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Subcutaneous Fat Necrosis

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1021. Influence of parturition and diets enriched in n-3 or n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids on immune response of dairy cows during the transition period. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Influence of parturition and diets enriched in n-3 or n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids on immune response of dairy cows during the transition period. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the functional properties of immunocompetent cells in dairy cows fed diets enriched in n-3 or n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids during the transition period. Six weeks before calving, 21 primiparous and 27 multiparous pregnant Holstein dairy cows were randomly allotted to 1 of 3 dietary fat treatments (...) : calcium salts of palm oil (Megalac), micronized soybeans, or whole flaxseed, which are, respectively, rich in saturated, n-6, or n-3 fatty acids. On wk 6 and 3 before parturition, cows received a subcutaneous injection of ovalbumin to measure the antibody response in colostrum and serum. Colostrum samples were collected at the first milking after calving, and blood samples were taken 6, 3, and 1 wk before the expected calving date and 1, 3, and 6 wk after calving. Blood mononuclear cells were cultured

2004 Journal of dairy science Controlled trial quality: uncertain

1022. Differential gene expression indicates that 'buffalo hump' is a distinct adipose tissue disturbance in HIV-1-associated lipodystrophy. (Abstract)

in the expression of UCP2, UCP3 or of marker genes of adipogenesis in 'buffalo hump' patients relative to healthy controls. 'Buffalo hump' fat did not show the high expression of tumor necrosis factor-alpha and beta2-microglobulin identified in lipoatrophic subcutaneous fat from patients. The expression of the macrophage marker CD68 was also lower in 'buffalo hump' than in subcutaneous fat from patients. In contrast, 'buffalo hump' showed a higher expression of the cell proliferation marker PCNA.'Buffalo hump (...) and ten subcutaneous fat samples from HIV-1-infected/HAART-treated patients, and in ten healthy controls.Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis of mitochondrial DNA and gene transcripts, and immunoblot for specific proteins.'Buffalo hump' patients had lower levels of mitochondrial DNA and mitochondrial DNA-encoded transcripts with respect to healthy controls. The uncoupling protein (UCP)-1 gene was expressed only in 'buffalo hump' fat. There were no significant changes

2008 AIDS

1023. A 6-month interruption of antiretroviral therapy improves adipose tissue function in HIV-infected patients: the ANRS EP29 Lipostop Study. (Abstract)

tissue both at inclusion and at month 6. Changes in fat morphology, mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) content and gene expression were examined in 29, 23 and 20 patients, respectively.Body fat distribution was not clearly modified at month 6. Adipose tissue inflammation improved markedly, with fewer infiltrating macrophages and fewer tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha)- and interleukin 6 (IL6)-expressing cells. Expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR-gamma) and of markers (...) A 6-month interruption of antiretroviral therapy improves adipose tissue function in HIV-infected patients: the ANRS EP29 Lipostop Study. To examine the reversibility of adipose tissue alterations in HIV-infected patients after a 6-month interruption of antiretroviral therapy (ART).Forty HIV-infected patients on stable effective ART were enrolled, 33 of them completed the study. Patients underwent a physical examination, laboratory tests and needle biopsy of subcutaneous abdominal adipose

2007 Antiviral Therapy

1024. Primary Cutaneous PEComa: Distinctive Clear Cell Lesions of Skin. (Abstract)

on the back. The tumors involved the dermis and commonly showed infiltration into the subcutaneous fat. Architecturally, a nested, focally trabecular growth pattern with prominent vasculature composed of delicate thin-walled capillaries was observed. Six tumors were composed of epithelioid cells and 4 showed mixed epithelioid and spindle cell morphology. Tumor cells had clear, palely eosinophilic or granular cytoplasm. Multinucleate tumor giant cells were observed in 3 cases. Mitotic activity ranged from (...) 0 to 2 mitoses per 30 high power fields (mean < 1/10 HPF). Pleomorphism or necrosis was absent. All cases showed at least focal positivity for HMB-45. Melan A was positive in 5/7. In cases where HMB-45 was positive in fewer than 5% of tumor cells (5/10), microphthalmia transcription factor was positive in the majority of the tumor cell nuclei. Desmin positivity was observed in 5 and smooth muscle actin in 1 case, respectively. The other muscle markers (caldesmon, calponin) and also pan-keratin

