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Subcutaneous Fat Necrosis

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161. Pentosan polysulfate sodium (Elmiron) - Interstitial Cystitis

studies (randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled) conducted in Europe which enrolled 115 patients in 7 centres in Denmark and the UK (Holm-Bentzen et al 1987). Another randomized active-controlled study comparing PPS versus Cyclosporine A was conducted in Europe and published in 2005. This study enrolled 64 patients in 7 Finnish urological units (Sairanen et al 2005). A clinical study conducted in Germany included 58 patients in order to evaluate the safety and efficacy of subcutaneous low-dose

2017 European Medicines Agency - EPARs

162. What Is the Utility of Ultrasonography for the Identification of Skin and Soft Tissue Infections in the Emergency Department? Full Text available with Trip Pro

: a report of three cases. J Emerg Med . 2014 ; 47 : 420–426 | | | | | On ultrasonography, abscesses will generally appear spherical or ovoid, although irregular borders are also commonly observed. They tend to have hypoechoic centers, and peripheral hyperemia may be noted. Cellulitis presents with hyperechoic, subcutaneous fat lobules floating in edematous fluid, referred to as “cobblestoning.” However, many abscesses are surrounded by a rim of cellulitis, so it is important to visualize the entire area (...) abscesses, pyomyositis, and necrotizing fasciitis. x 5 Talan, D.A., Mower, W.R., Krishnadasan, A. et al. Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole versus placebo for uncomplicated skin abscess. N Engl J Med . 2016 ; 374 : 823–832 | | | , x 6 Pulia, M.S., Calderone, M.R., Meister, J.R. et al. Update on management of skin and soft tissue infections in the emergency department. Curr Infect Dis Rep . 2014 ; 16 : 418 | | | , x 7 Kumar, M.P., Seif, D., Perera, P. et al. Point-of-care ultrasound in diagnosing pyomyositis

2017 Annals of Emergency Medicine Systematic Review Snapshots

163. Venetoclax (Venclyxto) - Chronic, B-Cell Lymphocytic Leukemia

administered at a single dose or at repetitive doses was evaluated. Subcutaneous as well as systemic xenograft models were subjected to venetoclax single-agent therapy. The set of toxicology studies was designed to support the development of venetoclax for the target indication based on ICH S9 and for future oncology indications outside of the scope of advanced cancer and falling under the ICH M3 (R2). Conduct of an in vivo micronucleus study, fertility and early embryonic development studies

2017 European Medicines Agency - EPARs

164. Obeticholic acid (Ocaliva) - Liver Cirrhosis, Biliary

intrahepatic portosystemic shunt TNF-a tumor necrosis factor-alpha TNF-ß tumor necrosis factor-beta UDCA ursodeoxycholic acid ULN upper limit(s) of normal VAS visual analog scale VLDL very low-density lipoprotein VLDLc very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol WHO World Health Organization WHODDE World Health Organization Drug Dictionary Enhanced Assessment report EMA/725757/2016 Page 7/129 1. Background information on the procedure 1.1. Submission of the dossier The applicant Intercept Italia s.r.l (...) conducted outside the community were carried out in accordance with the ethical standards of Directive 2001/20/EC. • Tabular overview of clinical studies Study No. Objective(s) Bioavailability (BA) Study Reports 747-104 To assess the effect of fed conditions (high fat, high calorie) on the PK of OCA D8601002 To evaluate safety and PK of DSP-1747 (OCA) after single and multiple oral administration of DSP-1747 in Japanese healthy adult male volunteers 747-113 1) Determine the absolute BA of OCA in healthy

2017 European Medicines Agency - EPARs

165. Surgical and non-surgical procedures for eyebrow lift: systematic review and decision flowchart Full Text available with Trip Pro

incision (upper right), endoscopic (lower left) and direct elevation of the eyebrow (bottom right). Dissection approaches may be subcutaneous, subgaleal, or subperiosteal. The subcutaneous plane can be used in patients with very pronounced frontal wrinkles with lateral eyebrow drop, and in reoperation cases. Although there is a higher accuracy of eyebrow positioning, there is also a higher risk of flap necrosis, alopecia, and dehiscence. The subgaleal plane is an avascular plane that also raises (...) necrosis, alopecia, and asymmetry or overcorrection of the eyebrows. There is no evidence in the literature that favors one surgical approach at the expense of another - . Figure 2 - Pre- and 1 year postoperative aspect of open rhytidoplasty with pretrichial incision (upper left), coronal incision (upper right), endoscopic (lower left) and direct elevation of the eyebrow (bottom right). Figure 2 - Pre- and 1 year postoperative aspect of open rhytidoplasty with pretrichial incision (upper left), coronal

