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Subcutaneous Fat Necrosis

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121. Pruritus

, papulo-vesicles, blisters, pustules or wheals are observable and, according to the patient history, have been present since the onset of itch, pruritus on primarily diseased (inflamed) skin can be diagnosed. Further investigations can be performed to determine the underlying dermatosis, including skin biopsy, microbiological investigations and, in certain cases, laboratory testing (e.g. IgE, indirect immunofluorescence). 21 Secondary skin lesions encompass excoriations, ulcerations, necrosis, crusts

2019 European Dermatology Forum

123. Characteristics, Prevention, and Management of Cardiovascular Disease in People Living With HIV: A Scientific Statement From the American Heart Association

Africa for diabetes mellitus and prediabetes mellitus, respectively. Mechanisms may relate to effects of specific ART on glucose translocation, inflammation, and lipodystrophy. Diabetes mellitus has been linked to ASCVD in HIV such that PLWH with diabetes mellitus have a 2.4-fold increased risk of coronary heart disease events. Body composition changes are common in HIV. Patients presenting in the initial era of ART often demonstrated relative loss of subcutaneous fat and gain in abdominal visceral (...) fat. The changes in fat distribution were often heterogeneous and frequently were associated with insulin resistance and deposition of ectopic adipose in the liver and muscle. Multiple factors contributed to these changes, including effects of ART. Use of specific thymidine NRTIs is associated with subcutaneous fat loss and deposition of ectopic adipose tissue in the liver and muscle, as well as arterial inflammation. Early PI therapy was associated with increased abdominal fat gain. In the modern

2019 American Heart Association

127. Male Sexual Dysfunction

to successful intercourse with vardenafil determined in an at-home setting: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. J Sex Med, 2004. 1: 168. 205. Padma-Nathan, H., et al. Minimal time to successful intercourse after sildenafil citrate: results of a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Urology, 2003. 62: 400. 206. Rajagopalan, P., et al. Effect of high-fat breakfast and moderate-fat evening meal on the pharmacokinetics of vardenafil, an oral phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitor

2019 European Association of Urology

129. Renal Cell Carcinoma

. 185: 2035. 89. Novara, G., et al. Validation of the 2009 TNM version in a large multi-institutional cohort of patients treated for renal cell carcinoma: are further improvements needed? Eur Urol, 2010. 58: 588. 90. Waalkes, S., et al. Is there a need to further subclassify pT2 renal cell cancers as implemented by the revised 7th TNM version? Eur Urol, 2011. 59: 258. 91. Bertini, R., et al. Renal sinus fat invasion in pT3a clear cell renal cell carcinoma affects outcomes of patients without nodal (...) involvement or distant metastases. J Urol, 2009. 181: 2027. 92. Poon, S.A., et al. Invasion of renal sinus fat is not an independent predictor of survival in pT3a renal cell carcinoma. BJU Int, 2009. 103: 1622. 93. Bedke, J., et al. Perinephric and renal sinus fat infiltration in pT3a renal cell carcinoma: possible prognostic differences. BJU Int, 2009. 103: 1349. 94. Heidenreich, A., et al. Preoperative imaging in renal cell cancer. World J Urol, 2004. 22: 307. 95. Sheth, S., et al. Current concepts

2019 European Association of Urology

130. Canadian Urological Association guideline on the care of the normal foreskin and neonatal circumcision in Canadian infants (Full Version)

on the Cochrane review by Brady-Fryer, a DPNB is the most effective intervention for circumcision-related pain with the caveat that the injection is performed appropriately. 180 A ring block has similar efficacy and may be easier and safer to use. EMLA cream and other topical anesthetics are an option when expertise with penile nerve blocks is not available, and ideally should be used in conjunction with a block. The DPNB is performed by injecting subcutaneously at the 11 and 1 o’clock positions on the dorsum (...) appearance, tim- ing of circumcision, patient anatomic factors, gestational age, and the accuracy and degree of reporting. Proper pre- operative assessment and examination recognizing possi- ble complicating factors (webbing, ventral skin deficiency, suprapubic fat pad) and adequate postoperative instructions can prevent the commonest complications. Neonatal circumcisions are performed in the community by a variety of practitioners and the complication rate is higher than that for procedures carried out