2008 American Journal of Surgical Pathology

1025. Adipocyte death, adipose tissue remodeling, and obesity complications. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Adipocyte death, adipose tissue remodeling, and obesity complications. We sought to determine the role of adipocyte death in obesity-induced adipose tissue (AT) inflammation and obesity complications.Male C57BL/6 mice were fed a high-fat diet for 20 weeks to induce obesity. Every 4 weeks, insulin resistance was assessed by intraperitoneal insulin tolerance tests, and epididymal (eAT) and inguinal subcutaneous AT (iAT) and livers were harvested for histological, immunohistochemical, and gene (...) expression analyses.Frequency of adipocyte death in eAT increased from <0.1% at baseline to 16% at week 12, coincident with increases in 1) depot weight; 2) AT macrophages (ATM Phi s) expressing F4/80 and CD11c; 3) mRNA for tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, monocyte chemotactic protein (MCP)-1, and interleukin (IL)-10; and 4) insulin resistance. ATM Phi s in crown-like structures surrounding dead adipocytes expressed TNF-alpha and IL-6 proteins. Adipocyte number began to decline at week 12. At week 16

2007 Diabetes

1026. Clinical and histopathologic features of 8 patients with microscopic polyangiitis including two with a slowly progressive clinical course. (Abstract)

on their extremities. Livedo reticularis (5/8, 68%) was also observed. Six of the 8 patients with MPA were given the diagnosis within 3 months of their initial manifestation. In skin biopsy specimens, necrotizing vasculitis was noted in the reticular dermis to the subcutaneous fat. In contrast, the other two patients with MPA were given the diagnosis about 10 years after their initial manifestation. Histopathologic findings demonstrated necrotizing vasculitis with moderate neutrophilic infiltrations (...) Clinical and histopathologic features of 8 patients with microscopic polyangiitis including two with a slowly progressive clinical course. Microscopic polyangiitis (MPA) is a systemic antineutrophil cytoplasmic autoantibody-associated vasculitis associated with necrotizing and crescentic glomerulonephritis and pulmonary capillaritis. MPA generally has a rapidly progressive clinical course, but there have been recent reports of slowly progressive cases.To evaluate the typical cutaneous findings

2007 Journal of American Academy of Dermatology

1027. Fulminant pulmonary calciphylaxis and metastatic calcification causing acute respiratory failure in a uremic patient. (Abstract)

Fulminant pulmonary calciphylaxis and metastatic calcification causing acute respiratory failure in a uremic patient. Calciphylaxis is a rare and life-threatening disorder characterized by small-vessel mural calcification with intimal proliferation, fibrosis, and thrombosis, resulting in tissue ischemic necrosis. Although it has been viewed as a systemic disease involving mainly the dermis, subcutaneous fat, or muscle, calciphylaxis of other organs rarely is reported. We describe the case

2006 American Journal of Kidney Diseases

1028. Diabetic (lymphocytic) mastopathy with exuberant lymphohistiocytic and granulomatous response: a case report with review of the literature. (Abstract)

a fibrotic breast parenchyma with foci of dense fibrosis and scattered inconspicuous breast epithelium surrounded by lymphocytes that formed aggregates and follicles with germinal centers. The inflammation was in a periductal, perilobular, and perivascular distribution. In addition, an exuberant inflammatory response with histiocytes and fibroblasts was present. This inflammatory response focally surrounded areas of fat necrosis and formed noncaseating granulomas with rare multinucleated giant cells (...) . This process had infiltrative, ill-defined edges and involved the subcutaneous tissues. The overlying epidermis was normal. The final diagnosis was diabetic mastopathy with an exuberant lymphohistiocytic response. The differential diagnosis included Rosai-Dorfman disease, inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor, granulomatous mastitis, sclerosing lipogranulomatous response/sclerosing lipogranuloma, lupus panniculitis, and rheumatoid nodules. Immunohistochemical studies and flow cytometry confirmed