2019 Revista Brasileira de Cirurgia Plástica (RBCP) – Brazilian Journal of Plastic Sugery

166. Drugs-related cardiomyopathy: A systematic review and pooled analysis of pathophysiology, diagnosis and clinical management Full Text available with Trip Pro

within weeks of initial treatment, and in contrast to anthracyclines, trastuzumab-induced cardiotoxicity is independent of dosing regimens. The cardiotoxicity is also transient and reversible, and does not show typical anthracycline-induced cardiomyocyte necrosis or cardiomyocyte damage on cardiac biopsy [21]. Concurrent or prior use of other cardiotoxic chemotherapy drugs (mostly anthracyclines but also cyclophosphamide or paclitaxel) has been reported as the major risk factor for development (...) for trastuzumab-induced CM is associated with the blockade of HER2 + receptor signals in cardiomyocytes [74]. The inhibition of HER2 + interferes with the usual repair mechanism of cardiomyocyte, which exacerbates myocyte apoptosis and necrosis [75]. For cyclophosphamide associated CM, suggested pathophysiologic mechanisms involve cyclophosphamide metabolites that cause oxidative stress and direct endothelial capillary damage with resultant extravasation of proteins, erythrocytes and toxic metabolites

2019 Internal Medicine and Care

167. Hepato-Protective Effect from Natural Compounds, Biological Products and Medicinal Plant Extracts on Antitubercular Drug-Induced Liver Injuries: A Systematic Review Full Text available with Trip Pro

, CAT and malonaldehyde (MDA). The results showed a statistically significant reduction of enzyme values in the group co-treated with the extract, being very close to the control group (without any treatment) in all the parameters evaluated; likewise, an increase was noted in levels of SOD and CAT and a reduction in MDA values very close to controls. Regarding microscopic findings, a necrosis reduction and hepatocytes with low fat content and clear cytoplasm, moderately congested central vein, liver (...) ) [ - ]. It is well known that INH and RIF are metabolized by various hepatic enzymes of the cytochrome P450 family [ ]. RIF induces isoforms CYP2D6, CYP3A4, CYP2C18, CYP2B6, CYP2C9, CYP2C19 of the cytochrome, while INH induces CYP2E1. INH also generates toxic metabolites such as hydrazine, favoring OS in humans and in animal models; hydrazine causes hepatic necrosis. Likewise, INH inhibits cytochrome P450 1A2 reductase, an enzyme involved in the de-toxification of hydrazine, it leads to an increase in HPT

2019 Medicinal & Aromatic Plants

169. Dyslipidaemias Full Text available with Trip Pro

acid ER extended release ESC European Society of Cardiology ESRD end-stage renal disease EU European Union FACE-BD Fondamental Academic Centers of Expertise in Bipolar Disorders FATS Familial Atherosclerosis Treatment Study FCH familial combined hyperlipidaemia FDA US Food and Drug Administration FDC fixed-dose combination FH familial hypercholesterolaemia FIELD Fenofibrate Intervention and Event Lowering in Diabetes FOCUS Fixed-Dose Combination Drug for Secondary Cardiovascular Prevention GFR

2016 European Society of Cardiology

171. Antibacterial-coated sutures versus non-antibacterial-coated sutures for the prevention of abdominal, superficial and deep, surgical site infection (SSI)

and subcutaneous tissue of the incision (superficial incisional) and/or the deep soft tissue (for example, fascia, muscle) of the incision (deep incisional) and/or any part of the anatomy (for example, organs and spaces) other than the incision that was opened or manipulated during an operation (organ/space) [11]. Overall, Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli were the most commonly reported microorganisms (A0002). SSI occurs after pathogenic organisms multiply in a wound and cause local signs (...) understood [42]. Rarely, microorganisms from a distant source of infection, principally through haematogenous spread, can cause an SSI by attaching to a prosthesis or other implant left in an operative site [62]. SSIs are potentiated by the sutures when necrotic or devascularized tissue, hematoma or dead space caused by tissue damage or poor surgical technique are present [93]. The adherence of microorganisms to the suture material is highly variable. There are several variables that affect adherence

2017 EUnetHTA

172. Chilblains: What else might it be?

Panniculitis (inflammation of the subcutaneous fat) caused by cold exposure. Infants are particularly susceptible to cold panniculitis but it may also occur in adults, typically obese females. Livedo reticularis Mottled, cyanotic discolouration of the skin with a characteristic network pattern — accentuated by cold. Vascular or neuropathic conditions Peripheral vascular disease, diabetes mellitus (diabetic foot), and vasculitis may present with skin changes similar to chilblains. Granuloma annulare (...) . Cryoglobinaemia — cryoglobulins are immunoglobulins that reversibly precipitate or gel in the cold leading to occlusion syndromes. This may present as necrotic or purpuric lesions on acral skin which have been triggered by cold exposure. Raynaud's phenomenon Characteristic paroxysmal and biphasic white, and later blue discolouration, after exposure to cold. For further information, see the CKS topic on . Acrocyanosis Persistent painless cyanotic or erythrocyanotic mottled duskiness of the hands (less commonly

