were successful after re-intervention. No difference

2019 International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology

14. Larrea divaricata Cav. aqueous extract and nordihydroguariaretic acid modulate oxidative stress in submandibular glands of diabetic rats: a buccal protective in diabetes. (PubMed)

Larrea divaricata Cav. aqueous extract and nordihydroguariaretic acid modulate oxidative stress in submandibular glands of diabetic rats: a buccal protective in diabetes. Oxidative stress is an imbalance between the levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS), reactive nitrogen species (RNS) and endogenous antioxidants. The aetiology and pathogenesis of several oral diseases are attributed to this process. The antioxidant enzymes secreted in the saliva by submandibular glands maintain oral health (...) through the scavenging of ROS. The objective of this work was to study the capacity of an aqueous extract of L. divaricata (AE), and its majority compound, nordihydroguariaretic acid (NDGA), to modulate the pro-oxidant/antioxidant status in submandibular glands in a model of oxidative stress induced by streptozotocin (STZ) in rats.To induce oxidative stress with STZ, a group of animals was treated i.p. with 1 X PBS (control group) and other group was injected i.p. once with STZ (60 mg/kg). Ten days

2019 BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine

15. The Effects of Low-Power Laser Irradiation on Inflammation and Apoptosis in Submandibular Glands of Diabetes-Induced Rats. (PubMed)

The Effects of Low-Power Laser Irradiation on Inflammation and Apoptosis in Submandibular Glands of Diabetes-Induced Rats. Diabetes can lead to dysfunction of the secretory capacity in salivary glands. Activation of the receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) and its ligands has been suggested to participate in chronic disorders such as diabetes and its complications. In this study, the expression of RAGE, high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) and advanced glycation end products (AGE (...) ), as well as the effects of low-power laser irradiation (LPLI) in salivary glands of diabetic rats were evaluated, and the mechanisms involved were characterized. The expression of RAGE and HMGB1 at the protein and mRNA levels was observed in submandibular glands (SMGs) of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. A diode laser was applied at 660 nm, 70 mW, 20 J/cm2, 0.56 J/point, with a spot area of 0.028 cm2 and its in vivo effects and the pathways involved were evaluated. Immunohistochemistry and western

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2017 PLoS ONE

16. Transcervical approach to the removal of a deep-seated giant submandibular calculus and the submandibular gland (PubMed)

Transcervical approach to the removal of a deep-seated giant submandibular calculus and the submandibular gland Sialolithiasis is among the most common disease affecting the major salivary glands whereby the submandibular gland or its duct is affected in the majority of cases. We report a case of the surgical removal of a giant sialolith along with the submandibular gland using the transcervical approach and its clinical outcome.2016 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

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2016 BMJ case reports

17. Chloride Influx of Anion Exchanger 2 Was Modulated by Calcium-Dependent Spinophilin in Submandibular Glands (PubMed)

Chloride Influx of Anion Exchanger 2 Was Modulated by Calcium-Dependent Spinophilin in Submandibular Glands Secretory glands including salivary glands by many hormonal inputs produce and secrete biological fluids determined by variety of ion transporters. Spinophilin is a multifunctional scaffolding protein, which involved in receptor signaling and regulation of anion exchangers AE2 activity. We found that spinophilin expressed in salivary glands. The role of salivary spinophilin (...) , role of salivary spinophilin on AE2 may facilitate the Cl- influx from basolateral in salivary glands in response to cholinergic inputs.

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2018 Frontiers in physiology

18. Autonomic reinnervation and functional regeneration in autologous transplanted submandibular glands in patients with severe keratoconjunctivitis sicca (PubMed)

Autonomic reinnervation and functional regeneration in autologous transplanted submandibular glands in patients with severe keratoconjunctivitis sicca Autologous submandibular gland (SMG) transplantation has been proved to ameliorate the discomforts in patients with severe keratoconjunctivitis sicca. The transplanted glands underwent a hypofunctional period and then restored secretion spontaneously. This study aims to investigate whether autonomic nerves reinnervate the grafts and contribute (...) to the functional recovery, and further determine the origin of these nerves. Parts of the transplanted SMGs were collected from the epiphora patients, and a rabbit SMG transplantation model was established to fulfill the serial observation on the transplanted glands with time. The results showed that autonomic nerves distributed in the transplanted SMGs and parasympathetic ganglionic cells were observed in the stroma of the glands. Low-dense and unevenly distributed cholinergic axons, severe acinar atrophy

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2018 International journal of oral science

19. Retroductal Nanoparticle Injection to the Murine Submandibular Gland (PubMed)

Retroductal Nanoparticle Injection to the Murine Submandibular Gland Two common goals of salivary gland therapeutics are prevention and cure of tissue dysfunction following either autoimmune or radiation injury. By locally delivering bioactive compounds to the salivary glands, greater tissue concentrations can be safely achieved versus systemic administration. Furthermore, off target tissue effects from extra-glandular accumulation of material can be dramatically reduced. In this regard (...) to the murine submandibular gland through Wharton's duct is detailed (Figure 1). We describe accessing the oral cavity and outline the steps necessary to cannulate Wharton's duct, with further observations serving as quality checks throughout the procedure.

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2018 Journal of visualized experiments : JoVE

20. Enhanced expression of IL-34 in an inflammatory cyst of the submandibular gland: a case report (PubMed)

Enhanced expression of IL-34 in an inflammatory cyst of the submandibular gland: a case report Cysts of the salivary glands are common lesions that occur in the context of various etiologies. Although the diagnostic importance of cysts in salivary gland diseases has been well studied, molecular mechanisms that control the related pathological process remain largely unknown. IL-34 is a novel cytokine that was discovered recently as a tissue-specific ligand of colony stimulating factor-1 receptor (...) . Since its discovery, accumulating evidence has revealed emerging roles of IL-34 in various pathological conditions and has been suggested to correlate remarkably with inflammation. In this study, we report a medical case of an inflammatory cyst within the submandibular gland, through which evaluating the possible involvement of IL-34 in salivary gland disorders.A 37-year-old male patient suffered from a sudden swelling in the right submandibular region, started initially small and had gradually

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2018 Inflammation and regeneration

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