2006 American Journal of Surgical Pathology

1029. Cellular angiofibroma: clinicopathologic and immunohistochemical analysis of 51 cases. (Abstract)

with intermittent genital bleeding and a painful mass. Most lesions were located primarily in subcutaneous tissue. Most cases were grossly well marginated. Two cases showed foci of hemorrhage and 1 case showed foci of necrosis. Microscopically, 41 tumors were well circumscribed, and 2 tumors infiltrated into the surrounding tissue. All tumors consisted of bland, spindle-shaped cells, short bundles of wispy collagen and numerous small- to medium-sized thick-walled vessels. Intralesional fat was present in 12

2004 American Journal of Surgical Pathology

1030. Adipose Macrophage Infiltration Is Associated With Insulin Resistance and Vascular Endothelial Dysfunction in Obese Subjects. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Adipose Macrophage Infiltration Is Associated With Insulin Resistance and Vascular Endothelial Dysfunction in Obese Subjects. Experimental studies suggest that adipose inflammation is etiologically linked to obesity-induced systemic disease. Our goal was to characterize the state of inflammation in human fat in relation to vascular function and metabolic parameters in obese individuals.We collected subcutaneous abdominal fat in 77 obese subjects (BMI >or=30 kg/m(2)) and quantified adipose (...) to subjects with quiescent noninflamed adipose architecture (n=27). Macrophage retention in fat was linked to upregulated tissue CD68 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha mRNA expression in addition to increased plasma hs-CRP.In a cohort of obese subjects, we demonstrate that proinflammatory changes in adipose tissue are associated with systemic arterial dysfunction and insulin resistance. These findings suggest that adipose inflammation may be linked to vascular injury and increased cardiovascular risk

2008 Thrombosis and Vascular Biology

1031. Expression of long pentraxin PTX3 in human adipose tissue and its relation with cardiovascular risk factors. (Abstract)

Expression of long pentraxin PTX3 in human adipose tissue and its relation with cardiovascular risk factors. Pentraxin 3 (PTX3) is an acute phase protein strongly expressed by advanced atherosclerotic lesions. We investigated (a) PTX3 expression and secretion in subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) and omental visceral adipose tissue (VAT) obtained from 21 obese (37.4+/-8.15 yr) and 10 normal weight subjects (43.7+/-11.07 yr) and (b) the relationships of adipose PTX3 with tumour necrosis factor (...) alpha (TNFalpha) and adiponectin expression and with cardiometabolic risk factors. Real-time PCR was used to quantify specific mRNA for PTX3, CD68 (macrophage marker), TNFalpha and adiponectin. Fresh adipose tissue was cultured and PTX3 measured in the medium. Serum insulin, glucose, HDL and LDL cholesterol, triglycerides, C-reactive protein (CRP), fibrinogen, adiponectin, TNFalpha and PTX3 were measured. PTX3 expression was similar in the two fat compartments and tended to be higher in obese than

2008 Atherosclerosis

1032. Microcystic/Reticular Schwannoma: A Distinct Variant With Predilection for Visceral Locations. (Abstract)

ranged from 0.4 to 23 cm (median size 4.3 cm). Five tumors arose in the gastrointestinal tract, most often in the submucosa. Two cases arose in subcutaneous tissue and 1 case each in the upper respiratory tract, the adrenal gland, and deep soft tissue. None of the patients had features of neurofibromatosis type 1 or type 2 (NF1, NF2). Histologically 8 tumors were circumscribed but unencapsulated and 2 cases located in the subcutaneous fat were circumscribed and encapsulated. At visceral locations (...) Microcystic/Reticular Schwannoma: A Distinct Variant With Predilection for Visceral Locations. Schwannomas are benign, generally nonrecurring tumors most frequently arising in the subcutaneous tissue of adults with no sex predilection. Herein we report 10 cases of a distinctive morphologic variant of schwannoma with predominantly microcystic-reticular morphology and characterize the clinicopathologic spectrum. The age at presentation ranged from 11 to 93 years (median age 63 y). The tumor size