2018 Canadian Urological Association

131. Cutaneous melanoma

with a 2 mm surround of normal skin and a cuff of fat. 63 This enables assessment of the entire lesion (see section 5.1). Elliptical excisions should be performed along the long axis in the line of a natural skin crease or longitudinally in limbs. The exact surgical margins of excision should be recorded on the operation note. Non-excisional biopsy may lead to inadequate histology. 64-68 The least useful type of biopsy is the superficial shave variety. Two large studies demonstrate that non-excisional (...) melanoma should be excised with a 2 mm margin and a cuff of fat. If complete excision cannot be performed as a primary procedure an incisional or punch biopsy of the most suspicious area is advised. A superficial shave biopsy is inappropriate for suspicious pigmented lesions. 4 GPs should refer urgently all patients in whom melanoma is a strong possibility rather than carry out a biopsy in primary care. Newly-diagnosed patients should receive both verbal and written information about melanoma including

2017 SIGN

132. Scleroderma Morphea

inflammation. Late lesions usually contain collagen fibers that are tightly packed and highly eosinophilic. Sweat glands are atrophic or absent. Collagen may replace fat cells in the subcutaneous tissue. Physicians should ensure that the biopsy excision is sufficiently deep as some LS subtypes may primarily involve the subcutis or underlying fascia and muscle. Clinical scores 15 Due to the difficulties of defining clinical improvement in LS, clinical scores were not available for a long period of time (...) MRI Magnetic resonance imaging mRSS Modified Rodnan Skin Score NFD Nephrogenic fibrosing dermopathy NSF Nephrogenic systemic fibrosis PAH Pulmonary arterial hypertention PCR Polymerase chain reaction PDE Phosphodiesterase PUVA Psoralen combined with UVA PGA Physician’s Global Assessment RSS Rodnan Skin Score SSc Systemic sclerosis SLE Systemic lupus erythematosus TGF Transforming growth factor TNF Tumor necrosis factor UV Ultraviolet 8 I Localized scleroderma (morphea) Introduction Localized

2018 European Dermatology Forum

136. Male Sexual Dysfunction

to successful intercourse with vardenafil determined in an at-home setting: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. J Sex Med, 2004. 1: 168. 205. Padma-Nathan, H., et al. Minimal time to successful intercourse after sildenafil citrate: results of a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Urology, 2003. 62: 400. 206. Rajagopalan, P., et al. Effect of high-fat breakfast and moderate-fat evening meal on the pharmacokinetics of vardenafil, an oral phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitor

2018 European Association of Urology

138. Renal Cell Carcinoma

. 185: 2035. 89. Novara, G., et al. Validation of the 2009 TNM version in a large multi-institutional cohort of patients treated for renal cell carcinoma: are further improvements needed? Eur Urol, 2010. 58: 588. 90. Waalkes, S., et al. Is there a need to further subclassify pT2 renal cell cancers as implemented by the revised 7th TNM version? Eur Urol, 2011. 59: 258. 91. Bertini, R., et al. Renal sinus fat invasion in pT3a clear cell renal cell carcinoma affects outcomes of patients without nodal (...) involvement or distant metastases. J Urol, 2009. 181: 2027. 92. Poon, S.A., et al. Invasion of renal sinus fat is not an independent predictor of survival in pT3a renal cell carcinoma. BJU Int, 2009. 103: 1622. 93. Bedke, J., et al. Perinephric and renal sinus fat infiltration in pT3a renal cell carcinoma: possible prognostic differences. BJU Int, 2009. 103: 1349. 94. Heidenreich, A., et al. Preoperative imaging in renal cell cancer. World J Urol, 2004. 22: 307. 95. Sheth, S., et al. Current concepts

2018 European Association of Urology

139. Drug Therapy for Early Rheumatoid Arthritis: A Systematic Review Update

and conventional synthetic disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (csDMARDs) have been prescribed the longest. Targeted synthetic disease- modifying antirheumatic drugs (tsDMARDs) were approved more recently. Additionally, many trials or observational studies in this review evaluated mainly FDA-approved biologic drugs (both tumor necrosis factor [TNF] and non-TNF drugs). The FDA has approved numerous biosimilars. We evaluated the benefits and harms of multiple drug monotherapies, combination therapies (...) (csDMARD): Hydroxychloroquine (HCQ), leflunomide (LEF), methotrexate (MTX), sulfasalazine (SSZ) Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) biologic DMARD: Adalimumab (ADA), certolizumab pegol (CZP), etanercept (ETN), golimumab (GOL), infliximab (IFX) Non-TNF biologic DMARD: Abatacept (ABA), rituximab (RIT), sarilumab (SAR), a tocilizumab (TCZ) Targeted synthetic DMARD (tsDMARD): Tofacitinib (TOF) a Biosimilars: ADA-atto, a IFX-dyyb, a IFX-abda, a ETN-szzs a Key Questions Covered by the Review 1. Benefits of drug

2018 Effective Health Care Program (AHRQ)

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