2017 NICE Clinical Knowledge Summaries

176. Recommendation on Design, Execution, and Reporting of Animal Atherosclerosis Studies: A Scientific Statement From the American Heart Association Full Text available with Trip Pro

atherosclerosis and results in elevated total plasma cholesterol concentrations of >1000 mg/dL. Western diet feeding results in a more foam cell–rich atherosclerosis, with lesions containing cholesterol crystals, necrotic cores, and calcifications. However, a fat-enriched diet can alter the outcomes of atherosclerosis because of the induction of pronounced hypercholesterolemia. For example, recombination-activating gene 1–deficient (Rag1 −/− ) mice on an apoE −/− background have attenuated atherosclerosis (...) lesions occur as quickly as 12 to 18 months. The atheroma is more advanced and humanoid in these pigs, characterized by complicated stenotic lesions containing fibrous caps, necrotic cores, cholesterol clefts, granular calcium deposits, and neovascularization deep within the lesion of the major coronary arteries by 24 months. Similar to the high-fat, high-cholesterol pig model, these hypercholesterolemic pigs are a long-term model with dramatic expenses and a size that presents challenges

2017 American Heart Association

177. Diagnosis, Treatment, and Long-Term Management of Kawasaki Disease: A Scientific Statement for Health Professionals From the American Heart Association Full Text available with Trip Pro

of the interleukin (IL) 1, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF) signaling pathways. Study of the adaptive immune response demonstrated that both proinflammatory and regulatory T cells can be found in the circulation in the first week after fever onset. Expansion of the regulatory T-cell population after IVIG administration is associated with cessation of fever and clinical improvement. The self-limited nature of the disease coupled with a low rate of recurrence suggests emergence of T- and B-cell memory (...) meningitis, irritability), heart (myocarditis, pericarditis, valvulitis), urinary tract (pyuria), pancreas (pancreatitis), and lymph nodes (lymphadenopathy). Unfortunately, lymph node pathology is nonspecific and nondiagnostic. Intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies are commonly observed in ciliated bronchial epithelial cells in autopsied cases. , , A recently proposed model of KD arteriopathy identified 3 pathological processes. The first is a necrotizing arteritis that consists of a synchronized

2017 American Heart Association

178. Imaging of Deep Inferior Epigastric Arteries for Surgical Planning (Breast Reconstruction Surgery)

within the flap with an extended vascular territory beyond the midline to best provide optimal perfusion, preservation of muscle innervation, and avoid fat necrosis [14-16]. Additionally, a short intramuscular course a Principal Author, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut. b Research Author, Stanford University, Stanford, California. c Panel Chair, UMass Memorial Medical Center, Worcester, Massachusetts. d Panel Vice-Chair, University of Virginia Health System, Charlottesville (...) divided into intramuscular, subfascial, and subcutaneous segments [3,4]. This unpredictable anatomy may lead to lengthy perforator vessel selection and therefore longer operative times when imaging is not used as part of the preoperative planning. Additionally, preoperative imaging planning that accurately maps the perforators and its branches leads to reduced operative time, reduced abdominal morbidity, and increased flap reliability [5-13]. The information most critical to the surgical team includes

2017 American College of Radiology

179. Hepatic Issues and Complications Associated With Inflammatory Bowel Disease: A Clinical Report From the NASPGHAN Inflammatory Bowel Disease and Hepatology Committees

: Cholelithiasis Viral Hepatitis Transplant issues IgG4 cholangiopathy Granulomatous hepatitis Primary biliary cirrhosis Hepatic amyloidosis Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease/steatohepatitis TNF ¼ tumor necrosis factor. Saubermann et al JPGN Volume 64, Number 4, April 2017 640 www.jpgn.org Copyright © ESPGHAL and NASPGHAN. All rights reserved. improve patient survival with the native liver (35). ERCP should be performed by interventional endoscopists with experience in PSC management. Perioperative antibiotics (...) , a persistent antiphospholipid antibody, oral contraceptive use, smoking, obesity, thalidomide, or having a central venous catheter (65). If thromboprophylaxis is planned, then low-molecular-weight heparin is recommended. The dosing of enoxaparin is weight based with patients>60 kg receiving either 30 mg subcutaneous twice daily, or 40 mg once daily, and patients 30 cm are associated with an odds ratio of 7 (95% confidence interval, 2.6–19.3] for the development of gallstones (70). Similarly, another study

2017 North American Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition

180. CrackCAST E136 – Bone and Joint Infections

back and take a listen of episodes 116 and 117 for more review. However, Bone & Joint infections are something to know about! Approximately 1% of all hospitalised patients have a Bone & Joint Infection, something Rosen’s calls BJIs… but lets’ not use that shorthand in radio format:) What are we talking about with this chapter? Orthopedic infections classified by site of involvement: Osseous (osteomyelitis) Articular (septic/ pyogenic/suppurative arthritis) Bursal (septic bursitis) Subcutaneous (...) ossifies, a little bacteria highway now exists again Blood cultures are often negative (see wisecracks) Contiguous +/- vascular insufficiency Involves the direct spread of bacteria from surrounding infected areas Causes most osteomyelitis in the appendicular skeleton (eg. foot, hand, skull, maxilla, and mandible) Eventually infected bone becomes necrotic from lack of blood supply, causing areas termed Bone is smart. To compensate it surrounds sequestra with new bone termed involucrum. This makes

2017 CandiEM

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