2008 American Journal of Surgical Pathology

1033. Accelerated partial breast irradiation: an analysis of variables associated with late toxicity and long-term cosmetic outcome after high-dose-rate interstitial brachytherapy. (Abstract)

. 0.71; p=0.009). Late subcutaneous toxicity was rated as Grade 0, 1, 2, 3, or 4 in 55%, 15%, 12%, 5%, and 13% of patients, respectively. The risk of Grade 0/1 vs. Grade 2-4 subcutaneous toxicity was significantly associated only with a lower value of DHI (0.77 vs. 0.73; p=0.02). To further explore factors that might contribute to the risk of fat necrosis (symptomatic or asymptomatic), a separate analysis showed that only dose hotspots as reflected in V150 and V200 were significantly associated (...) with elevated risk. The use of adriamycin-based chemotherapy after APBI was found to be associated with a significant increase in the incidence of higher-grade skin toxicity and a higher risk of fat necrosis and suboptimal cosmetic outcome. Patient age, volume of resection, extent of axillary surgery, a history of diabetes or hypertension, and the use of tamoxifen were not found to be significantly associated with cosmetic outcome or late normal tissue complications.Long-term cosmetic results and the risk

2006 Biology and Physics

1034. Partial breast irradiation with interstitial 60CO brachytherapy results in frequent grade 3 or 4 toxicity. Evidence based on a 12-year follow-up of 70 patients. (Abstract)

, 85% of the patients experienced Grade > or =2 telangiectasis and 41% had Grade 3 telangiectasis. Eighty-eight percent had fibrosis of some form, and 35% had grade > or =3 fibrosis. Forty-one percent of the cohort displayed fat necrosis, which was always accompanied by Grade > or =3 fibrosis or telangiectasis. The cosmetic results were poor in 50% (17/34) of the patients. The radiosensitivity of the fibroblasts was increased in only 2/24 patients (8% of the investigated cases, in agreement (...) postoperative lumpectomy cavity (i.e., plane). For radiobiologic considerations, the clinical target volume (CTV) was calculated retrospectively with a 10-mm safety margin, resulting in a 72-cm(3) median CTV (range, 36-108 cm(3)) irradiated with a reference dose of 28 Gy. In the assessment of the skin and subcutaneous toxicity, the RTOG late radiation morbidity scoring system was applied. The radiosensitivity of the cultured fibroblasts was determined by clonogenic assay to check whether individual

2004 Biology and Physics

1035. Impact of adiposity and plasma adipocytokines on diabetic angiopathies in Japanese Type 2 diabetic subjects. (Abstract)

studied 231 Japanese Type 2 diabetic subjects (135 men and 96 women, aged 60.4 +/- 12.3 years, body mass index 24.8 +/- 5.2 kg/m2). We measured adipocytokine [adiponectin, leptin, resistin, and tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha] levels, lipid profiles and urine albumin excretion. We also performed optic fundus examination and measured carotid intramedia thickness (IMT) using B-mode ultrasonography, and the localization of fat with abdominal computed tomography. A group of 93 subjects (...) with microalbuminuria or overt proteinuria was compared with the other 148 to assess the effect on nephropathy. A group of 191 eyes with simple retinopathy or more advanced changes was compared with 263 eyes without retinal changes to assess the effect on retinopathy.Plasma adiponectin level was negatively correlated with both visceral (r = -0.37, P < 0.01) and subcutaneous (r = -0.25, P < 0.01) fat areas. Resistin concentration was positively related with visceral fat area (r = 0.15, P < 0.05). Adiponectin

2004 Diabetic Medicine

1036. Early cutaneous alterations in experimental sepsis by Pseudomonas aeruginosa. (Abstract)

for the estimation of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) and malondialdehyde (MDA). Skin biopsies were collected along with a subcutaneous fat specimen for culture.The mean survival was 0.85, 1.75 and 11.00 days after challenge by isolates A, B and C, respectively. The main histologic findings of skin were: inflammation and swelling of the dermis; thickening of the endothelium and infiltration of vessel wall and lumen by polymorphonuclear leukocytes; extravasation of red blood cells, and necrobiotic changes (...) of the hair follicles. Serum TNF-alpha was elevated in animals challenged by isolate A compared to challenge by isolates B and C. Concentrations of MDA were similar for all isolates. Mean log(10) of viable cells isolated from subcutaneous fat were 5.74, 2.74 and 1.40 after challenge by isolates A, B and C, respectively.Prolongation of survival was accompanied by lower serum TNF-alpha, decreased viable cells from subcutaneous fat and intensified inflammatory response in the dermis and subcutaneous tissue

2004 Dermatology

1037. Congenital Volkmann ischaemic contracture: a case report and review. (Abstract)

fat necrosis and epidermolysis bullosa, dermatologists play a significant role in the diagnosis and, consequently, the treatment of the patient. We describe a premature newborn who had a unilateral, well-demarcated necrotic plaque with a central pallor at birth. The plaque extended circumferentially over the left forearm from the wrist to the elbow. Left wrist oedema, bullae over the fingers and flaccid paralysis at the wrist were also noted. (...) Congenital Volkmann ischaemic contracture: a case report and review. Congenital Volkmann ischaemic contracture or neonatal compartment syndrome has rarely been discussed in the literature of dermatology. The condition often involves the upper extremity with cutaneous lesions, contractures and neuropathy. Because the lesions can be mistaken for other entities including necrotizing fasciitis, neonatal gangrene, congenital varicella, aplasia cutis congenita, amniotic band syndrome, subcutaneous

2004 British Journal of Dermatology

1038. The effect of pioglitazone on peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma target genes related to lipid storage in vivo. (Abstract)

The effect of pioglitazone on peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma target genes related to lipid storage in vivo. Pioglitazone is a member of the thiazolidinediones (TZDs), insulin-sensitizing agents used to treat type 2 diabetes. The aim of this study was to define the effect of pioglitazone on the expression of genes related to carbohydrate and lipid metabolism in subcutaneous fat obtained from type 2 diabetic patients.Forty-eight volunteers with type 2 diabetes were divided (...) for LPL, CAP, ACS, 11beta HSD 1, GyK, fatty acid synthase, leptin, and GPDH, whereas PPAR-gamma2 mRNA was correlated with CAP, PEPCK-C, leptin, and GPDH.Treatment with pioglitazone increased body weight, and this is associated with upregulation of some, but not all, genes previously demonstrated as "TZD responsive" in subcutaneous fat. The results suggest that TZDs might increase body weight through the upregulation of genes facilitating adipocyte lipid storage in vivo.

2004 Diabetes Care

1039. Necrobiosis lipoidica. (Abstract)

Necrobiosis lipoidica. Necrobiosis lipoidica (NL) is a granulomatous condition with a degenerative connective tissue of unknown etiology very often associated with diabetes. Histopathologically, NL involves all of the dermis and, often, the subcutaneous fat produces a septal panniculitis. There are some changes suggesting the diagnosis of NL, and systemic disease should be considered if there is the presence of necrotizing vasculitis in the skin biopsy. Many theories of pathogenesis have been

2007 Seminars in Cutaneous Medicine and Surgery

1040. Recurrent and self-healing cutaneous monoclonal plasmablastic infiltrates in a patient with AIDS and Kaposi sarcoma. (Abstract)

-old man with AIDS and Kaposi sarcoma (KS) previously treated with doxorubicin who, following treatment with highly active antiretroviral therapy, developed an erythematous infiltrated nodule on the right arm. Histology showed subcutaneous fat necrosis and clusters of atypical large plasma cells (plasmablastic cells). Immunohistochemistry revealed lambda light chain restriction. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) mRNA was detected by in situ hybridization within the plasmablastic cells. Polymerase chain

2005 British Journal of Dermatology

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